actin capping proteins


Summary: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.

Top Publications

  1. Zwolak A, Fujiwara I, Hammer J, Tjandra N. Structural basis for capping protein sequestration by myotrophin (V-1). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25767-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results can explain how V-1 inactivates barbed end capping by CP and why V-1 is incapable of uncapping CP-capped actin filaments, the two signature biochemical activities of V-1. ..
  2. Bhattacharya N, Ghosh S, Sept D, Cooper J. Binding of myotrophin/V-1 to actin-capping protein: implications for how capping protein binds to the filament barbed end. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31021-30 pubmed
    ..This model is also supported by molecular dynamics simulations of CP reported here. The existence of the wobble state may be important for actin dynamics in cells. ..
  3. Waddle J, Cooper J, Waterston R. The alpha and beta subunits of nematode actin capping protein function in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:907-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, despite evolution of the nematode actin cytoskeleton to a state far more complex than that of yeast, one important component can function in both organisms. ..
  4. Li J, Henty Ridilla J, Huang S, Wang X, Blanchoin L, Staiger C. Capping protein modulates the dynamic behavior of actin filaments in response to phosphatidic acid in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3742-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, CP acts as a PA biosensor and key transducer of fluxes in membrane signaling phospholipids into changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics. ..
  5. Fujiwara I, Remmert K, Hammer J. Direct observation of the uncapping of capping protein-capped actin filaments by CARMIL homology domain 3. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the isolated CAH3 domain of CARMIL (and presumably the intact molecule as well) possesses the ability to uncap CP-capped actin filaments. ..
  6. Bear J, Gertler F. Ena/VASP: towards resolving a pointed controversy at the barbed end. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we describe several alternate mechanisms that Ena/VASP proteins may utilize to regulate actin dynamics in vivo, including inhibition of branching, bundling and profilin-actin recruitment. ..
  7. Delalle I, Pfleger C, Buff E, Lueras P, Hariharan I. Mutations in the Drosophila orthologs of the F-actin capping protein alpha- and beta-subunits cause actin accumulation and subsequent retinal degeneration. Genetics. 2005;171:1757-65 pubmed
    ..In its absence, cells progressively accumulate actin filaments and eventually die. A possible role for their human orthologs in neurodegenerative disease merits further investigation. ..
  8. Popp D, Yamamoto A, Maeda Y. Crowded surfaces change annealing dynamics of actin filaments. J Mol Biol. 2007;368:365-74 pubmed
    ..This implicates that dynamic rearrangement of actin filaments by annealing near the leading edge of the cell, could change physical parameters like the mechanical response and contribute significantly to cell motility. ..
  9. Cooper J, Sept D. New insights into mechanism and regulation of actin capping protein. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2008;267:183-206 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a number of molecules that bind and regulate CP have been discovered, suggesting new ideas for how CP may integrate into diverse processes of cell physiology. ..

More Information


  1. Zhao J, Bruck S, Cemerski S, Zhang L, Butler B, Dani A, et al. CD2AP links cortactin and capping protein at the cell periphery to facilitate formation of lamellipodia. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate how the interplay between specialized actin regulatory molecules shapes the actin cytoskeleton...
  2. Huang S, Gao L, Blanchoin L, Staiger C. Heterodimeric capping protein from Arabidopsis is regulated by phosphatidic acid. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1946-58 pubmed
    ..Such regulation may be important for the response of plant cells to extracellular stimuli as well as for the normal process of pollen tube tip growth. ..
  3. Kim K, Yamashita A, Wear M, Maeda Y, Cooper J. Capping protein binding to actin in yeast: biochemical mechanism and physiological relevance. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:567-80 pubmed
    ..Actin filaments of patches appear to be nucleated first, then capped with CP. The binding constants of yeast CP for actin suggest that actin capping in yeast is more dynamic than in vertebrates. ..
  4. Hernandez Valladares M, Kim T, Kannan B, Tung A, Aguda A, Larsson M, et al. Structural characterization of a capping protein interaction motif defines a family of actin filament regulators. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptides comprising these CPI motifs are able to inhibit CP and to uncap CP-bound actin filaments. ..
  5. Hart M, Cooper J. Vertebrate isoforms of actin capping protein beta have distinct functions In vivo. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:1287-98 pubmed
    ..Therefore, CPbeta1 and CPbeta2 each have a distinct function that cannot be provided by the other isoform. CPbeta1 attaches actin filaments to the Z-line, and CPbeta2 organizes the actin at the intercalated discs. ..
  6. Zwolak A, Uruno T, Piszczek G, Hammer J, Tjandra N. Molecular basis for barbed end uncapping by CARMIL homology domain 3 of mouse CARMIL-1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29014-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results offer a mechanistic explanation for the barbed end uncapping activity of CARMIL, and they identify the basic patch on CP as a crucial regulatory site. ..
  7. Okada K, Bartolini F, Deaconescu A, Moseley J, Dogic Z, Grigorieff N, et al. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein nucleates actin assembly and synergizes with the formin mDia1. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:1087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations define a new function for APC and support an emerging view of collaboration between distinct actin assembly-promoting factors with complementary activities. ..
  8. Fernández B, Gaspar P, Bras Pereira C, Jezowska B, Rebelo S, Janody F. Actin-Capping Protein and the Hippo pathway regulate F-actin and tissue growth in Drosophila. Development. 2011;138:2337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate a novel interplay between Hippo pathway activity and actin filament dynamics that is essential for normal growth control. ..
  9. Iwasa J, Mullins R. Spatial and temporal relationships between actin-filament nucleation, capping, and disassembly. Curr Biol. 2007;17:395-406 pubmed
    ..Cofilin, twinfilin, and tropomyosin appear to play no role in lamellipodial network assembly but function to limit its size. ..
  10. Canton D, Olsten M, Kim K, Doherty Kirby A, Lajoie G, Cooper J, et al. The pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein CKIP-1 is involved in regulation of cell morphology and the actin cytoskeleton and interaction with actin capping protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3519-34 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results are consistent with CKIP-1 playing a role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through its interactions with actin capping protein. ..
  11. Kim T, Ravilious G, Sept D, Cooper J. Mechanism for CARMIL protein inhibition of heterodimeric actin-capping protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CARMIL promotes uncapping by binding to a freely accessible site on CP bound to a filament barbed end and inducing a change in the conformation of the actin-binding surface of CP. ..
  12. Frank D, Hopmann R, Lenartowska M, Miller K. Capping protein and the Arp2/3 complex regulate nonbundle actin filament assembly to indirectly control actin bundle positioning during Drosophila melanogaster bristle development. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3930-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results suggest that the Arpc1 subunit may have an additional function, independent of the rest of the Arp2/3 complex. ..
  13. Pleskot R, Pejchar P, Zarsky V, Staiger C, Potocky M. Structural insights into the inhibition of actin-capping protein by interactions with phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002765 pubmed publisher
    ..We prepared a GST-fusion protein for the C-terminal domain of plant ? subunit and verified this hypothesis with lipid-binding assays in vitro. ..
  14. Miyoshi T, Tsuji T, Higashida C, Hertzog M, Fujita A, Narumiya S, et al. Actin turnover-dependent fast dissociation of capping protein in the dendritic nucleation actin network: evidence of frequent filament severing. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:947-55 pubmed
    ..We predict that filament severing and end-to-end annealing might take place fairly frequently in the dendritic nucleation actin arrays. ..
  15. Gates J, Nowotarski S, Yin H, Mahaffey J, Bridges T, Herrera C, et al. Enabled and Capping protein play important roles in shaping cell behavior during Drosophila oogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;333:90-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data reveal places that these actin regulators shape oogenesis. ..
  16. Akin O, Mullins R. Capping protein increases the rate of actin-based motility by promoting filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Cell. 2008;133:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..By reorganizing their architecture, dendritic actin networks harness the same assembly kinetics to drive different rates of motility. ..
  17. Haviv L, Brill Karniely Y, Mahaffy R, Backouche F, Ben Shaul A, Pollard T, et al. Reconstitution of the transition from lamellipodium to filopodium in a membrane-free system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4906-11 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may apply to the transition from lamellipodia to filopodia in vivo. ..
  18. Takeda S, Minakata S, Koike R, Kawahata I, Narita A, Kitazawa M, et al. Two distinct mechanisms for actin capping protein regulation--steric and allosteric inhibition. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000416 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that CARMIL proteins down-regulate CP by affecting its conformational dynamics. This conceptually new mechanism of CP inhibition provides a structural basis for the regulation of the barbed end elongation in cells. ..
  19. Hopmann R, Cooper J, Miller K. Actin organization, bristle morphology, and viability are affected by actin capping protein mutations in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:1293-305 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that CP has an essential function during development, and further suggest that CP is required to regulate actin assembly during the development of specialized structures that depend on actin for their morphology. ..
  20. Hart M, Korshunova Y, Cooper J. Mapping of the mouse actin capping protein alpha subunit genes and pseudogenes. Genomics. 1997;39:264-70 pubmed
    ..One mouse mutation, de, maps in the vicinity of the alpha 1 gene. No known mouse mutations map to regions near the alpha 2 or alpha 3 genes. ..
  21. Breitsprecher D, Kiesewetter A, Linkner J, Urbanke C, Resch G, Small J, et al. Clustering of VASP actively drives processive, WH2 domain-mediated actin filament elongation. EMBO J. 2008;27:2943-54 pubmed publisher
  22. Kim T, Cooper J, Sept D. The interaction of capping protein with the barbed end of the actin filament. J Mol Biol. 2010;404:794-802 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide us with new molecular insight into how CP binds to the actin filament. ..
  23. Kuhn J, Pollard T. Single molecule kinetic analysis of actin filament capping. Polyphosphoinositides do not dissociate capping proteins. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28014-24 pubmed
    ..PPIs binding to this site might interfere sterically with capping, but this site would be inaccessible when CP is bound to the end of a filament. ..
  24. Applewhite D, Barzik M, Kojima S, Svitkina T, Gertler F, Borisy G. Ena/VASP proteins have an anti-capping independent function in filopodia formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2579-91 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the EVH1 domain, together with the GAB motif in the EVH2 domain, helps to maintain Ena/VASP at the growing barbed ends. ..
  25. Michelot A, Grassart A, Okreglak V, Costanzo M, Boone C, Drubin D. Actin filament elongation in Arp2/3-derived networks is controlled by three distinct mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2013;24:182-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, three distinct mechanisms control filament elongation in different regions of Arp2/3 networks, maintaining pools of assembly-competent actin species while ensuring proper filament polarity and facilitating force production...
  26. Fan Y, Tang X, Vitriol E, Chen G, Zheng J. Actin capping protein is required for dendritic spine development and synapse formation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that capping of actin filaments by CP represents an essential step for the remodeling of the actin architecture underlying spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation during development. ..
  27. Ganter M, Sch ler H, Matuschewski K. Vital role for the Plasmodium actin capping protein (CP) beta-subunit in motility of malaria sporozoites. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:1356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results show that the CP beta-subunit exerts an essential role in the insect vector before malaria transmission to the mammalian host. The vital role is restricted to fast locomotion, as displayed by Plasmodium sporozoites...
  28. Delorme V, Cayla X, Faure G, Garcia A, Tardieux I. Actin dynamics is controlled by a casein kinase II and phosphatase 2C interplay on Toxoplasma gondii Toxofilin. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1900-12 pubmed
    ..Such functional interactions should play a major role in actin sequestration, a central feature of actin dynamics in Apicomplexa that underlies the spectacular speed and nature of parasite gliding motility. ..
  29. Matzavinos A, Othmer H. A stochastic analysis of actin polymerization in the presence of twinfilin and gelsolin. J Theor Biol. 2007;249:723-36 pubmed
    ..Significantly, our simulations indicate that the pyrenyl-actin fluorescence experiments would fail to report the emergence of large filaments under certain experimental conditions. ..
  30. Nakano K, Mabuchi I. Actin-capping protein is involved in controlling organization of actin cytoskeleton together with ADF/cofilin, profilin and F-actin crosslinking proteins in fission yeast. Genes Cells. 2006;11:893-905 pubmed
    ..In addition, CP is likely involved in assembling the F-actin contractile ring and F-actin patch with F-actin-crosslinking proteins. ..
  31. Janody F, Treisman J. Actin capping protein alpha maintains vestigial-expressing cells within the Drosophila wing disc epithelium. Development. 2006;133:3349-57 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Vestigial specifies the cytoskeletal changes that lead to morphogenesis of the adult wing. ..
  32. Liu Z, Klaavuniemi T, Ono S. Distinct roles of four gelsolin-like domains of Caenorhabditis elegans gelsolin-like protein-1 in actin filament severing, barbed end capping, and phosphoinositide binding. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal both conserved and different utilization of G domains between C. elegans GSNL-1 and mammalian gelsolin for actin regulatory functions. ..
  33. Howes E, Hurst S, Jones R. Actin and actin-binding proteins in bovine spermatozoa: potential role in membrane remodeling and intracellular signaling during epididymal maturation and the acrosome reaction. J Androl. 2001;22:62-72 pubmed
    ..This redistribution of actin and actin-regulatory proteins, coupled with changing levels of actin polymerization, suggest a continuing role for actin in both post-testicular sperm maturation and acrosomal exocytosis. ..
  34. Osterloh P, Linkemann K, Tenzer S, Rammensee H, Radsak M, Busch D, et al. Proteasomes shape the repertoire of T cells participating in antigen-specific immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5042-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our experiments provide strong evidence that proteasomal specificity shapes the repertoire of T cells participating in antigen-specific immune responses. ..
  35. Elbediwy A, Zihni C, Terry S, Clark P, Matter K, Balda M. Epithelial junction formation requires confinement of Cdc42 activity by a novel SH3BP1 complex. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:677-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Epithelial junction formation and morphogenesis thus require a dual activity complex, containing SH3BP1 and CapZ, that is recruited to sites of active membrane remodeling to guide Cdc42 signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics. ..
  36. Lee S, Sun S, Choi H, Uhm S, Kim N. mTOR is required for asymmetric division through small GTPases in mouse oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that rapamycin inhibits spindle migration and asymmetric division during mouse oocyte maturation via mTOR-mediated small GTPase signaling pathways. ..
  37. Hu L, Papoian G. How does the antagonism between capping and anti-capping proteins affect actin network dynamics?. J Phys Condens Matter. 2011;23:374101 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss distributions of filament lengths under various conditions and speculate on their potential implication for the emergence of filopodia from the lamellipodial network. ..
  38. Wang J, Qian D, Fan T, Jia H, An L, Xiang Y. Arabidopsis actin capping protein (AtCP) subunits have different expression patterns, and downregulation of AtCPB confers increased thermotolerance of Arabidopsis after heat shock stress. Plant Sci. 2012;193-194:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results demonstrated that AtCPA and AtCPB showed distinct expression patterns in vivo, and that downregulation of AtCPB conferred increased plant thermotolerance after heat shock stress. ..
  39. Reymann A, Suarez C, Guerin C, Martiel J, Staiger C, Blanchoin L, et al. Turnover of branched actin filament networks by stochastic fragmentation with ADF/cofilin. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Stochastic severing by ADF/cofilin loosens the tight entanglement of actin filaments inside the comet tail and facilitates turnover through the macroscopic release of large portions of the aged actin network. ..
  40. Hertzog M, Carlier M. Functional characterization of proteins regulating actin assembly. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2005;Chapter 13:Unit 13.6 pubmed publisher
  41. Xu X, Hu H, Wang X, Ye W, Su H, Hu Y, et al. Involvement of CapG in proliferation and apoptosis of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model. Exp Lung Res. 2016;42:142-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We proposed CapG modulating protective effects of pulmonary hypertension. ..
  42. Delorme Walker V, Abrivard M, Lagal V, Anderson K, Perazzi A, Gonzalez V, et al. Toxofilin upregulates the host cortical actin cytoskeleton dynamics, facilitating Toxoplasma invasion. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4333-42 pubmed publisher
  43. Zhang X, Wen Z, Yao W. [The capping protein on the slow-growing end of actin filament: erythrocyte tropomodulin]. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 2011;42:27-31 pubmed
    ..E-Tmod plays a pivotal role in organizing F-actin and cytoskeleton and maintaining the mechanical properties of the cells. ..
  44. Halavatyi A, Nazarov P, Medves S, Van Troys M, Ampe C, Yatskou M, et al. An integrative simulation model linking major biochemical reactions of actin-polymerization to structural properties of actin filaments. Biophys Chem. 2009;140:24-34 pubmed publisher
  45. Xu K, Zhong G, Zhuang X. Actin, spectrin, and associated proteins form a periodic cytoskeletal structure in axons. Science. 2013;339:452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sodium channels in axons were distributed in a periodic pattern coordinated with the underlying actin-spectrin-based cytoskeleton. ..
  46. Aragona M, Panciera T, Manfrin A, Giulitti S, Michielin F, Elvassore N, et al. A mechanical checkpoint controls multicellular growth through YAP/TAZ regulation by actin-processing factors. Cell. 2013;154:1047-1059 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mechanical forces are overarching regulators of YAP/TAZ in multicellular contexts, setting responsiveness to Hippo, WNT, and GPCR signaling. ..
  47. Smith D, Liu J. Branching and capping determine the force-velocity relationships of branching actin networks. Phys Biol. 2013;10:016004 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model thus establishes a unified mechanism that can account for both convex and concave force-velocity relationships observed in branching actin networks. ..
  48. Ditlev J, Vacanti N, Novak I, Loew L. An open model of actin dendritic nucleation. Biophys J. 2009;96:3529-42 pubmed publisher, it can be accessed, analyzed, modified, and extended. ..
  49. Hiroshima Y, Bando M, Inagaki Y, Mihara C, Kataoka M, Murata H, et al. Resistin in gingival crevicular fluid and induction of resistin release by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in human neutrophils. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:554-62 pubmed publisher
  50. Smith M, Karatekin E, Gohlke A, Mizuno H, Watanabe N, Vavylonis D. Interactive, computer-assisted tracking of speckle trajectories in fluorescence microscopy: application to actin polymerization and membrane fusion. Biophys J. 2011;101:1794-804 pubmed publisher
    ..5), By discriminating between undocking and fusion events, dwell times for vesicle fusion after vesicle docking to membranes can be measured. ..
  51. Revenu C, Courtois M, Michelot A, Sykes C, Louvard D, Robine S. Villin severing activity enhances actin-based motility in vivo. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:827-38 pubmed
  52. Lucas E, Khanal I, Gaspar P, Fletcher G, Polesello C, Tapon N, et al. The Hippo pathway polarizes the actin cytoskeleton during collective migration of Drosophila border cells. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, Warts phosphorylates and inhibits the actin regulator Ena to activate F-actin Capping protein activity on inner membranes and thereby restricts F-actin polymerization mainly to the outer rim of the migrating cluster. ..
  53. Li L, Chen X, Zhang S, Yang J, Chen D, Liu M, et al. MoCAP proteins regulated by MoArk1-mediated phosphorylation coordinate endocytosis and actin dynamics to govern development and virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006814 pubmed publisher
    ..These results together demonstrate that MoCAP proteins whose functions are regulated by MoArk1 and PIP2 are important for endocytosis and actin dynamics that are directly linked to growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. ..