amylose

Summary

Summary: An unbranched glucan in starch.

Top Publications

  1. Carciofi M, Blennow A, Jensen S, Shaik S, Henriksen A, Buleon A, et al. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:223 pubmed publisher
    Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers...
  2. Toden S, Belobrajdic D, Bird A, Topping D, Conlon M. Effects of dietary beef and chicken with and without high amylose maize starch on blood malondialdehyde, interleukins, IGF-I, insulin, leptin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 concentrations in rats. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:454-65 pubmed publisher
    ..colonic DNA strand breakage than equivalent levels of chicken in rats and that resistant starch (RS) as 20% high amylose maize starch (HAMS) attenuated the damage...
  3. Liu F, Makhmoudova A, Lee E, Wait R, Emes M, Tetlow I. The amylose extender mutant of maize conditions novel protein-protein interactions between starch biosynthetic enzymes in amyloplasts. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:4423-40 pubmed publisher
    The amylose extender (ae(-)) mutant of maize lacks starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) activity, resulting in amylopectin with reduced branch point frequency, and longer glucan chains...
  4. Wei W, Guo B, Lin J. Helical- and ahelical-dependent chiral recognition mechanisms in capillary electrophoresis using amylose as the selector. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:1380-7 pubmed publisher
    The present study discovered that helical structures of amylose were not always responsible for its chiral recognition abilities in CE. Several enantiomers with different structures were selected as models...
  5. Bird A, Vuaran M, Crittenden R, Hayakawa T, Playne M, Brown I, et al. Comparative effects of a high-amylose starch and a fructooligosaccharide on fecal bifidobacteria numbers and short-chain fatty acids in pigs fed Bifidobacterium animalis. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:947-54 pubmed publisher
    Pigs were fed a freeze-dried probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis CSCC 1941) plus a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) and a fructooligosaccharide (FOS) separately or together...
  6. Liu X, Wan X, Ma X, Wan J. Dissecting the genetic basis for the effect of rice chalkiness, amylose content, protein content, and rapid viscosity analyzer profile characteristics on the eating quality of cooked rice using the chromosome segment substitution line population acro. Genome. 2011;54:64-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The 16 quality traits include percentage of grain with chalkiness (PGWC), area of chalky endosperm (ACE), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cool paste viscosity, breakdown ..
  7. Koehorst van Putten H, Sudarmonowati E, Herman M, Pereira Bertram I, Wolters A, Meima H, et al. Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We here report on the results of production and field testing of genetically modified low-amylose transformants of commercial cassava variety Adira4 in Indonesia...
  8. Kalmokoff M, Zwicker B, O HARA M, Matias F, Green J, Shastri P, et al. Temporal change in the gut community of rats fed high amylose cornstarch is driven by endogenous urea rather than strictly on carbohydrate availability. J Appl Microbiol. 2013;114:1516-28 pubmed publisher
    To examine change in the gut community of rats fed high amylose maize starch (HAMS). Rats were fed AIN93G diets containing HAMS (5% resistant starch type 2) or alphacell (control)...
  9. Sestili F, Janni M, Doherty A, Botticella E, D Ovidio R, Masci S, et al. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:144 pubmed publisher
    High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Almeida M, Alves R, Nascimbem L, Stephani R, Poppi R, de Oliveira L. Determination of amylose content in starch using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate calibration analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:2693-701 pubmed publisher
    ..of pure corn and cassava starch samples and mixtures of both starches, as well as for the quantification of amylose content in corn and cassava starch samples...
  2. Schnupf U, Willett J, Bosma W, Momany F. DFT conformation and energies of amylose fragments at atomic resolution. Part 1: Syn forms of alpha-maltotetraose. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:362-73 pubmed publisher
    DFT optimization studies of 90 syn alpha-maltotetraose (DP-4) amylose fragments have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory...
  3. Regmi P, Metzler Zebeli B, Ganzle M, van Kempen T, Zijlstra R. Starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increases intestinal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promotes bifidobacteria in pigs. J Nutr. 2011;141:1273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight ileal-cannulated pigs (29.4 ± 0.9 kg body weight) were fed 4 diets containing 70% purified starch (amylose content, <5, 20, 28, and 63%; reflected by in vitro maximal digestion rate; 1.06, 0.73, 0.38, and 0...
  4. Jiang T, Ci Y, Chou W, Lee Y, Sun Y, Chou W, et al. Two unique ligand-binding clamps of Rhizopus oryzae starch binding domain for helical structure disruption of amylose. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41131 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and ..
  5. Lopez C, de Vries A, Marrink S. Amylose folding under the influence of lipids. Carbohydr Res. 2012;364:1-7 pubmed publisher
    The molecular dynamics simulation technique was used to study the folding and complexation process of a short amylose fragment in the presence of lipids. In aqueous solution, the amylose chain remains as an extended left-handed helix...
  6. Nishimura N, Tanabe H, Sasaki Y, Makita Y, Ohata M, Yokoyama S, et al. Pectin and high-amylose maize starch increase caecal hydrogen production and relieve hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which results from oxidative stress, in rats fed a pectin (Pec) or high-amylose maize starch (HAS) diet...
  7. Zhu L, Gu M, Meng X, Cheung S, Yu H, Huang J, et al. High-amylose rice improves indices of animal health in normal and diabetic rats. Plant Biotechnol J. 2012;10:353-62 pubmed publisher
    A high-amylose rice with 64.8% amylose content (AC) was developed by transgenic inhibition of two isoforms of starch branching enzyme (SBE), SBEI and SBEIIb, in an indica rice cultivar...
  8. Stephen P, Tseng K, Liu Y, Lyu P. Circular permutation of the starch-binding domain: inversion of ligand selectivity with increased affinity. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:2612-4 pubmed publisher
  9. Freire C, Podczeck F, Veiga F, Sousa J. Starch-based coatings for colon-specific delivery. Part II: physicochemical properties and in vitro drug release from high amylose maize starch films. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2009;72:587-94 pubmed publisher
    This work reports an investigation into free-film properties of a high amylose maize starch-based film coating that has been used in the preparation of formulations for drug delivery to the colon (WO 2008/012573 A1) and relates these ..
  10. Maki K, Pelkman C, Finocchiaro E, Kelley K, Lawless A, Schild A, et al. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men. J Nutr. 2012;142:717-23 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in participants with waist circumference ?89 (women) or ?102 cm (men)...
  11. Tawil G, Viksø Nielsen A, Rolland Sabaté A, Colonna P, Buleon A. In depth study of a new highly efficient raw starch hydrolyzing ?-amylase from Rhizomucor sp. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Amylose-lipid complexes present in most cereal starches are degraded in a second stage, yielding amylose fragments that ..
  12. Wei C, Xu B, Qin F, Yu H, Chen C, Meng X, et al. C-type starch from high-amylose rice resistant starch granules modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7383-8 pubmed publisher
    High-amylose starch is a source of resistant starch (RS) which has a great benefit on human health. A transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched amylose and RS had been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes...
  13. Cury B, Castro A, Klein S, Evangelista R. Modeling a system of phosphated cross-linked high amylose for controlled drug release. Part 2: physical parameters, cross-linking degrees and drug delivery relationships. Int J Pharm. 2009;371:8-15 pubmed publisher
    High amylose cross-linked to different degrees with sodium trimetaphosphate by varying base strength (2% or 4%) and contact time (0.5-4h) was evaluated as non-compacted systems for sodium diclophenac controlled release...
  14. Wei C, Qin F, Zhou W, Yu H, Xu B, Chen C, et al. Granule structure and distribution of allomorphs in C-type high-amylose rice starch granule modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:11946-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a high-amylose transgenic line of rice (TRS) by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes...
  15. Wei C, Qin F, Zhu L, Zhou W, Chen Y, Wang Y, et al. Microstructure and ultrastructure of high-amylose rice resistant starch granules modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:1224-32 pubmed publisher
    A high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes revealed a resistant starch-rich quality...
  16. Wei W, Guo B, Lin J. Ultra-high concentration of amylose for chiral separations in capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:1484-9 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, a capillary electrophoresis method using high concentration of amylose solutions as separation medium has been developed with the aid of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as co-solvent...
  17. Syahariza Z, Sar S, Hasjim J, Tizzotti M, Gilbert R. The importance of amylose and amylopectin fine structures for starch digestibility in cooked rice grains. Food Chem. 2013;136:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..structural characteristics, including fine structures of the distributions of branch (chain) lengths in both amylose and amylopectin...
  18. Cai X, Yang L, Zhang L, Wu Q. Evaluation of amylose used as a drug delivery carrier. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:922-8 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme-dependent conjugates of indomethacin and amylose (Am-IND) were synthesized at room temperature using N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a coupling agent and 4-(N,N'-dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst...
  19. Jiang H, Lio J, Blanco M, Campbell M, Jane J. Resistant-starch formation in high-amylose maize starch during Kernel development. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8043-7 pubmed publisher
    ..objective of this study was to understand the resistant-starch (RS) formation during kernel development of a high-amylose maize, GEMS-0067 line. The RS content of the starch, determined using AOAC method 991...
  20. Li S, Starckx S, Martens E, Dillen C, Lamerant Fayel N, Berghmans N, et al. Myeloid cells are tunable by a polyanionic polysaccharide derivative and co-determine host rescue from lethal virus infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:1017-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reinforce the role of neutrophils and macrophages as critical cells that can be manipulated toward antiviral defense. ..
  21. Damiran D, Yu P. Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:10553-9 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to compare three new Canadian hull-less barley cultivars with altered starch characteristics (zero-amylose waxy, CDC Fibar; waxy, CDC Rattan; and high-amylose, HB08302) with conventional normal starch hull-less barley (..
  22. Pandey M, Rani N, Madhav M, Sundaram R, Varaprasad G, Sivaranjani A, et al. Different isoforms of starch-synthesizing enzymes controlling amylose and amylopectin content in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:1697-706 pubmed publisher
    Starch, composed of amylose and amylopectin, greatly influences rice cooking and textural quality, which in turn is controlled by various isoforms of several enzymes...
  23. Liu F, Ahmed Z, Lee E, Donner E, Liu Q, Ahmed R, et al. Allelic variants of the amylose extender mutation of maize demonstrate phenotypic variation in starch structure resulting from modified protein-protein interactions. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1167-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Amylose extender (ae(-)) starches characteristically have modified starch granule morphology resulting from amylopectin with reduced branch frequency and longer glucan chains in clusters, caused by the loss of activity of the major ..
  24. Crofts N, Abe K, Aihara S, Itoh R, Nakamura Y, Itoh K, et al. Lack of starch synthase IIIa and high expression of granule-bound starch synthase I synergistically increase the apparent amylose content in rice endosperm. Plant Sci. 2012;193-194:62-9 pubmed publisher
    Rice endosperm starch is composed of 0-30% linear amylose, which is entirely synthesized by granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI: encoded by Waxy, Wx)...
  25. Asare E, Baga M, Rossnagel B, Chibbar R. Polymorphism in the barley granule bound starch synthase 1 (gbss1) gene associated with grain starch variant amylose concentration. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10082-92 pubmed publisher
    ..genotypes producing amylose-free (undetectable), near-waxy (1.6-4.5%), normal (25.8%), and increased (38.0-40.8%) amylose grain starches...
  26. Jun H, Daiwen C, Bing Y. Metabolic and transcriptomic responses of weaned pigs induced by different dietary amylose and amylopectin ratio. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15110 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the nutritional value of starch largely depends on its amylose and amylopectin ratio...
  27. Regmi P, van Kempen T, Matte J, Zijlstra R. Starch with high amylose and low in vitro digestibility increases short-chain fatty acid absorption, reduces peak insulin secretion, and modulates incretin secretion in pigs. J Nutr. 2011;141:398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..0 ± 0.2 kg body weight) consumed 4 diets containing 70% purified starch [0-63.2% amylose content and 0.22 (slowly) to 1...
  28. Kumar K, Woortman A, Loos K. Synthesis of amylose-polystyrene inclusion complexes by a facile preparation route. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:1955-60 pubmed publisher
    The formation of amylose-polystyrene inclusion complexes via a novel two-step approach is described. In the first-step, styrene was inserted inside the amylose helical cavity, followed by free radical polymerization in the second step...
  29. Cohen R, Schwartz B, Peri I, Shimoni E. Improving bioavailability and stability of genistein by complexation with high-amylose corn starch. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7932-8 pubmed publisher
    ..from these complexes was tested in vitro under simulated intestinal conditions and in vivo in rats fed high-amylose corn starch (HACS)-genistein complexes (experimental group) as compared to those fed a physical mixture of HACS ..
  30. Piccard H, Berghmans N, Korpos E, Dillen C, Aelst I, Li S, et al. Glycosaminoglycan mimicry by COAM reduces melanoma growth through chemokine induction and function. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:E425-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, COAM constitutes a novel tool to study the role of innate immune cells in the initial stages of tumor development and an example that innate immunostimulating glycosaminoglycan mimicry may be exploited therapeutically. ..
  31. Schnupf U, Willett J, Momany F. DFT conformation and energies of amylose fragments at atomic resolution. Part 2: 'Band-flip' and 'kink' forms of alpha-maltotetraose. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent experimental X-ray studies have found examples of amylose fragments with conformations distorted from the usual syn forms, and it was of interest to examine these novel ..
  32. De Palma A, Thibaut H, Li S, Van Aelst I, Dillen C, Swinnen M, et al. Inflammatory rather than infectious insults play a role in exocrine tissue damage in a mouse model for coxsackievirus B4-induced pancreatitis. J Pathol. 2009;217:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that immunopathological effects, rather than direct virus-induced destruction, are responsible for the damage to acinar tissue in CVB4-induced pancreatitis. ..
  33. Gelders G, Goesaert H, Delcour J. Potato phosphorylase catalyzed synthesis of amylose-lipid complexes. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:2622-9 pubmed
    On-line size-exclusion chromatography monitoring of potato phosphorylase catalyzed amylose synthesis--starting from alpha-D-glucose-1-P and maltohexaose--revealed rather monodisperse amylose populations...
  34. Désévaux C, Lenaerts V, Girard C, Dubreuil P. Characterization of crosslinked high amylose starch matrix implants. 2. In vivo release of ciprofloxacin. J Control Release. 2002;82:95-103 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to develop a crosslinked high amylose starch (CLHAS) matrix implant as a sustained antimicrobial delivery system for local prevention and/or treatment of osteomyelitis...
  35. Itani T, Tamaki M, Arai E, Horino T. Distribution of amylose, nitrogen, and minerals in rice kernels with various characters. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:5326-32 pubmed
    ..of rice or to give it some special traits by adjusting the milling intensity, we investigated the distribution of amylose, nitrogen (N), and specific minerals (P, K, Mg, Ca, and Mn) in rice kernels of 11 cultivars with various ..
  36. Kim O, Je J, Baldwin J, Kooi S, Pehrsson P, Buckley L. Solubilization of single-wall carbon nanotubes by supramolecular encapsulation of helical amylose. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:4426-7 pubmed
    We have developed a simple, efficient process for solubilization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with amylose in aqueous DMSO...
  37. Ohdan K, Fujii K, Yanase M, Takaha T, Kuriki T. Phosphorylase coupling as a tool to convert cellobiose into amylose. J Biotechnol. 2007;127:496-502 pubmed
    This work aims to establish the enzymatic process to produce amylose from cellobiose...
  38. Chanvrier H, Appelqvist I, Bird A, Gilbert E, Htoon A, Li Z, et al. Processing of novel elevated amylose wheats: functional properties and starch digestibility of extruded products. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:10248-57 pubmed
    Different types of novel wheat lines with different starch contents and amylose/amylopectin ratios, relating to defined alterations in the number and activity of starch synthase IIa genes, were processed by pilot-plant extrusion...
  39. Zeeman S, Smith S, Smith A. The diurnal metabolism of leaf starch. Biochem J. 2007;401:13-28 pubmed
    ..In the present review we provide an overview of starch biosynthesis, starch structure and starch degradation in the leaves of plants. We focus on recent advances in each area and highlight outstanding questions. ..
  40. Shimonaga T, Fujiwara S, Kaneko M, Izumo A, Nihei S, Francisco P, et al. Variation in storage alpha-polyglucans of red algae: amylose and semi-amylopectin types in Porphyridium and glycogen type in Cyanidium. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2007;9:192-202 pubmed
    ..species Porphyridium purpureum R-1 (order Porphyridiales, class Bangiophyceae) produces both amylopectin-type and amylose-type alpha-polyglucans...
  41. Philpot K, Martin M, Butardo V, Willoughby D, Fitzgerald M. Environmental factors that affect the ability of amylose to contribute to retrogradation in gels made from rice flour. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:5182-90 pubmed
    ..Koshihikari grown in Japan retrograded much less than Koshihikari grown in Australia. The amount of amylose that could be washed from gels made from Australian flour was much greater than for gels made from Japanese flour...
  42. Liu Q, Wang Z, Chen X, Cai X, Tang S, Yu H, et al. Stable inheritance of the antisense Waxy gene in transgenic rice with reduced amylose level and improved quality. Transgenic Res. 2003;12:71-82 pubmed
    b>Amylose content in rice endosperm is a key determinant of eating and cooking quality...
  43. Mulhbacher J, McGeeney K, Ispas Szabo P, Lenaerts V, Mateescu M. Modified high amylose starch for immobilization of uricase for therapeutic application. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2002;36:163-70 pubmed
    Urate oxidase (uricase) was immobilized on carboxymethyl high amylose starch cross-linked 35 (CM-HASCL-35), on aminoethyl high amylose starch cross-linked 35, as well as on commercial supports, CNBr-activated Sepharose and ..
  44. Kamasaka H, Sugimoto K, Takata H, Nishimura T, Kuriki T. Bacillus stearothermophilus neopullulanase selective hydrolysis of amylose to maltose in the presence of amylopectin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:1658-64 pubmed
    The specificity of Bacillus stearothermophilus TRS40 neopullulanase toward amylose and amylopectin was analyzed...
  45. Zeeman S, Smith S, Smith A. The priming of amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1069-76 pubmed
    We investigated the mechanism of amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis leaves using (14)C-labeling techniques. First, we tested the hypothesis that short malto-oligosaccharides (MOS) may act as primers for granule-bound starch synthase I...
  46. Loos K, Müller A. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers. Biomacromolecules. 2002;3:368-73 pubmed
    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization...
  47. Aboul Enein H, Ali I. Comparison of the chiral resolution of econazole, miconazole, and sulconazole by HPLC using normal-phase amylose CSPs. Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2001;370:951-5 pubmed
    ..of (+/-)-econazole, (+/-)-miconazole, and (+/-)-sulconazole has been achieved on different normal-phase chiral amylose columns, Chi-ralpak AD, AS, and AR. The mobile phase used was hexane-2-propanol-diethylamine, 400:99:1 (v/v)...
  48. Ghanem A, Naim L. Immobilized versus coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phases for the enantioselective separation of cyclopropane derivatives by liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1101:171-8 pubmed
    The solvent versatility of Chiralpak IA, a new chiral stationary phase (CSP) containing amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarabamate) immobilized onto silica gel, is investigated for the enantioselective separation of a set of cyclopropane ..
  49. Calinescu C, Nadeau E, Mulhbacher J, Fairbrother J, Mateescu M. Carboxymethyl high amylose starch for F4 fimbriae gastro-resistant oral formulation. Int J Pharm. 2007;343:18-25 pubmed
    The carboxymethyl high amylose starch (CM-HAS) was proposed as excipient able to protect F4 fimbriae oral vaccine against gastric acidity and pepsin, allowing its subsequent liberation in the intestinal fluid...
  50. Clarke J, Bird A, Topping D, Cobiac L. Excretion of starch and esterified short-chain fatty acids by ileostomy subjects after the ingestion of acylated starches. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1146-51 pubmed
    ..consumed single doses of custards containing 20 g cooked acetylated, propionylated, or butyrylated high-amylose maize starches (HAMSA, HAMSP, and HAMSB, respectively) on each collection day...
  51. Morita T, Ito Y, Brown I, Ando R, Kiriyama S. In vitro and in vivo digestibility of native maize starch granules varying in amylose contents. J AOAC Int. 2007;90:1628-34 pubmed
    Digestibility of maize starch granules with different amylose content (AL-0, 22, 54, 68, 80, or 90%) was investigated...
  52. Momany F, Willett J. Molecular dynamics calculations on amylose fragments. I. Glass transition temperatures of maltodecaose at 1, 5, 10, and 15.8% hydration. Biopolymers. 2002;63:99-110 pubmed
    ..8, 10, 5, and 1%, respectively, in generally good agreement with experimental values. The T(g) for anhydrous amylose is above the decomposition temperature for carbohydrates and so cannot be easily measured...
  53. Denyer K, Waite D, Motawia S, Møller B, Smith A. Granule-bound starch synthase I in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides processively. Biochem J. 1999;340 ( Pt 1):183-91 pubmed
    Isoforms of starch synthase belonging to the granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) class synthesize the amylose component of starch in plants...