Summary: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.

Top Publications

  1. Ackermann M, Matus A. Activity-induced targeting of profilin and stabilization of dendritic spine morphology. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1194-200 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in addition to electrophysiological changes, NMDA receptor activation initiates changes in the actin cytoskeleton of dendritic spines that stabilize synaptic structure. ..
  2. Zou L, Jaramillo M, Whaley D, Wells A, Panchapakesa V, Das T, et al. Profilin-1 is a negative regulator of mammary carcinoma aggressiveness. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:1361-71 pubmed
    ..These data imply that perturbing Pfn1 could be a good molecular strategy to limit the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells. ..
  3. Kasina S, Rizwani W, Radhika K, Singh S. Nitration of profilin effects its interaction with poly (L-proline) and actin. J Biochem. 2005;138:687-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, nitric oxide and free radicals produced under different conditions could alter the functions of profilin through nitration, such as its interaction with actin and poly (l-proline). ..
  4. Kovar D. Molecular details of formin-mediated actin assembly. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2006;18:11-7 pubmed
  5. Limmongkon A, Giuliani C, Valenta R, Mittermann I, Heberle Bors E, Wilson C. MAP kinase phosphorylation of plant profilin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:382-6 pubmed
    ..The majority of identified plant profilins contain a MAP kinase phosphorylation motif, P-X-T-P, and a MAP kinase interaction motif (KIM)...
  6. Fan Y, Arif A, Gong Y, Jia J, Eswarappa S, Willard B, et al. Stimulus-dependent phosphorylation of profilin-1 in angiogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1046-56 pubmed publisher
  7. Barkó S, Bugyi B, Carlier M, Gombos R, Matusek T, Mihály J, et al. Characterization of the biochemical properties and biological function of the formin homology domains of Drosophila DAAM. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13154-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Both DAAM fragments also bind to the sides of the actin filaments and induce actin bundling. These observations show that the D. melanogaster DAAM formin represents an extreme class of barbed end regulators gated by profilin. ..
  8. Matusek T, Gombos R, Szécsényi A, Sanchez Soriano N, Czibula A, Pataki C, et al. Formin proteins of the DAAM subfamily play a role during axon growth. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13310-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Horrevoets A. Profilin-1: an unexpected molecule linking vascular inflammation to the actin cytoskeleton. Circ Res. 2007;101:328-30 pubmed

More Information


  1. Butler Cole C, Wagner M, Da Silva M, Brown G, Burke R, Upton C. An ectromelia virus profilin homolog interacts with cellular tropomyosin and viral A-type inclusion protein. Virol J. 2007;4:76 pubmed
    b>Profilins are critical to cytoskeletal dynamics in eukaryotes; however, little is known about their viral counterparts...
  2. Jang S, Lillehoj H, Lee S, Lee K, Lillehoj E, Bertrand F, et al. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the recombinant profilin subunit vaccine, when given in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG, augments protective immunity against E. acervulina and E. tenella. ..
  3. Breitsprecher D, Kiesewetter A, Linkner J, Urbanke C, Resch G, Small J, et al. Clustering of VASP actively drives processive, WH2 domain-mediated actin filament elongation. EMBO J. 2008;27:2943-54 pubmed publisher
  4. Bosch M, Le K, Bugyi B, Correia J, Renault L, Carlier M. Analysis of the function of Spire in actin assembly and its synergy with formin and profilin. Mol Cell. 2007;28:555-68 pubmed
    ..The synergy between Spire and formin is reconstituted in an in vitro motility assay, which provides a functional basis for the genetic interplay between Spire, formin, and profilin in oogenesis. ..
  5. Dillen L, Van Langenhove T, Engelborghs S, Vandenbulcke M, Sarafov S, Tournev I, et al. Explorative genetic study of UBQLN2 and PFN1 in an extended Flanders-Belgian cohort of frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1711.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..P440L carrier's mother (67 years). No mutations were observed in PFN1. In summary, we conclude that genetic variations in UBQLN2 and PFN1 in a predominantly Flanders-Belgian cohort of FTLD and ALS patients are extremely rare. ..
  6. Paluch E, van der Gucht J, Joanny J, Sykes C. Deformations in actin comets from rocketing beads. Biophys J. 2006;91:3113-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that actin-based movement is governed by the mechanical properties of the actin network, which are fine-tuned by proteins involved in actin dynamics and assembly. ..
  7. Lamprecht R, Farb C, Rodrigues S, LeDoux J. Fear conditioning drives profilin into amygdala dendritic spines. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9:481-3 pubmed
    ..A greater proportion of profilin-containing spines with enlarged PSDs could contribute to the enhancement of associatively induced synaptic responses in the lateral amygdala following fear learning. ..
  8. Schubert V, Da Silva J, Dotti C. Localized recruitment and activation of RhoA underlies dendritic spine morphology in a glutamate receptor-dependent manner. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:453-67 pubmed
    ..These data provide a direct mechanistic link between neurotransmitter receptor activity and the changes in spine shape that are thought to play a crucial role in synaptic strength. ..
  9. Stüven T, Hartmann E, Gorlich D. Exportin 6: a novel nuclear export receptor that is specific for profilin.actin complexes. EMBO J. 2003;22:5928-40 pubmed
    ..In contrast to a previous report, we found no indications of a major and direct role for CRM1 in actin export from mammalian or insect nuclei. ..
  10. Paul A, Pollard T. Energetic requirements for processive elongation of actin filaments by FH1FH2-formins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Because formins are most vulnerable to dissociation during translocation along the growing barbed end, we propose that the flexible linker influences the lifetime of this translocative state. ..
  11. Bae Y, Ding Z, Zou L, Wells A, Gertler F, Roy P. Loss of profilin-1 expression enhances breast cancer cell motility by Ena/VASP proteins. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:354-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings for the first time highlight a possible mechanism of how reduced expression of a pro-migratory molecule like Pfn1 could actually promote motility of breast cancer cells. ..
  12. Jang S, Lillehoj H, Lee S, Lee K, Park M, Bauchan G, et al. Immunoenhancing effects of Montanide ISA oil-based adjuvants on recombinant coccidia antigen vaccination against Eimeria acervulina infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that vaccination with the E. acervulina profilin subunit vaccine in combination with Montanide adjuvants enhances protective immunity against avian coccidiosis. ..
  13. Elnakish M, Hassanain H, Janssen P. Vascular remodeling-associated hypertension leads to left ventricular hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction in profilin-1 transgenic mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;60:544-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We here provide functional evidence that a significant contractile dysfunction in profilin-1 mice exists. Targeting vascular profilin-1 signaling could represent a promising therapeutic approach in hypertensive patients. ..
  14. Kandasamy M, Burgos Rivera B, McKinney E, Ruzicka D, Meagher R. Class-specific interaction of profilin and ADF isovariants with actin in the regulation of plant development. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3111-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the actins and ABPs appear to have evolved class-specific, protein-protein interactions that are essential to the normal regulation of plant growth and development. ..
  15. Roy P, Jacobson K. Overexpression of profilin reduces the migration of invasive breast cancer cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2004;57:84-95 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that perturbation of profilin levels may offer a good strategy for controlling the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. ..
  16. Jang S, Lillehoj H, Lee S, Lee K, Lillehoj E, Bertrand F, et al. Mucosal immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chickens following oral immunization with profilin in Montanide™ adjuvants. Exp Parasitol. 2011;129:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..acervulina infection...
  17. Wang H, Yu Y, Chen Z, Xia G. Functional characterization of Gossypium hirsutum profilin 1 gene (GhPFN1) in tobacco suspension cells. Characterization of in vivo functions of a cotton profilin gene. Planta. 2005;222:594-603 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose that GhPFN1 may play a critical role in the rapid elongation of cotton fibers by promoting actin polymerization. ..
  18. Michaelsen K, Murk K, Zagrebelsky M, Dreznjak A, Jockusch B, Rothkegel M, et al. Fine-tuning of neuronal architecture requires two profilin isoforms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15780-5 pubmed publisher
    Two profilin isoforms (PFN1 and PFN2a) are expressed in the mammalian brain. Although profilins are essential for regulating actin dynamics in general, the specific role of these isoforms in neurons has remained elusive...
  19. Kovar D, Pollard T. Progressing actin: Formin as a processive elongation machine. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1158-9 pubmed
  20. Gould C, Maiti S, Michelot A, Graziano B, Blanchoin L, Goode B. The formin DAD domain plays dual roles in autoinhibition and actin nucleation. Curr Biol. 2011;21:384-90 pubmed publisher
  21. Yarmola E, Bubb M. Profilin: emerging concepts and lingering misconceptions. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006;31:197-205 pubmed
  22. Versele M, Gullbrand B, Shulewitz M, Cid V, Bahmanyar S, Chen R, et al. Protein-protein interactions governing septin heteropentamer assembly and septin filament organization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4568-83 pubmed
    ..These data provide novel insights about the connectivity among the five individual septins in functional septin heteropentamers and the organization of septin filaments. ..
  23. Kovar D, Wu J, Pollard T. Profilin-mediated competition between capping protein and formin Cdc12p during cytokinesis in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2313-24 pubmed
    ..Given that capping protein arrives at the division site 20 min later than Cdc12p, capping protein may slowly replace Cdc12p on filament barbed ends in preparation for filament disassembly during ring constriction. ..
  24. Tiloca C, Ticozzi N, Pensato V, Corrado L, Del Bo R, Bertolin C, et al. Screening of the PFN1 gene in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in frontotemporal dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1517.e9-10 pubmed publisher
    ..G15G in another patient, but none in a panel of 1512 control subjects. Our results suggest that PFN1 mutations in sporadic ALS and in FTD are rare, at least in the Italian population. ..
  25. Balcer H, Goodman A, Rodal A, Smith E, Kugler J, Heuser J, et al. Coordinated regulation of actin filament turnover by a high-molecular-weight Srv2/CAP complex, cofilin, profilin, and Aip1. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2159-69 pubmed
  26. Rogers S, Wiedemann U, Stuurman N, Vale R. Molecular requirements for actin-based lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:1079-88 pubmed
    ..Our results have identified an essential set of proteins involved in actin dynamics during lamella formation in Drosophila S2 cells. ..
  27. Guljamow A, Jenke Kodama H, Saumweber H, Quillardet P, Frangeul L, Castets A, et al. Horizontal gene transfer of two cytoskeletal elements from a eukaryote to a cyanobacterium. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R757-9 pubmed
  28. Yonetani A, Lustig R, Moseley J, Takeda T, Goode B, Chang F. Regulation and targeting of the fission yeast formin cdc12p in cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide insights into the regulation of formin activity and the mechanisms of contractile ring dynamics and assembly. ..
  29. Mondin M, Carta M, Normand E, Mulle C, Coussen F. Profilin II regulates the exocytosis of kainate glutamate receptors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40060-71 pubmed publisher
  30. Cheng J, Ni G, Chen M, Li Y, Wang Y, Wang C, et al. Involvement of profilin-1 in angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Vascul Pharmacol. 2011;55:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that profilin-1 mediates the proliferation of RASMCs induced by Ang II via activation of Ang II type 1 receptor/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, which may contribute to vascular remodeling in hypertension. ..
  31. Gao Z, Weg W, Schaart J, Arkel G, Breiteneder H, Hoffmann Sommergruber K, et al. Genomic characterization and linkage mapping of the apple allergen genes Mal d 2 (thaumatin-like protein) and Mal d 4 (profilin). Theor Appl Genet. 2005;111:1087-97 pubmed
    ..Mal d 4.01 appeared to be duplicated in two copies and located on linkage group 9. Mal d 4.02 A and Mal d 4.03 A were single copy genes located on linkage group 2 and 8, respectively. ..
  32. Murk K, Buchmeier S, Jockusch B, Rothkegel M. In birds, profilin-2a is ubiquitously expressed and contributes to actin-based motility. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:957-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Profilins are small actin-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotes. They are involved in the regulation of actin filament dynamics and various signalling pathways...
  33. Bae Y, Ding Z, Das T, Wells A, Gertler F, Roy P. Profilin1 regulates PI(3,4)P2 and lamellipodin accumulation at the leading edge thus influencing motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study uncovers a unique biological consequence of profilin1-phosphoinositide interaction, thus providing direct evidence of profilin1's regulation of cell migration independent of its actin-related activity. ..
  34. Kim D, Lillehoj H, Lee S, Dominowski P, Yancey R, Lillehoj E. Effects of novel vaccine/adjuvant complexes on the protective immunity against Eimeria acervulina and transcriptome profiles. Avian Dis. 2012;56:97-109 pubmed
    ..Biological function and network analysis revealed that the majority of altered transcripts were encoded by immune-related genes...
  35. Wilkes D, Otto J. Profilin functions in cytokinesis, nuclear positioning, and stomatogenesis in Tetrahymena thermophila. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003;50:252-62 pubmed
    ..The defect in phagocytosis appeared to be due to disruption of the formation of oral apparatuses (stomatogenesis) and a possible failure in the internalization of phagocytic vacuoles. ..
  36. Chhabra E, Higgs H. INF2 Is a WASP homology 2 motif-containing formin that severs actin filaments and accelerates both polymerization and depolymerization. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26754-67 pubmed
    ..Third, INF2 contains an N-terminal DID, and the WH2 motif likely doubles as a DAD in an autoinhibitory interaction. ..
  37. Show M, Anway M, Zirkin B. An ex vivo analysis of Sertoli cell actin dynamics following gonadotropic hormone withdrawal. J Androl. 2004;25:1013-21 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that, following hypophysectomy, the actin cytoskeleton of the Sertoli cell shifts to a predominantly depolymerized state, perhaps in part because of decreases in profilin II and espin gene products. ..
  38. Shao J, Welch W, DiProspero N, Diamond M. Phosphorylation of profilin by ROCK1 regulates polyglutamine aggregation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5196-208 pubmed publisher
    ..A signaling pathway from ROCK1 to profilin thus controls polyglutamine protein aggregation and is targeted by a promising therapeutic lead for HD. ..
  39. Romero S, Didry D, Larquet E, Boisset N, Pantaloni D, Carlier M. How ATP hydrolysis controls filament assembly from profilin-actin: implication for formin processivity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8435-45 pubmed
    ..Formin does not change the activity of profilin but simply uses it for its processive walk at barbed ends. Finally, if profilin release from actin is prevented by a chemical cross-link, formin processivity is abolished. ..
  40. Romeo G, Moulton K, Kazlauskas A. Attenuated expression of profilin-1 confers protection from atherosclerosis in the LDL receptor null mouse. Circ Res. 2007;101:357-67 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that pfn levels modulate processes critical for early atheroma formation and suggest that pfn heterozygosity confers atheroprotection through combined endothelial- and macrophage-dependent mechanisms. ..
  41. Lattante S, Le Ber I, Camuzat A, Brice A, Kabashi E. Mutations in the PFN1 gene are not a common cause in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration in France. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1709.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied a French cohort of 165 ALS/FTLD patients, without finding any variant. We conclude that mutations in PFN1 are not a common cause for ALS/FTLD in France. ..
  42. Ding Z, Lambrechts A, Parepally M, Roy P. Silencing profilin-1 inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration and cord morphogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4127-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that profilin-1 may play important role in biological events that involve endothelial proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. ..
  43. Wu C, Fallini C, Ticozzi N, Keagle P, Sapp P, Piotrowska K, et al. Mutations in the profilin 1 gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature. 2012;488:499-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, primary motor neurons expressing mutant PFN1 display smaller growth cones with a reduced F/G-actin ratio. These observations further document that cytoskeletal pathway alterations contribute to ALS pathogenesis. ..
  44. Jockusch B, Murk K, Rothkegel M. The profile of profilins. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;159:131-49 pubmed
    b>Profilins are small proteins involved in actin dynamics. In accordance with this function, they are found in all eukaryotes and are structurally highly conserved...
  45. Moustafa Bayoumi M, Alhaj M, El Sayed O, Wisel S, Chotani M, Abouelnaga Z, et al. Vascular hypertrophy and hypertension caused by transgenic overexpression of profilin 1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37632-9 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that increased actin polymerization in blood vessels triggers activation of the hypertrophic signaling cascades and results in elevation of blood pressure at advanced age. ..
  46. Hara Y, Yamagata K, Oguchi K, Baba T. Nuclear localization of profilin III-ArpM1 complex in mouse spermiogenesis. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2998-3004 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the testis-specific profilin III-ArpM1 complex may be involved in conformational changes in the organization of the sperm-specific nucleus. ..
  47. Kovar D, Pollard T. Insertional assembly of actin filament barbed ends in association with formins produces piconewton forces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14725-30 pubmed
    ..However, profilin increased the rate of Bni1(FH1FH2)p-mediated barbed end elongation from 75% to 100% of full-speed. ..
  48. Haikarainen T, Chen W, Lubec G, Kursula P. Structure, modifications and ligand-binding properties of rat profilin 2a. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:303-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Profilins are key regulators of the actin microfilament system and in neuronal tissues the profilin 2a isoform is the most abundant and important profilin...
  49. Denkers E, Striepen B. Deploying parasite profilin on a mission of invasion and danger. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:61-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Wu N, Zhang W, Yang Y, Liang Y, Wang L, Jin J, et al. Profilin 1 obtained by proteomic analysis in all-trans retinoic acid-treated hepatocarcinoma cell lines is involved in inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. Proteomics. 2006;6:6095-106 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, RNAi-based PFN1 knockdown could rescue the inhibitory effect of ATRA on cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, ATRA inhibited cell proliferation and migration through up-regulation of PFN1. ..
  51. Kinosian H, Selden L, Gershman L, Estes J. Non-muscle actin filament elongation from complexes of profilin with nucleotide-free actin and divalent cation-free ATP-actin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:6253-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data in this present report support our earlier hypothesis. ..
  52. Daoud H, Dobrzeniecka S, Camu W, Meininger V, Dupre N, Dion P, et al. Mutation analysis of PFN1 in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34:1311.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..No mutations were identified in our cohort suggesting that PFN1 gene mutations are a very rare cause of familial ALS among patients with predominantly European ancestry. ..
  53. Asero R, Monsalve R, Barber D. Profilin sensitization detected in the office by skin prick test: a study of prevalence and clinical relevance of profilin as a plant food allergen. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1033-7 pubmed publisher