Summary: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Aggarwal V, Kulothungan S, Balamurali M, Saranya S, Varadarajan R, Ainavarapu S. Ligand-modulated parallel mechanical unfolding pathways of maltose-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28056-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a large (a two-domain, 370-amino acid residue) bacterial periplasmic protein involved in ..
  2. Gopal S, Berg D, Hagen N, Schriefer E, Stoll R, Goebel W, et al. Maltose and maltodextrin utilization by Listeria monocytogenes depend on an inducible ABC transporter which is repressed by glucose. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10349 pubmed publisher
    ..In the environment as well as in the vertebrate intestine, Listeriae have access to complex carbohydrates like maltodextrins. Bacterial exploitation of such compounds requires specific uptake and utilization systems...
  3. Bordignon E, Grote M, Schneider E. The maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter in the 21st century--towards a structural dynamic perspective on its mode of action. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:1354-66 pubmed publisher
    The maltose/maltodextrin transport system of Escherichia coli/Salmonella, composed of periplasmic maltose-binding protein, MalE, the pore-forming subunits MalF and MalG, and a homodimer of the nucleotide-binding subunit, MalK, serves as ..
  4. Chae P, Rasmussen S, Rana R, Gotfryd K, Chandra R, Goren M, et al. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins. Nat Methods. 2010;7:1003-8 pubmed publisher
    ..built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family show favorable behavior relative to ..
  5. Auerbach M, Ballard H. Clinical use of intravenous iron: administration, efficacy, and safety. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:338-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential advantages of total dose infusion (TDI), complete repletion in a single setting, are highlighted. A new paradigm for iron replacement therapy in iron deficiency anemia is presented. ..
  6. Khare D, Oldham M, Orelle C, Davidson A, Chen J. Alternating access in maltose transporter mediated by rigid-body rotations. Mol Cell. 2009;33:528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously we reported the structure of the maltose transporter MalFGK(2) in an outward-facing conformation in which the transmembrane (TM) helices outline a ..
  7. Evstatiev R, Marteau P, Iqbal T, Khalif I, Stein J, Bokemeyer B, et al. FERGIcor, a randomized controlled trial on ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:846-853.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The simpler FCM-based dosing regimen showed better efficacy and compliance, as well as a good safety profile, compared with the Ganzoni-calculated IS dose regimen. ..
  8. Park J, Shim J, Tran P, Hong I, Yong H, Oktavina E, et al. Role of maltose enzymes in glycogen synthesis by Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The wild type showed increasing amounts of glycogen when grown on glucose, maltose, or maltodextrin...
  9. Lyon M, Dubois J, Fick G, Lyon A. Estimates of total analytical error in consumer and hospital glucose meters contributed by hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010;4:1479-94 pubmed
    ..analytical error in two consumer and two hospital glucose meters contributed by variations in hematocrit, maltose, ascorbate, and imprecision...

More Information


  1. Li Z, Zuo D, Qie X, Qi H, Zhao M, Wu Y. Berberine acutely inhibits the digestion of maltose in the intestine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;142:474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..monolayer test, the changes of glucose concentration on the apical and basolateral sides were measured when the maltose solution containing berberine was added to the apical side. 4...
  2. Jiao Y, Moon S, Wang X, Ren Q, Montell C. Gr64f is required in combination with other gustatory receptors for sugar detection in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1797-801 pubmed publisher
    ..of Gr5a prevents the detection of trehalose [1-3], whereas mutation of Gr64a impairs the responses to sucrose, maltose, and glucose [4, 5]...
  3. Bailie G. Efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose in correcting iron-deficiency anemia: a review of randomized controlled trials across different indications. Arzneimittelforschung. 2010;60:386-98 pubmed publisher
    ..No safety concerns have been identified in breastfed infants of mothers receiving FCM. FCM is, therefore, an effective and well-tolerated option in the treatment of IDA. ..
  4. Chai Y, Rahman R, Illias R, Goh K. Cloning and characterization of two new thermostable and alkalitolerant ?-amylases from the Anoxybacillus species that produce high levels of maltose. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;39:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Both enzymes exhibited similar end-product profiles, and the predominant yield was maltose (69%) from starch hydrolysis...
  5. Seid M, Derman R, Baker J, Banach W, Goldberg C, Rogers R. Ferric carboxymaltose injection in the treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:435.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose was safe and well tolerated with an efficacy superior to oral ferrous sulfate in the treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia. ..
  6. Jacso T, Schneider E, Rupp B, Reif B. Substrate transport activation is mediated through second periplasmic loop of transmembrane protein MalF in maltose transport complex of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17040-9 pubmed publisher
    In a recent study we described the second periplasmic loop P2 of the transmembrane protein MalF (MalF-P2) of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK(2)-E) as an important element in the recognition of substrate by the ..
  7. Bager P, Dahlerup J. The health care cost of intravenous iron treatment in IBD patients depends on the economic evaluation perspective. J Crohns Colitis. 2010;4:427-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the Budget Impact Analysis showed that intravenous iron sucrose was the cheapest choice if only direct cost was included in the analysis. ..
  8. Nihira T, Saito Y, Kitaoka M, Otsubo K, Nakai H. Identification of Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10 maltose phosphorylase possessing synthetic ability for branched ?-D-glucosyl trisaccharides. Carbohydr Res. 2012;360:25-30 pubmed publisher
    We discovered an inverting maltose phosphorylase (Bsel2056) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 65 from Bacillus selenitireducens MLS10, which possesses synthetic ability for ?-D-glucosyl disaccharides and trisaccharides through the ..
  9. Fent G, Casteel S, Kim D, Kannan R, Katti K, Chanda N, et al. Biodistribution of maltose and gum arabic hybrid gold nanoparticles after intravenous injection in juvenile swine. Nanomedicine. 2009;5:128-35 pubmed
    ..Samples were also collected for pathological examination. Gum arabic- (GA) and maltose- (MALT) stabilized AuNPs were administered intravenously to juvenile swine, and blood, tissue, and urine samples ..
  10. Van Wyck D, Mangione A, Morrison J, Hadley P, Jehle J, Goodnough L. Large-dose intravenous ferric carboxymaltose injection for iron deficiency anemia in heavy uterine bleeding: a randomized, controlled trial. Transfusion. 2009;49:2719-28 pubmed publisher
  11. Lyseng Williamson K, Keating G. Ferric carboxymaltose: a review of its use in iron-deficiency anaemia. Drugs. 2009;69:739-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis, a lower proportion of ferric carboxymaltose than iron sucrose recipients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event. ..
  12. Bailie G, Mason N, Valaoras T. Safety and tolerability of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Hemodial Int. 2010;14:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of FCM (15 mg/kg, maximum of 1000 mg) over 15 minutes was well tolerated and associated with minimal risk of adverse reactions in patients with iron deficiency anemia. ..
  13. Ampomah O, Avetisyan A, Hansen E, Svenson J, Huser T, Jensen J, et al. The thuEFGKAB operon of rhizobia and agrobacterium tumefaciens codes for transport of trehalose, maltitol, and isomers of sucrose and their assimilation through the formation of their 3-keto derivatives. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:3797-807 pubmed publisher
    ..tumefaciens is also indicated. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the genes that code for the conversion of disaccharides to their 3-ketodisaccharide derivatives in any organism. ..
  14. Böhm S, Licht A, Wuttge S, Schneider E, Bordignon E. Conformational plasticity of the type I maltose ABC importer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Crystal structures of the Escherichia coli maltose importer (MalFGK2) in complex with its substrate binding protein (MalE) provided unprecedented insights in the ..
  15. Mokhtari A, Blancato V, Repizo G, Henry C, Pikis A, Bourand A, et al. Enterococcus faecalis utilizes maltose by connecting two incompatible metabolic routes via a novel maltose 6'-phosphate phosphatase (MapP). Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:234-53 pubmed publisher
    Similar to Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis transports and phosphorylates maltose via a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):maltose phosphotransferase system (PTS). The maltose-specific PTS permease is encoded by the malT gene. However, E...
  16. Hasegawa S, Takizawa M, Suyama H, Shintani T, Gomi K. Characterization and expression analysis of a maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster in Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Starch and maltooligosaccharides such as maltose and maltotriose induce the production of amylolytic enzymes including alpha-amylase in Aspergillus oryzae...
  17. Jacso T, Grote M, Daus M, Schmieder P, Keller S, Schneider E, et al. Periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter is sufficient to bind the maltose binding protein MalE. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2216-25 pubmed publisher
    The Escherichia coli maltose transporter belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily...
  18. Ma X, Li L, Yang L, Su C, Wang K, Yuan S, et al. Adsorption of heavy metal ions using hierarchical CaCO3-maltose meso/macroporous hybrid materials: adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies. J Hazard Mater. 2012;209-210:467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The work describes hierarchical CaCO(3)-maltose meso/macroporous hybrid materials were synthesized using a simple gas-diffusion method...
  19. Gould A, Telmer P, Shilton B. Stimulation of the maltose transporter ATPase by unliganded maltose binding protein. Biochemistry. 2009;48:8051-61 pubmed publisher
    ATP hydrolysis by the maltose transporter (MalFGK(2)) is regulated by maltose binding protein (MBP)...
  20. Vongsangnak W, Salazar M, Hansen K, Nielsen J. Genome-wide analysis of maltose utilization and regulation in aspergilli. Microbiology. 2009;155:3893-902 pubmed publisher
    b>Maltose utilization and regulation in aspergilli is of great importance for cellular physiology and industrial fermentation processes...
  21. Adase C, Draheim R, Manson M. The residue composition of the aromatic anchor of the second transmembrane helix determines the signaling properties of the aspartate/maltose chemoreceptor Tar of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2012;51:1925-32 pubmed publisher the cytoplasmic end of the second transmembrane helix (TM2) modulates the signal output of the aspartate/maltose chemoreceptor of Escherichia coli (Tar(Ec))...
  22. Miah F, Koliwer Brandl H, Rejzek M, Field R, Kalscheuer R, Bornemann S. Flux through trehalose synthase flows from trehalose to the alpha anomer of maltose in mycobacteria. Chem Biol. 2013;20:487-93 pubmed publisher
    Trehalose synthase (TreS) was thought to catalyze flux from maltose to trehalose, a precursor of essential trehalose mycolates in mycobacterial cell walls...
  23. Eskandari R, Jones K, Reddy K, Jayakanthan K, Chaudet M, Rose D, et al. Probing the intestinal ?-glucosidase enzyme specificities of starch-digesting maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase: synthesis and inhibitory properties of 3'- and 5'-maltose-extended de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol. Chemistry. 2011;17:14817-25 pubmed publisher
    The synthesis and glucosidase inhibitory activities of two C-3'- and C-5'-?-maltose-extended analogues of the naturally occurring sulfonium-ion inhibitor, de-O-sulfonated ponkoranol, are described...
  24. Anker S, Colet J, Filippatos G, Willenheimer R, Dickstein K, Drexler H, et al. Rationale and design of Ferinject assessment in patients with IRon deficiency and chronic Heart Failure (FAIR-HF) study: a randomized, placebo-controlled study of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with and without anaemia. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11:1084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of iron repletion with ferric carboxymaltose in CHF patients with ID with and without anaemia. ..
  25. Oldham M, Chen J. Snapshots of the maltose transporter during ATP hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, four crystal structures of the full-length wild-type maltose transporter, stabilized by adenosine 5'-(?,?-imido)triphosphate or ADP in conjunction with phosphate analogs BeF(..
  26. Iijima I, Hohsaka T. Position-specific incorporation of fluorescent non-natural amino acids into maltose-binding protein for detection of ligand binding by FRET and fluorescence quenching. Chembiochem. 2009;10:999-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this technique, we introduced one or two BODIPY-linked amino acids into maltose-binding protein (MBP) to obtain MBP derivatives showing ligand-dependent changes in fluorescence intensity or ..
  27. Grimmelt A, Cohen C, Fehr T, Serra A, Wuethrich R. Safety and tolerability of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) for treatment of iron deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease and in kidney transplant recipients. Clin Nephrol. 2009;71:125-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that safety and tolerability of FCM were excellent. Compared with other intravenous iron preparations the considerably shorter administration time of FCM allows to save time and to reduce costs. ..
  28. Vidgren V, Huuskonen A, Virtanen H, Ruohonen L, Londesborough J. Improved fermentation performance of a lager yeast after repair of its AGT1 maltose and maltotriose transporter genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2333-45 pubmed publisher
    ..strains of brewer's yeasts ferment VHG worts slowly and incompletely, leaving undesirably large amounts of maltose and especially maltotriose in the final beers...
  29. Yamamoto K, Miyake H, Kusunoki M, Osaki S. Crystal structures of isomaltase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in complex with its competitive inhibitor maltose. FEBS J. 2010;277:4205-14 pubmed publisher
    The structures of isomaltase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in complex with maltose were determined at resolutions of 1.30 and 1.60 Å, respectively. Isomaltase contains three domains, namely, A, B, and C...
  30. Anker S, Comin Colet J, Filippatos G, Willenheimer R, Dickstein K, Drexler H, et al. Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2436-48 pubmed publisher number, NCT00520780). ..
  31. Mascarenhas N, Kastner J. How maltose influences structural changes to bind to maltose-binding protein: results from umbrella sampling simulation. Proteins. 2013;81:185-98 pubmed publisher
    A well-studied periplasmic-binding protein involved in the abstraction of maltose is maltose-binding protein (MBP), which undergoes a ligand-induced conformational transition from an open (ligand-free) to a closed (ligand-bound) state...
  32. Park H, Kim S, Park K, Lyu H, Lee C, Chung S, et al. An ISFET biosensor for the monitoring of maltose-induced conformational changes in MBP. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..transistor (ISFET) biosensor, which was designed to monitor directly the surface charge of structurally altered maltose binding protein (MBP) upon stimulation with maltose...
  33. Choi K, Hwang S, Cha J. Identification and characterization of MalA in the maltose/maltodextrin operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:1789-99 pubmed publisher
    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK)...
  34. Peng Y, Kumar S, Hernandez R, Jones S, Cadle K, Smith K, et al. Evidence for the transport of maltose by the sucrose permease, CscB, of Escherichia coli. J Membr Biol. 2009;228:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that maltose transport is conferred by the wild-type CscB transporter. Cells of E...
  35. Li M, Chen Z, Zhang X, Song Y, Wen Y, Li J. Enhancement of avermectin and ivermectin production by overexpression of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter in Streptomyces avermitilis. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:9228-35 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the function of maltose ABC transporter system encoded by malEFG-a and the effect of its overexpression on antibiotic production in Streptomyces avermitilis...
  36. Soldatkin O, Peshkova V, Saiapina O, Kucherenko I, Dudchenko O, Melnyk V, et al. Development of conductometric biosensor array for simultaneous determination of maltose, lactose, sucrose and glucose. Talanta. 2013;115:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Several enzyme systems selective to lactose, maltose, sucrose and glucose were immobilised on the surface of four conductometric transducers and served as bio-..
  37. de Oliveira J, van Passel M, Schaap P, De Graaff L. Proteomic analysis of the secretory response of Aspergillus niger to D-maltose and D-xylose. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20865 pubmed publisher
    ..During growth of A. niger on D-sorbitol, small amounts of D-maltose or D-xylose were used as inducers of the extracellular amylolytic and xylanolytic enzymes...
  38. Syson K, Stevenson C, Rejzek M, Fairhurst S, Nair A, Bruton C, et al. Structure of Streptomyces maltosyltransferase GlgE, a homologue of a genetically validated anti-tuberculosis target. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38298-310 pubmed publisher
    ..B and two inserts that are specifically configured to define a well conserved donor pocket capable of binding maltose. Domain A, together with domain N from the neighboring subunit, forms a hydrophobic patch that is close to the ..
  39. Zhang Y, Gao X, Michael Garavito R. Structural analysis of the intracellular domain of (pro)renin receptor fused to maltose-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;407:674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..structural and multifunctional roles of the PRR-IC, we report the crystal structure of the PRR-IC domain as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins at 2.0Å (maltose-free) and 2.15Å (maltose-bound)...
  40. Muñoz M, Gómez Ramírez S, García Erce J. Intravenous iron in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:4666-74 pubmed
  41. Chen J. Molecular mechanism of the Escherichia coli maltose transporter. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2013;23:492-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review uses the maltose transporter of Escherichia coli as a model system to understand the molecular mechanism of ABC importers...
  42. Tantanarat K, Rejzek M, O Neill E, Ruzanski C, Hill L, Fairhurst S, et al. An expedient enzymatic route to isomeric 2-, 3- and 6-monodeoxy-monofluoro-maltose derivatives. Carbohydr Res. 2012;358:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose and 6-deoxy-6-fluoro-D-glucose were converted into the corresponding maltose derivatives using Arabidopsis thaliana DPE2-mediated trans-glycosylation reaction with glycogen acting as a ..
  43. Orelle C, Ayvaz T, Everly R, Klug C, Davidson A. Both maltose-binding protein and ATP are required for nucleotide-binding domain closure in the intact maltose ABC transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12837-42 pubmed publisher
    The maltose transporter MalFGK(2) of Escherichia coli is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. A periplasmic maltose-binding protein (MBP) delivers maltose to MalFGK(2) and stimulates its ATPase activity...
  44. de Kok S, Yilmaz D, Suir E, Pronk J, Daran J, van Maris A. Increasing free-energy (ATP) conservation in maltose-grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of a heterologous maltose phosphorylase. Metab Eng. 2011;13:518-26 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this concept, we first deleted the native maltose metabolism genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  45. Lu X, Sun J, Nimtz M, Wissing J, Zeng A, Rinas U. The intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate. Microb Cell Fact. 2010;9:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Xylose is known to strongly repress glaA expression while maltose is a potent inducer of glaA promoter controlled genes. For a more profound understanding of A...
  46. Elbein A, Pastuszak I, Tackett A, Wilson T, Pan Y. Last step in the conversion of trehalose to glycogen: a mycobacterial enzyme that transfers maltose from maltose 1-phosphate to glycogen. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9803-12 pubmed publisher
    We show that Mycobacterium smegmatis has an enzyme catalyzing transfer of maltose from [(14)C]maltose 1-phosphate to glycogen. This enzyme was purified 90-fold from crude extracts and characterized...
  47. Smuda M, Glomb M. Novel insights into the maillard catalyzed degradation of maltose. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:13254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the formation of these reactive intermediates during degradation of maltose in the presence of lysine, ?-dicarbonyl compounds were isolated, identified and quantified after reaction with o-..
  48. Charytan C, Bernardo M, Koch T, Butcher A, Morris D, Bregman D. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus standard medical care in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized, active-controlled, multi-center study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013;28:953-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of FCM compared with standard medical care (SMC) in dialysis (HD) and non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
  49. Covic A, Mircescu G. The safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in anaemic patients undergoing haemodialysis: a multi-centre, open-label, clinical study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:2722-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of AEs was as expected for this population. ..
  50. Montgomery H, Tanaka K, Belgacem O. Glycation pattern of peptides condensed with maltose, lactose and glucose determined by ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:841-8 pubmed publisher
    ..for screening large tandem mass spectrometric (MSMS) datasets for protein glycation with glucose, lactose and maltose. Control experiments using a standard peptide containing a single glycation site led to the discovery of ..
  51. Gould A, Shilton B. Studies of the maltose transport system reveal a mechanism for coupling ATP hydrolysis to substrate translocation without direct recognition of substrate. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11290-6 pubmed publisher
    The ATPase activity of the maltose transporter (MalFGK(2)) is dependent on interactions with the maltose-binding protein (MBP)...
  52. Krause F, Henrich A, Blombach B, Kramer R, Eikmanns B, Seibold G. Increased glucose utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by use of maltose, and its application for the improvement of L-valine productivity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:370-4 pubmed publisher
    Corynebacterium glutamicum efficiently utilizes maltose as a substrate...
  53. Sharma A, Satyanarayana T. Optimization of medium components and cultural variables for enhanced production of acidic high maltose-forming and Ca2+-independent ?-amylase by Bacillus acidicola. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:550-3 pubmed publisher
    ..9×10(8) CFU ml(-1)], and temperature (33°C). An overall 2.4 and 2.9-fold increase in enzyme production has been attained in batch and fed-batch fermentations in the laboratory fermentor, respectively. ..