Summary: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.

Top Publications

  1. Rochelle T, Daubon T, Van Troys M, Harnois T, Waterschoot D, Ampe C, et al. p210bcr-abl induces amoeboid motility by recruiting ADF/destrin through RhoA/ROCK1. FASEB J. 2013;27:123-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The phosphorylation levels of cofilin-1 and destrin were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis...
  2. Chen J, Godt D, Gunsalus K, Kiss I, Goldberg M, Laski F. Cofilin/ADF is required for cell motility during Drosophila ovary development and oogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:204-9 pubmed
    ..It is also required for the migration of border cells during oogenesis. These results show that cofilin/ADF is an important regulator of actin-based cell motility during Drosophila development. ..
  3. Wear M, Yamashita A, Kim K, Maeda Y, Cooper J. How capping protein binds the barbed end of the actin filament. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1531-7 pubmed
    ..CP with either tentacle alone can cap, as can the isolated beta tentacle alone, suggesting that the individual tentacles interact with more than one actin subunit at a subunit interface at the barbed end. ..
  4. Dawe H, Minamide L, Bamburg J, Cramer L. ADF/cofilin controls cell polarity during fibroblast migration. Curr Biol. 2003;13:252-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that locally maintaining ADF/cofilin in the active, nonphosphorylated state within the lamellipodium is necessary to maintain polarized protrusion during cell migration. ..
  5. Galkin V, Orlova A, VanLoock M, Shvetsov A, Reisler E, Egelman E. ADF/cofilin use an intrinsic mode of F-actin instability to disrupt actin filaments. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1057-66 pubmed
    ..We suggest that AC proteins use an intrinsic mechanism of F-actin's internal instability to depolymerize/sever actin filaments in the cell. ..
  6. Verdoni A, Smith R, Ikeda A, Ikeda S. Defects in actin dynamics lead to an autoinflammatory condition through the upregulation of CXCL5. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2701 pubmed publisher
    b>Destrin (DSTN) is a member of the ADF/cofilin family of proteins and is an important regulator of actin dynamics. The primary function of destrin is to depolymerize filamentous actin into its monomeric form and promote filament severing...
  7. Yahara I, Aizawa H, Moriyama K, Iida K, Yonezawa N, Nishida E, et al. A role of cofilin/destrin in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in response to stresses and cell stimuli. Cell Struct Funct. 1996;21:421-4 pubmed
    ..Functional roles of cofilin/actin in the nucleus remain to be elucidated. 7. Tertiary structure of destrin (cofilin) resembles that of gelsolin segment 1 and well explains its functions such as Ca(2+)-independent actin ..
  8. Ruzicka D, Kandasamy M, McKinney E, Burgos Rivera B, Meagher R. The ancient subclasses of Arabidopsis Actin Depolymerizing Factor genes exhibit novel and differential expression. Plant J. 2007;52:460-72 pubmed
    ..The distinct expression patterns of the ADF subclasses support a model of ADF s co-evolving with the ancient and divergent actin isovariants. ..
  9. Soosairajah J, Maiti S, Wiggan O, Sarmiere P, Moussi N, Sarcevic B, et al. Interplay between components of a novel LIM kinase-slingshot phosphatase complex regulates cofilin. EMBO J. 2005;24:473-86 pubmed
    ..Here we define a novel ADF/cofilin phosphoregulatory complex and suggest a new mechanism for the regulation of ADF/cofilin activity in mediating changes to the actin cytoskeleton. ..

More Information


  1. Ono S. Regulation of actin filament dynamics by actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin and actin-interacting protein 1: new blades for twisted filaments. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13363-70 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of AIP1 revealed its unique structure with two seven-bladed beta-propeller domains. Thus, AIP1 is a new class of actin regulatory proteins that selectively enhances ADF/cofilin-dependent actin filament dynamics. ..
  2. Carlsson A. Growth velocities of branched actin networks. Biophys J. 2003;84:2907-18 pubmed
    ..Experiments are proposed for using these results to shed light on the nature of the branching process. ..
  3. Shaw A, Minamide L, Bill C, Funk J, Maiti S, Bamburg J. Cross-reactivity of antibodies to actin- depolymerizing factor/cofilin family proteins and identification of the major epitope recognized by a mammalian actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin antibody. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:2611-20 pubmed
    ..Futhermore, this bank of antibodies was used to identify by Western blotting a putative member of the ADF/cofilin family in the sea slug, Aplysia californica. ..
  4. Bernstein B, Painter W, Chen H, Minamide L, Abe H, Bamburg J. Intracellular pH modulation of ADF/cofilin proteins. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2000;47:319-36 pubmed
    ..These results show that the behavior of AC proteins with pH-sensitivity in vitro is affected by pH in vivo. ..
  5. Helfer E, Nevalainen E, Naumanen P, Romero S, Didry D, Pantaloni D, et al. Mammalian twinfilin sequesters ADP-G-actin and caps filament barbed ends: implications in motility. EMBO J. 2006;25:1184-95 pubmed
    ..A structural model for binding of twinfilin to barbed ends is proposed based on the similar foldings of twinfilin ADF-H domains and gelsolin segments. ..
  6. Paavilainen V, Oksanen E, Goldman A, Lappalainen P. Structure of the actin-depolymerizing factor homology domain in complex with actin. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:51-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Kuure S, Cebrian C, MACHINGO Q, Lu B, Chi X, Hyink D, et al. Actin depolymerizing factors cofilin1 and destrin are required for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001176 pubmed publisher
    ..branching morphogenesis, we studied the functional requirements for the closely related ADFs cofilin1 (Cfl1) and destrin (Dstn) during mouse development...
  8. Schafer D, Jennings P, Cooper J. Dynamics of capping protein and actin assembly in vitro: uncapping barbed ends by polyphosphoinositides. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:169-79 pubmed
    ..A major hypothesis for why capping protein beta-subunit isoforms exist is thereby excluded. Fourth, the proposed capping protein regulators, Hsc70 and S100, had no effect on capping protein binding to actin in vitro. ..
  9. Mehta S, Sibley L. Toxoplasma gondii actin depolymerizing factor acts primarily to sequester G-actin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6835-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a dual role for TgADF in maintaining high G-actin concentrations and effecting rapid filament turnover. ..
  10. Wang X, Richards J, Gross T, Druka A, Kleinhofs A, Steffenson B, et al. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:407-18 pubmed publisher
    ..It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley. ..
  11. Singh B, Sattler J, Chatterjee M, Huttu J, Schüler H, Kursula I. Crystal structures explain functional differences in the two actin depolymerization factors of the malaria parasite. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The crystal structure of Plasmodium ADF1 shows major differences from the ADF consensus, explaining the lack of F-actin binding. Plasmodium ADF2 structurally resembles the canonical members of the ADF/cofilin family. ..
  12. Gungabissoon R, Bamburg J. Regulation of growth cone actin dynamics by ADF/cofilin. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:411-20 pubmed
    ..In this way, ADF/cofilins and their upstream effectors may be pivotal to our understanding of how guidance information is translated into physical alterations of the growth cone actin cytoskeleton. ..
  13. Abe H, Obinata T, Minamide L, Bamburg J. Xenopus laevis actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin: a phosphorylation-regulated protein essential for development. J Cell Biol. 1996;132:871-85 pubmed
    ..Blastomeres injected with neutralized antibody developed normally. These results suggest that XAC is necessary for cytokinesis and that its activity must be properly regulated for cleavage to occur. ..
  14. Hatanaka H, Ogura K, Moriyama K, Ichikawa S, Yahara I, Inagaki F. Tertiary structure of destrin and structural similarity between two actin-regulating protein families. Cell. 1996;85:1047-55 pubmed
    b>Destrin is an isoprotein of cofilin that regulates actin cytoskeleton in various eukaryotes. We determined the tertiary structure of destrin by triple-resonance multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance...
  15. Allwood E, Anthony R, Smertenko A, Reichelt S, Drobak B, Doonan J, et al. Regulation of the pollen-specific actin-depolymerizing factor LlADF1. Plant Cell. 2002;14:2915-27 pubmed
    ..Both pollen ADF and pollen AIP1 bind F-actin in pollen grains but are mainly cytoplasmic in pollen tubes. Our results suggest that together these proteins remodel actin filaments as pollen grains enter and exit dormancy. ..
  16. Bear J, Svitkina T, Krause M, Schafer D, Loureiro J, Strasser G, et al. Antagonism between Ena/VASP proteins and actin filament capping regulates fibroblast motility. Cell. 2002;109:509-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Ena/VASP regulates cell motility by controlling the geometry of actin filament networks within lamellipodia. ..
  17. Galkin V, VanLoock M, Orlova A, Egelman E. A new internal mode in F-actin helps explain the remarkable evolutionary conservation of actin's sequence and structure. Curr Biol. 2002;12:570-5 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, we find that in the tilted state actin subunits make new contacts with neighboring subunits that also involve these inserts, suggesting a key role for these elements in F-actin polymorphism. ..
  18. Niwa R, Nagata Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T. Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family of phosphatases that dephosphorylate ADF/cofilin. Cell. 2002;108:233-46 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SSH and the hSSHs dephosphorylated P cofilin in cultured cells and in cell-free assays. Our results strongly suggest that the SSH family plays a pivotal role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin in vivo...
  19. Chen H, Bernstein B, Sneider J, Boyle J, Minamide L, Bamburg J. In vitro activity differences between proteins of the ADF/cofilin family define two distinct subgroups. Biochemistry. 2004;43:7127-42 pubmed
    ..The ADF-like group has higher affinities for Mg(2+)-ATP-G-actin than the cofilin-like group and a greater pH-dependent depolymerizing activity. ..
  20. von Bülow M, Rackwitz H, Zimbelmann R, Franke W. CP beta3, a novel isoform of an actin-binding protein, is a component of the cytoskeletal calyx of the mammalian sperm head. Exp Cell Res. 1997;233:216-24 pubmed
  21. Ono S, Mohri K, Ono K. Microscopic evidence that actin-interacting protein 1 actively disassembles actin-depolymerizing factor/Cofilin-bound actin filaments. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14207-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AIP has an active role in filament severing or depolymerization and that ADF/cofilin and AIP1 are distinct from gelsolin in modulating filament elongation. ..
  22. Hellman M, Paavilainen V, Naumanen P, Lappalainen P, Annila A, Permi P. Solution structure of coactosin reveals structural homology to ADF/cofilin family proteins. FEBS Lett. 2004;576:91-6 pubmed
    ..Our analysis also identifies key structural differences between these proteins that may account for the differences in biochemical activities and cellular roles of these proteins. ..
  23. Durst S, Nick P, Maisch J. Nicotiana tabacum actin-depolymerizing factor 2 is involved in actin-driven, auxin-dependent patterning. J Plant Physiol. 2013;170:1057-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations allow to draw first conclusions on the pathway linking auxin signalling via actin reorganization to synchronized cell division placing the regulation of cortical actin turnover by ADF2 into the focus. ..
  24. Roland J, Berro J, Michelot A, Blanchoin L, Martiel J. Stochastic severing of actin filaments by actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin controls the emergence of a steady dynamical regime. Biophys J. 2008;94:2082-94 pubmed
    ..Our analysis shows that ADF/cofilin regulation maintains actin filaments in a highly dynamical state compatible with the cytoskeleton dynamics observed in vivo. ..
  25. Yeoh S, Pope B, Mannherz H, Weeds A. Determining the differences in actin binding by human ADF and cofilin. J Mol Biol. 2002;315:911-25 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of mammalian and avian isoforms shows a consistent pattern of charge differences in regions of the protein associated with F-actin-binding that may account for the differences in activity between ADF and cofilin. ..
  26. Ono S, Benian G. Two Caenorhabditis elegans actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin proteins, encoded by the unc-60 gene, differentially regulate actin filament dynamics. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:3778-83 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the two UNC-60 isoforms play differential roles in regulating actin filament dynamics in vivo. ..
  27. Hopmann R, Cooper J, Miller K. Actin organization, bristle morphology, and viability are affected by actin capping protein mutations in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:1293-305 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that CP has an essential function during development, and further suggest that CP is required to regulate actin assembly during the development of specialized structures that depend on actin for their morphology. ..
  28. Bamburg J. Proteins of the ADF/cofilin family: essential regulators of actin dynamics. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1999;15:185-230 pubmed
    ..ADF/cofilins are essential for cytokinesis, phagocytosis, fluid phase endocytosis, and other cellular processes dependent upon actin dynamics. ..
  29. Meberg P, Bamburg J. Increase in neurite outgrowth mediated by overexpression of actin depolymerizing factor. J Neurosci. 2000;20:2459-69 pubmed
    ..These results provide direct evidence that increased ADF activity promotes process extension and neurite outgrowth. ..
  30. Agnew B, Minamide L, Bamburg J. Reactivation of phosphorylated actin depolymerizing factor and identification of the regulatory site. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:17582-7 pubmed
    ..Cells also expressed high levels of mutant ADF when Ser3 was deleted or converted to either Ala or Glu. However, none of these mutants was phosphorylated, confirming that Ser3 in the encoded ADF is the single in vivo regulatory site. ..
  31. Ono S, McGough A, Pope B, Tolbert V, Bui A, Pohl J, et al. The C-terminal tail of UNC-60B (actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin) is critical for maintaining its stable association with F-actin and is implicated in the second actin-binding site. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5952-8 pubmed
    ..Helical reconstruction and structural modeling of UNC-60B-F-actin complex reveal how the C terminus of UNC-60B might be involved in one of the two actin-binding sites. ..
  32. Tian M, Chaudhry F, Ruzicka D, Meagher R, Staiger C, Day B. Arabidopsis actin-depolymerizing factor AtADF4 mediates defense signal transduction triggered by the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPphB. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study identifies AtADF4 as a novel component of the plant defense signaling pathway and provides strong evidence for actin dynamics as a primary component that orchestrates plant defenses against P. syringae. ..
  33. Wen Z, Han L, Bamburg J, Shim S, Ming G, Zheng J. BMP gradients steer nerve growth cones by a balancing act of LIM kinase and Slingshot phosphatase on ADF/cofilin. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we show that spatial regulation of ADF/cofilin activity controls the directional responses of the growth cone to BMP7, and Ca2+ influx through TRPC tilts the LIMK-SSH balance toward SSH-mediated repulsion...
  34. Carlsson A. Growth of branched actin networks against obstacles. Biophys J. 2001;81:1907-23 pubmed
    ..An analytic theory of the growth velocity and branch spacing of the network is described. Experiments are suggested that could distinguish among some of the branching models. ..
  35. Kim K, Yamashita A, Wear M, Maeda Y, Cooper J. Capping protein binding to actin in yeast: biochemical mechanism and physiological relevance. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:567-80 pubmed
    ..Actin filaments of patches appear to be nucleated first, then capped with CP. The binding constants of yeast CP for actin suggest that actin capping in yeast is more dynamic than in vertebrates. ..
  36. Pope B, Zierler Gould K, Kühne R, Weeds A, Ball L. Solution structure of human cofilin: actin binding, pH sensitivity, and relationship to actin-depolymerizing factor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4840-8 pubmed
    ..Because residues in beta5 are perturbed by mutations that affect both G-actin and F-actin binding, this strand forms a "boundary" or "bridge" between the proposed F- and G-actin-binding sites. ..
  37. Gurniak C, Perlas E, Witke W. The actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is essential for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration. Dev Biol. 2005;278:231-41 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that in mammalian development, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the F-actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is critical for epithelial-mesenchymal type of cell shape changes as well as cell proliferation. ..
  38. Hotulainen P, Paunola E, Vartiainen M, Lappalainen P. Actin-depolymerizing factor and cofilin-1 play overlapping roles in promoting rapid F-actin depolymerization in mammalian nonmuscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:649-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that mammalian ADF and cofilin-1 promote cytoskeletal dynamics by depolymerizing actin filaments and that this activity is critical for several processes such as cytokinesis and cell motility. ..
  39. Moriyama K, Nishida E, Yonezawa N, Sakai H, Matsumoto S, Iida K, et al. Destrin, a mammalian actin-depolymerizing protein, is closely related to cofilin. Cloning and expression of porcine brain destrin cDNA. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:5768-73 pubmed
    b>Destrin is a mammalian 19-kDa protein that rapidly depolymerizes F-actin in a stoichiometric manner. In this study, we isolated cDNA clones coding for destrin from a porcine brain cDNA library...
  40. Toshima J, Toshima J, Amano T, Yang N, Narumiya S, Mizuno K. Cofilin phosphorylation by protein kinase testicular protein kinase 1 and its role in integrin-mediated actin reorganization and focal adhesion formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1131-45 pubmed
    ..We propose that TESK1 and LIM-kinases commonly phosphorylate cofilin but are regulated in different ways and play distinct roles in actin reorganization in living cells. ..
  41. Abe H, Endo T, Yamamoto K, Obinata T. Sequence of cDNAs encoding actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin of embryonic chicken skeletal muscle: two functionally distinct actin-regulatory proteins exhibit high structural homology. Biochemistry. 1990;29:7420-5 pubmed
    ..The overall nucleotide sequences and Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA, however, indicated that the two proteins were derived from different genes. ..
  42. Bobkov A, Muhlrad A, Kokabi K, Vorobiev S, Almo S, Reisler E. Structural effects of cofilin on longitudinal contacts in F-actin. J Mol Biol. 2002;323:739-50 pubmed
    ..This suggests that cofilin binding and the conformational effect on F-actin are not coupled tightly. Overall, this study provides solution evidence for the weakening of longitudinal, subdomain 2/1 contacts in F-actin by cofilin. ..
  43. Waddle J, Cooper J, Waterston R. The alpha and beta subunits of nematode actin capping protein function in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:907-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, despite evolution of the nematode actin cytoskeleton to a state far more complex than that of yeast, one important component can function in both organisms. ..
  44. Herde M, Friauf E, Rust M. Developmental expression of the actin depolymerizing factor ADF in the mouse inner ear and spiral ganglia. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1724-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The developmentally regulated ADF expression suggests a temporally restricted function in the stereocilia and, thus, a hitherto undescribed role of ADF...
  45. Augustine R, Vidali L, Kleinman K, Bezanilla M. Actin depolymerizing factor is essential for viability in plants, and its phosphoregulation is important for tip growth. Plant J. 2008;54:863-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that phosphoregulation at serine 6 is required for full ADF function in vivo, and, in particular, that the interaction between ADF and actin is important for tip growth...
  46. Kandasamy M, Burgos Rivera B, McKinney E, Ruzicka D, Meagher R. Class-specific interaction of profilin and ADF isovariants with actin in the regulation of plant development. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3111-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the actins and ABPs appear to have evolved class-specific, protein-protein interactions that are essential to the normal regulation of plant growth and development. ..
  47. Vartiainen M, Mustonen T, Mattila P, Ojala P, Thesleff I, Partanen J, et al. The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:183-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the three biochemically distinct mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms evolved to fulfill specific requirements for actin filament dynamics in different cell types. ..
  48. Lopez I, Anthony R, Maciver S, Jiang C, Khan S, Weeds A, et al. Pollen specific expression of maize genes encoding actin depolymerizing factor-like proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:7415-20 pubmed
    ..These biochemical characteristics, taken together with the sequence comparisons, support the inclusion of the ZmABP proteins in the ADF group. ..
  49. Bellenchi G, Gurniak C, Perlas E, Middei S, Ammassari Teule M, Witke W. N-cofilin is associated with neuronal migration disorders and cell cycle control in the cerebral cortex. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2347-57 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that mutations affecting regulators of the actin cytoskeleton contribute to the pathology of cortex development. ..
  50. Mehta S, Sibley L. Actin depolymerizing factor controls actin turnover and gliding motility in Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1290-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Bowman G, Nodelman I, Hong Y, Chua N, Lindberg U, Schutt C. A comparative structural analysis of the ADF/cofilin family. Proteins. 2000;41:374-84 pubmed
    ..Analysis of surface character shows the presence of a hydrophobic patch and a highly conserved acidic cluster, both of which include several residues previously implicated in actin binding. ..
  52. Anyanful A, Ono K, Johnsen R, Ly H, Jensen V, Baillie D, et al. The RNA-binding protein SUP-12 controls muscle-specific splicing of the ADF/cofilin pre-mRNA in C. elegans. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:639-47 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that SUP-12 is a novel tissue-specific splicing factor and regulates functional redundancy among ADF/cofilin isoforms. ..
  53. Amatruda J, Gattermeir D, Karpova T, Cooper J. Effects of null mutations and overexpression of capping protein on morphogenesis, actin distribution and polarized secretion in yeast. J Cell Biol. 1992;119:1151-62 pubmed
    ..In addition, bulk secretion of invertase was unimpaired. These data indicate that actin cables are not required for polarized secretion in S. cerevisiae. ..