gelsolin

Summary

Summary: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.

Top Publications

  1. Vartanian A. Gelsolin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are Ap3A-binding proteins. Ital J Biochem. 2003;52:9-16 pubmed
    ..Two proteins, gelsolin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), were tentatively identified by in-gel tryptic digestion and mass ..
  2. Haverland N, Pottiez G, Wiederin J, Ciborowski P. Immunoreactivity of anti-gelsolin antibodies: implications for biomarker validation. J Transl Med. 2010;8:137 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gelsolin is one such biomarker candidate in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
  3. Osborn T, Verdrengh M, Stossel T, Tarkowski A, Bokarewa M. Decreased levels of the gelsolin plasma isoform in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:R117 pubmed publisher
    b>Gelsolin is an intracellular actin-binding protein involved in cell shape changes, cell motility, and apoptosis...
  4. Van den Abbeele A, De Clercq S, De Ganck A, De Corte V, Van Loo B, Soror S, et al. A llama-derived gelsolin single-domain antibody blocks gelsolin-G-actin interaction. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:1519-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We raised VHHs against gelsolin (GsnVHHs), a multifunctional actin-binding protein that controls cellular actin organization and migration...
  5. Solomon J, Yonemoto I, Murray A, PRICE J, Powers E, Balch W, et al. The 8 and 5 kDa fragments of plasma gelsolin form amyloid fibrils by a nucleated polymerization mechanism, while the 68 kDa fragment is not amyloidogenic. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11370-80 pubmed publisher
    Familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF), or gelsolin amyloidosis, is a systemic amyloid disease caused by a mutation (D187N/Y) in domain 2 of human plasma gelsolin, resulting in domain 2 misfolding within the secretory pathway...
  6. Forsman H, Andréasson E, Karlsson J, Boulay F, Rabiet M, Dahlgren C. Structural characterization and inhibitory profile of formyl peptide receptor 2 selective peptides descending from a PIP2-binding domain of gelsolin. J Immunol. 2012;189:629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..selective inhibitor adopts a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding sequence in the cytoskeletal protein gelsolin. A core peptide, RhB-QRLFQV, is identified that displays inhibitory effects as potent as the full-length molecule...
  7. Tanaka H, Shirkoohi R, Nakagawa K, Qiao H, Fujita H, Okada F, et al. siRNA gelsolin knockdown induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition with a cadherin switch in human mammary epithelial cells. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1680-91 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrated typical EMT in human mammary epithelial MCF10A small interfering (si)RNA gelsolin-knockdown cells...
  8. Noske A, Denkert C, Schober H, Sers C, Zhumabayeva B, Weichert W, et al. Loss of Gelsolin expression in human ovarian carcinomas. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:461-9 pubmed
    The ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, gelsolin, is known to play a role in the modulation of the actin network and in the regulation of cell growth and cell motility...
  9. Larson L, Arnaudeau S, Gibson B, Li W, Krause R, Hao B, et al. Gelsolin mediates calcium-dependent disassembly of Listeria actin tails. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1921-6 pubmed
    ..The Ca2+-sensitive actin-severing protein gelsolin concentrates in the Listeria rocket tails at normal resting [Ca2+]i and disassociates from the tails when [Ca2+]i ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kanungo J, Swamynathan S, Piatigorsky J. Abundant corneal gelsolin in Zebrafish and the 'four-eyed' fish, Anableps anableps: possible analogy with multifunctional lens crystallins. Exp Eye Res. 2004;79:949-56 pubmed
    ..We have shown that gelsolin (an actin-severing protein) is the major water-soluble corneal protein of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the '..
  2. Ohki T, Ohno C, Oyama K, Mikhailenko S, Ishiwata S. Purification of cytoplasmic actin by affinity chromatography using the C-terminal half of gelsolin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;383:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..or high concentrations of salt, was developed, based on the affinity chromatography using the C-terminal half of gelsolin (G4-6), an actin filament severing and capping protein...
  3. Qiao H, Koya R, Nakagawa K, Tanaka H, Fujita H, Takimoto M, et al. Inhibition of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and neurotoxicity by gelsolin. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:849-55 pubmed
    ..Here we show that human cytoplasmic gelsolin inhibits A beta peptide-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells...
  4. Page L, Suk J, Bazhenova L, Fleming S, Wood M, Jiang Y, et al. Secretion of amyloidogenic gelsolin progressively compromises protein homeostasis leading to the intracellular aggregation of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..is a systemic amyloid disease associated with the deposition of proteolytic fragments of mutant (D187N/Y) plasma gelsolin. We report a mouse model of FAF featuring a muscle-specific promoter to drive D187N gelsolin synthesis...
  5. Groves E, Dart A, Covarelli V, Caron E. Molecular mechanisms of phagocytic uptake in mammalian cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1957-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the molecular mechanisms of phagocytic uptake and some of the strategies developed by microbial pathogens to manipulate this process. ..
  6. Zhuo J, Tan E, Yan B, Tochhawng L, Jayapal M, Koh S, et al. Gelsolin induces colorectal tumor cell invasion via modulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator cascade. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43594 pubmed publisher
    b>Gelsolin is a cytoskeletal protein which participates in actin filament dynamics and promotes cell motility and plasticity...
  7. Hwang I, Park S, Kim S, Lee S. A proteomic approach to identify substrates of matrix metalloproteinase-14 in human plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1702:79-87 pubmed
    ..Among the latter, the purified forms of apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein E, and plasma gelsolin were cleaved in vitro by MMP-14, confirming that each of them is a novel substrate of MMP-14...
  8. Nag S, Larsson M, Robinson R, Burtnick L. Gelsolin: the tail of a molecular gymnast. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2013;70:360-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca(2+) -dependent, multidomain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton...
  9. Yang J, Ramnath N, Moysich K, Asch H, Swede H, Alrawi S, et al. Prognostic significance of MCM2, Ki-67 and gelsolin in non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:203 pubmed
    ..Ki-67 is a proliferation antigen that is expressed during all but G0 phases of the cell cycle. Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that regulates the integrity of the actin cytoskeletal structure and facilitates cell ..
  10. Yoshikawa S, Norcom E, Nakamura H, Yee R, Zhao X. Transgenic analysis of the anterior eye-specific enhancers of the zebrafish gelsolin-like 1 (gsnl1) gene. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1929-38 pubmed
    ..The zebrafish gelsolin-like 1 (gsnl1) gene encodes an actin regulatory protein and is expressed in the anterior segment of the eye...
  11. Maniatis N, Harokopos V, Thanassopoulou A, Oikonomou N, Mersinias V, Witke W, et al. A critical role for gelsolin in ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;41:426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gelsolin (GSN), an actin-binding protein and a substrate of caspase-3, was recently shown to play a major role in ..
  12. Chan M, Arora P, Bozavikov P, McCulloch C. FAK, PIP5KIgamma and gelsolin cooperatively mediate force-induced expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2769-81 pubmed publisher
    ..putative mechanosensing organelles, we examined the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its interaction with gelsolin in the regulation of SMA expression. We subjected NIH3T3 cells to tensile forces (0...
  13. Harms C, Bösel J, Lautenschlager M, Harms U, Braun J, Hörtnagl H, et al. Neuronal gelsolin prevents apoptosis by enhancing actin depolymerization. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;25:69-82 pubmed
    b>Gelsolin (gsn), an actin-severing protein, protects neurons from excitotoxic cell death via inactivation of membranous Ca(2+) channels. Its role during apoptotic cell death, however, has remained unclear...
  14. Qiao H, McMillan J. Gelsolin segment 5 inhibits HIV-induced T-cell apoptosis via Vpr-binding to VDAC. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:535-40 pubmed
    ..We report that Jurkat cells overexpressing full-length gelsolin show resistance to Vpr-induced T-cell apoptosis with abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential loss and the ..
  15. Meisel A, Harms C, Yildirim F, Bösel J, Kronenberg G, Harms U, et al. Inhibition of histone deacetylation protects wild-type but not gelsolin-deficient neurons from oxygen/glucose deprivation. J Neurochem. 2006;98:1019-31 pubmed
    ..The actin-binding protein gelsolin was identified as a mediator of neuroprotection by TSA...
  16. Liao C, Wu T, Huang Y, Chang T, Wang C, Tsai M, et al. Overexpression of gelsolin in human cervical carcinoma and its clinicopathological significance. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;120:135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of gelsolin was significantly upregulated in 78% of patients with cervical cancer, and gelsolin was selected for further ..
  17. Madonna R, Jiang J, Geng Y. Attenuated expression of gelsolin in association with induction of aquaporin-1 and nitric oxide synthase in dysfunctional hearts of aging mice exposed to endotoxin. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2012;25:911-22 pubmed
    ..This study addressed the hypothesis that aging negatively impairs expression of gelsolin, and axerts the regulatory effects on the water channel protein aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) and endotoxin-inducible ..
  18. Bucki R, Georges P, Espinassous Q, Funaki M, Pastore J, Chaby R, et al. Inactivation of endotoxin by human plasma gelsolin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:9590-7 pubmed
    ..Here we report that plasma gelsolin, a highly conserved human protein, binds LPS from various bacteria with high affinity...
  19. Baig R, Mahjabeen I, Sabir M, Masood N, Ali K, Malik F, et al. Mutational spectrum of Gelsolin and its down regulation is associated with breast cancer. Dis Markers. 2013;34:71-80 pubmed publisher
    Cytoskeletal rearrangement occurs in variety of cellular processes and involves a wide spectrum of proteins. Gelsolin super family proteins control actin organization by severing and capping filament ends and nucleating actin assembly...
  20. Pottiez G, Haverland N, Ciborowski P. Mass spectrometric characterization of gelsolin isoforms. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:2620-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Gelsolin is the most widely expressed member of the actin capping and severing family of proteins...
  21. Khaitlina S, Fitz H, Hinssen H. The interaction of gelsolin with tropomyosin modulates actin dynamics. FEBS J. 2013;280:4600-11 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the interactions between the actin-binding proteins gelsolin and tropomyosin, with special respect to any effects on the functional properties of gelsolin...
  22. Pottiez G, Sevin E, Cecchelli R, Karamanos Y, Flahaut C. Actin, gelsolin and filamin-A are dynamic actors in the cytoskeleton remodelling contributing to the blood brain barrier phenotype. Proteomics. 2009;9:1207-19 pubmed publisher
    ..comparative 2-DE profile study of collagenase-harvested BBCEC revealed that cytoskeleton-related proteins (actin, gelsolin and filamin-A) show the most significant quantitative changes in the Triton soluble protein fraction from BBCEC ..
  23. Arora P, Wang Y, Bresnick A, Dawson J, Janmey P, McCulloch C. Collagen remodeling by phagocytosis is determined by collagen substrate topology and calcium-dependent interactions of gelsolin with nonmuscle myosin IIA in cell adhesions. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:734-47 pubmed publisher
    ..collagen substrate topography, free intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i, and the association of gelsolin with nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA) at collagen adhesions are regulated to enable collagen phagocytosis...
  24. Cowin A, Hatzirodos N, Teusner J, Belford D. Differential effect of wounding on actin and its associated proteins, paxillin and gelsolin, in fetal skin explants. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:1118-29 pubmed
    ..closure by correlating the involvement of filamentous actin (F-actin) and its associated proteins, paxillin and gelsolin, in the wound margins of embryonic day 17 and 19 rat skins, with the ability to close a full thickness excisional ..
  25. Sezen D, Bongiovanni A, Gelber S, Perni U, Hutson J, Skupski D, et al. Gelsolin down-regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced intraamniotic tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in the midtrimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:191.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to identify gelsolin in midtrimester amniotic fluid and evaluate its interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  26. Gay F, Estornes Y, Saurin J, Joly Pharaboz M, Friederich E, Scoazec J, et al. In colon carcinogenesis, the cytoskeletal protein gelsolin is down-regulated during the transition from adenoma to carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1420-30 pubmed publisher
    The actin-binding protein gelsolin is involved in cell motility via the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and its expression is modified in several human cancers...
  27. Klaavuniemi T, Yamashiro S, Ono S. Caenorhabditis elegans gelsolin-like protein 1 is a novel actin filament-severing protein with four gelsolin-like repeats. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26071-80 pubmed publisher
    The gelsolin family of proteins is a major class of actin regulatory proteins that sever, cap, and nucleate actin filaments in a calcium-dependent manner and are involved in various cellular processes...
  28. Suk J, Zhang F, Balch W, Linhardt R, Kelly J. Heparin accelerates gelsolin amyloidogenesis. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2234-42 pubmed
    ..chemical environment of the extracellular matrix may influence the tissue-selective deposition observed there in gelsolin amyloid disease...
  29. Ni X, Zhou L, Wang G, Liu S, Bai X, Liu F, et al. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway mediates gelsolin protein downregulation in pancreatic cancer. Mol Med. 2008;14:582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..compared the proteome of pancreatic cancer with matched normal pancreas and observed diminished protein levels of gelsolin--an actin filament severing and capping protein of crucial importance for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity--in ..
  30. Archer S, Behm C, Claudianos C, Campbell H. The flightless I protein and the gelsolin family in nuclear hormone receptor-mediated signalling. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:940-2 pubmed
    ..melanogaster flightless I protein and its homologues in higher eukaryotes (FliI) are conserved members of the gelsolin family of actin-binding proteins...
  31. Bär S, Daeffler L, Rommelaere J, Nüesch J. Vesicular egress of non-enveloped lytic parvoviruses depends on gelsolin functioning. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000126 pubmed publisher
    ..to a virus-induced imbalance between the polymerization factor N-WASP (Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein) and gelsolin, a multifunctional protein cleaving actin filaments...
  32. Liu J, Liu Y, Huang R, Yao C, Li S, Yang W, et al. Concurrent down-regulation of Egr-1 and gelsolin in the majority of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2007;4:377-85 pubmed
    ..role of Egr-1 in the suppression of cancer cell growth and to examine the potential correlation between Egr-1 and gelsolin. Histochemical staining coupled with breast cancer tissue arrays were used to examine the expression levels of ..
  33. Jørgensen C, Schiødt F, Dahl B, Laursen I, Houen G. Comparison of rocket and crossed immuno-electrophoresis assays for determination of the level of actin complexing of Gc globulin. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67:767-77 pubmed
    ..Using the RIE, complexes were detected in most samples. The results show that the CIE method may be used for determining the degree of actin complexing in conjunction with ELISA or RIE in determining the levels of total Gc globulin. ..
  34. Carro E. Gelsolin as therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2010;14:585-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have identified the anti-amyloidogenic role of gelsolin in AD...
  35. Xu J, Liu W, Dong X, Yang S, Fan J. Change in plasma gelsolin level after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72:491-6 pubmed
    Plasma gelsolin depletion has been associated with poor outcome of critically ill patients. However, there is a paucity of data available on circulating plasma gelsolin concentration in traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  36. Solomon J, Page L, Balch W, Kelly J. Gelsolin amyloidosis: genetics, biochemistry, pathology and possible strategies for therapeutic intervention. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;47:282-96 pubmed publisher
    ..what is known about the genetics, biochemistry and pathology of familial amyloidosis of Finnish type (FAF) or gelsolin amyloidosis...
  37. DiNubile M. Plasma gelsolin: in search of its raison d'etre. Focus on "Modifications of cellular responses to lysophosphatidic acid and platelet-activating factor by plasma gelsolin". Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1240-2 pubmed
  38. Sakurai N, Utsumi T. Posttranslational N-myristoylation is required for the anti-apoptotic activity of human tGelsolin, the C-terminal caspase cleavage product of human gelsolin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14288-95 pubmed
    ..Our previous study showed that the N-terminal nine residues of the C-terminal caspase cleavage product of human gelsolin, an actin-regulatory protein, efficiently direct the protein N-myristoylation...
  39. van de Wijngaart D, Dubbink H, Molier M, de Vos C, Jenster G, Trapman J. Inhibition of androgen receptor functions by gelsolin FxxFF peptide delivered by transfection, cell-penetrating peptides, and lentiviral infection. Prostate. 2011;71:241-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of hormone binding by blockade of the coactivator groove in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) using a high-affinity gelsolin FxxFF peptide...
  40. Lee P, Drager L, Stossel T, Moore F, Rogers S. Relationship of plasma gelsolin levels to outcomes in critically ill surgical patients. Ann Surg. 2006;243:399-403 pubmed
    To examine the relationship between plasma gelsolin levels and mortality following surgery or trauma. Few simple predictive diagnostic tests are available to predict mortality following surgery or trauma...
  41. Peddada N, Sagar A, Ashish -, Garg R. Plasma gelsolin: a general prognostic marker of health. Med Hypotheses. 2012;78:203-10 pubmed publisher
    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) is the only component of two member extracellular actin scavenger system capable of severing circulating actin microfilaments...
  42. García Expósito L, Ziglio S, Barroso González J, de Armas Rillo L, Valera M, Zipeto D, et al. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2013;10:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface ..
  43. Ji L, Chauhan V, Mehta P, Wegiel J, Mehta S, Chauhan A. Relationship between proteolytically cleaved gelsolin and levels of amyloid-? protein in the brains of Down syndrome subjects. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22:609-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Gelsolin plays an important role in the fibrillogenesis of amyloid-? (A?). It binds to A? and inhibits its fibrillization. Gelsolin also gets proteolytically cleaved under apoptotic conditions...
  44. Burtnick L, Urosev D, Irobi E, Narayan K, Robinson R. Structure of the N-terminal half of gelsolin bound to actin: roles in severing, apoptosis and FAF. EMBO J. 2004;23:2713-22 pubmed
    The actin filament-severing functionality of gelsolin resides in its N-terminal three domains (G1-G3). We have determined the structure of this fragment in complex with an actin monomer...
  45. Lee P, Sampath K, Karumanchi S, Tamez H, Bhan I, Isakova T, et al. Plasma gelsolin and circulating actin correlate with hemodialysis mortality. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1140-8 pubmed publisher
    Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) binds actin and bioactive mediators to localize inflammation. Low pGSN correlates with adverse outcomes in acute injury, whereas administration of recombinant pGSN reduces mortality in experimental sepsis...
  46. Fowler V, Greenfield N, Moyer J. Tropomodulin contains two actin filament pointed end-capping domains. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40000-9 pubmed
    ..on Tmod1 by testing a series of recombinant Tmod1 fragments for their ability to inhibit actin elongation from gelsolin-actin seeds using pyrene-actin polymerization assays...
  47. Bucki R, Levental I, Kulakowska A, Janmey P. Plasma gelsolin: function, prognostic value, and potential therapeutic use. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2008;9:541-51 pubmed
    b>Gelsolin is a highly conserved, multifunctional actin-binding protein initially described in the cytosol of macrophages and subsequently identified in many vertebrate cells...
  48. Beaulieu V, Da Silva N, Pastor Soler N, Brown C, Smith P, Brown D, et al. Modulation of the actin cytoskeleton via gelsolin regulates vacuolar H+-ATPase recycling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8452-63 pubmed
    ..now report that modulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the calcium-activated actin-capping and -severing protein gelsolin plays a key role in regulating vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) recycling...
  49. Arora P, Chan M, Anderson R, Janmey P, McCulloch C. Separate functions of gelsolin mediate sequential steps of collagen phagocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5175-90 pubmed
    ..Whereas the binding step of collagen phagocytosis is facilitated by Ca2+-dependent, gelsolin-mediated severing of actin filaments, the regulation of the collagen internalization step is not defined...
  50. Chou S, Lee P, Konigsberg R, Gallacci D, Chiou T, Arai K, et al. Plasma-type gelsolin is decreased in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2011;42:3624-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the depletion of anti-inflammatory plasma-type gelsolin (pGSN)...
  51. Thompson C, Ashcroft F, Patel S, Saraga G, Vimalachandran D, Prime W, et al. Pancreatic cancer cells overexpress gelsolin family-capping proteins, which contribute to their cell motility. Gut. 2007;56:95-106 pubmed
    ..To report that CapG and a related protein, gelsolin, which have established roles in cell motility, are overexpressed in metastatic pancreatic cancer; and to ..
  52. Mannherz H, Mazur A, Jockusch B. Repolymerization of actin from actin:thymosin beta4 complex induced by diaphanous related formins and gelsolin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1194:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby monomeric actin is sequestered from the dynamic assembly and disassembly processes of the actin cytoskeleton that constantly occur intracellularly...
  53. Kater A, Henke M, Rubin B. The role of DNA and actin polymers on the polymer structure and rheology of cystic fibrosis sputum and depolymerization by gelsolin or thymosin beta 4. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1112:140-53 pubmed
    ..The large amounts of F-actin in CF sputum suggested that thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4) or gelsolin could depolymerize the secondary polymer network of CF sputum...