Summary: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.

Top Publications

  1. Lina B, Jonker D, Kozianowski G. Isomaltulose (Palatinose): a review of biological and toxicological studies. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1375-81 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the data reviewed it is concluded that the use of isomaltulose as an alternative sugar is as safe as the use of other digestible sugars consisting of glucose and fructose. ..
  2. Jonker D, Lina B, Kozianowski G. 13-Week oral toxicity study with isomaltulose (Palatinose) in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1383-9 pubmed
    ..The overall intake at this level corresponded to 7.0 and 8.1 g/kg body weight/day in male and female rats, respectively. ..
  3. Lee H, Kim J, Kim S, Lee J. Isomaltose production by modification of the fructose-binding site on the basis of the predicted structure of sucrose isomerase from "Protaminobacter rubrum". Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:5183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..altered the binding affinity of the site, where glucose could now bind and be utilized as a second substrate for isomaltose production...
  4. Makita T, Katsuyama Y, Tani S, Suzuki H, Kato N, Todd R, et al. Inducer-dependent nuclear localization of a Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) transcriptional activator, AmyR, in Aspergillus nidulans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:391-9 pubmed
    ..nidulans revealed that the fusion protein preferentially localized to the nucleus in response to isomaltose, the physiological inducer of the amylolytic genes...
  5. Arai H, Mizuno A, Matsuo K, Fukaya M, Sasaki H, Arima H, et al. Effect of a novel palatinose-based liquid balanced formula (MHN-01) on glucose and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats after short- and long-term ingestion. Metabolism. 2004;53:977-83 pubmed
    ..Therefore, human study on the effects of MHN-01 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism will be recommended to confirm whether MHN-01 may be a useful functional food for the treatment and prevention of insulin resistance. ..
  6. Javaroni F, Ferreira A, da Silva C. The (alpha-1,6) glycosidic bond of isomaltose: a tricky system for theoretical conformational studies. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1235-47 pubmed publisher
    Stable conformations of beta-isomaltose (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucose) in gas-phase and aqueous solution are investigated in this study using quantum mechanical calculations...
  7. Kato N, Murakoshi Y, Kato M, Kobayashi T, Tsukagoshi N. Isomaltose formed by alpha-glucosidases triggers amylase induction in Aspergillus nidulans. Curr Genet. 2002;42:43-50 pubmed
    Among various alpha-glucobioses examined, isomaltose was the most effective inducer for amylase synthesis in Aspergillus nidulans...
  8. Nakamura T, Maeda Y, Tanoue N, Makita T, Kato M, Kobayashi T. Expression profile of amylolytic genes in Aspergillus nidulans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2363-70 pubmed
    ..Among them, the agdA, agdB, agdE, agdF, amyA, amyB, amyF, and glaB genes were induced by isomaltose. AmyR, a Zn(II)(2)Cys(6) transcription factor, was required for the induction...
  9. Arai H, Mizuno A, Sakuma M, Fukaya M, Matsuo K, Muto K, et al. Effects of a palatinose-based liquid diet (Inslow) on glycemic control and the second-meal effect in healthy men. Metabolism. 2007;56:115-21 pubmed
    ..05). In conclusion, consumption of Inslow at breakfast appears to improve patient glycemic control by reducing their postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels after lunch (second-meal effect). ..

More Information


  1. Holub I, Gostner A, Theis S, Nosek L, Kudlich T, Melcher R, et al. Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose). Br J Nutr. 2010;103:1730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Regular iso consumption is well tolerated also in subjects with increased risk for vascular diseases. ..
  2. Kato N, Suyama S, Shirokane M, Kato M, Kobayashi T, Tsukagoshi N. Novel alpha-glucosidase from Aspergillus nidulans with strong transglycosylation activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:1250-6 pubmed
    ..protein comprising 74- and 55-kDa subunits and catalyzed hydrolysis of maltose along with formation of isomaltose and panose...
  3. Jorge C, Fonseca L, Boos W, Santos H. Role of periplasmic trehalase in uptake of trehalose by the thermophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1871-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Trehalose uptake was constitutive, but the activity decreased 60% in response to osmotic stress. The nature of the trehalose transporter and the physiological relevance of these findings are discussed...
  4. Kashimura J, Nagai Y. Inhibitory effect of palatinose on glucose absorption in everted rat gut. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007;53:87-9 pubmed
    ..It was significantly reduced when 5 mM palatinose was added as compared with no palatinose addition (p<0.05). These results suggest that palatinose suppresses glucose absorption. ..
  5. Contesini F, Ibarguren C, Grosso C, Carvalho P, Sato H. Immobilization of glucosyltransferase from Erwinia sp. using two different techniques. J Biotechnol. 2012;158:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However the conversion decreased to 5% at the 10th batch, indicating inactivation of the enzyme...
  6. Thitaram S, Chung C, Day D, Hinton A, Bailey J, Siragusa G. Isomaltooligosaccharide increases cecal Bifidobacterium population in young broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2005;84:998-1003 pubmed
  7. Wu L, Birch R. Isomaltulose is actively metabolized in plant cells. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:2094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In plant biotechnology, different V(max) and V(max)/K(m) ratios for Suc isomers may yet be exploited, in combination with appropriate developmental expression and compartmentation, for enhanced sugar yields. ..
  8. Wu K, Huang S, Ding S, Zhang Y, Chen G, Liang Z. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant ?-glucosidase in Pichia pastoris. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2010;55:582-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The main component of the enzyme products was panose, while amounts of isomaltose and isomaltotriose were very low or absent. pH 5.2 and temperature of 37 °C were optimum for enzyme activity.
  9. Achten J, Jentjens R, Brouns F, Jeukendrup A. Exogenous oxidation of isomaltulose is lower than that of sucrose during exercise in men. J Nutr. 2007;137:1143-8 pubmed
    ..A lower CHO delivery and a small difference in plasma insulin may have resulted in higher endogenous CHO use and higher fat oxidation during the ISO trial than during the SUC trial. ..
  10. Lipski A, Watzlawick H, Ravaud S, Robert X, Rhimi M, Haser R, et al. Mutations inducing an active-site aperture in Rhizobium sp. sucrose isomerase confer hydrolytic activity. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Substantial conformational changes resulting in an active-site opening were observed, as were changes in the pattern of water molecules bordering the active-site region...
  11. Li X, Zhang D, Chen F, Ma J, Dong Y, Zhang L. Klebsiella singaporensis sp. nov., a novel isomaltulose-producing bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:2131-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is proposed that strain LX3(T) (=DSM 16265(T)=JCM 12419(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of genus Klebsiella, Klebsiella singaporensis sp. nov. ..
  12. van Can J, van Loon L, Brouns F, Blaak E. Reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic responses following trehalose and isomaltulose ingestion: implications for postprandial substrate use in impaired glucose-tolerant subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1210-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that exchange of SUC in the diet for IMU may result in a more favourable metabolic response and may help to reduce the risks associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  13. Ravaud S, Robert X, Watzlawick H, Haser R, Mattes R, Aghajari N. Structural determinants of product specificity of sucrose isomerases. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1964-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide a rationale for the specific design of optimized enzymes. ..
  14. Cho M, Park S, Lim J, Kim J, Kim J, Kwon D, et al. Conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose by Enterobacter sp. FMB1, an isomaltulose-producing microorganism isolated from traditional Korean food. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:453-8 pubmed
    ..Small amounts of trehalulose, glucose, and fructose were produced as byproducts, implying that this strain could be possibly employed in the production of isomaltulose in industry...
  15. Taib M, Shariff Z, Wesnes K, Saad H, Sariman S. The effect of high lactose-isomaltulose on cognitive performance of young children. A double blind cross-over design study. Appetite. 2012;58:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the small sample size, the findings are intriguing as carbohydrate composition seems to influence some aspects of cognitive performance such as attention and memory. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. ..
  16. Saito T, Tsuji T, Kitazawa H, Kawai Y, Itoh T. Application of two-dimensional mapping for an analysis of galactosyllactoses in yogurt. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62:1445-7 pubmed
    ..This two-dimensional mapping method was found useful for a rapid qualitative evaluation of the chemical structure of trisaccharides formed in yogurt. ..
  17. Akita M, Mizuno M, Tonozuka T, Sakano Y, Matsui H, Hidaka Y, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of isomaltodextranase from Arthrobacter globiformis. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:572-3 pubmed
    ..2.1.94) from an Arthrobacter sp. that hydrolyzes dextrans to generate isomaltose was purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K...
  18. Takeda E, Arai H, Yamamoto H, Okumura H, Taketani Y. Control of oxidative stress and metabolic homeostasis by the suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia. J Med Invest. 2005;52 Suppl:259-65 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that functional food which suppresses postprandial glucose level is beneficial for both stress and metabolic controls. ..
  19. Wu L, Birch R. Characterization of the highly efficient sucrose isomerase from Pantoea dispersa UQ68J and cloning of the sucrose isomerase gene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:1581-90 pubmed
    ..They may favor the production of isomaltulose as an inhibitor of competing microbes in high-sucrose environments, and they are likely to be highly beneficial for industrial production of isomaltulose...
  20. Yoshioka S, Aso Y, Kojima S. Temperature- and glass transition temperature-dependence of bimolecular reaction rates in lyophilized formulations described by the Adam-Gibbs-Vogel equation. J Pharm Sci. 2004;93:1062-9 pubmed
  21. Hajirezaei M, Börnke F, Peisker M, Takahata Y, Lerchl J, Kirakosyan A, et al. Decreased sucrose content triggers starch breakdown and respiration in stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum). J Exp Bot. 2003;54:477-88 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is concluded that sucrose depletion rather than increased hexose metabolism triggers reserve mobilization and respiration in stored potato tubers. ..
  22. Sánchez Fernández E, Rísquez Cuadro R, Ortiz Mellet C, Garcia Fernandez J, Nieto P, Angulo J. sp2-Iminosugar O-, S-, and N-glycosides as conformational mimics of ?-linked disaccharides; implications for glycosidase inhibition. Chemistry. 2012;18:8527-39 pubmed publisher
    The synthesis of mimics of the ?(1?6)- and ?(1?4)-linked disaccharides isomaltose and maltose featuring a bicyclic sp(2)-iminosugar nonreducing moiety O-, S-, or N-linked to a glucopyranoside residue is reported...
  23. Campa C, Vetere A, Gamini A, Donati I, Paoletti S. Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of oligosaccharides structurally related to the repeating unit of Pullulan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:382-9 pubmed
    ..were obtained in one-pot reaction using as a donor the alpha-cyclodextrin and as an acceptor the disaccharide isomaltose. The regioselectivity of the reaction was 85% for the tetrasaccharide and 80% for the trisaccharide...
  24. Sinha A, Hofmann M, Römer U, Kockenberger W, Elling L, Roitsch T. Metabolizable and non-metabolizable sugars activate different signal transduction pathways in tomato. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1480-9 pubmed
  25. Tinti J, Nofre C. Responses of the ant Lasius niger to various compounds perceived as sweet in humans: a structure-activity relationship study. Chem Senses. 2001;26:231-7 pubmed
    ..and 6-chloro- and 6-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose), five disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, palatinose, turanose and isomaltose), one polyol glycoside (maltitol), three trisaccharides (melezitose, raffinose and maltotriose) and two polyols (..
  26. Ang M, Muller A, Wagenlehner F, Pilatz A, Linn T. Combining protein and carbohydrate increases postprandial insulin levels but does not improve glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism. 2012;61:1696-702 pubmed publisher
    ..A fast-absorbing protein mixture reduces insulin action to a greater extent than a slow-absorbing protein, and therefore may not be recommended for glycemic control in T2D patients. ..
  27. Murakoshi Y, Makita T, Kato M, Kobayashi T. Comparison and characterization of ?-amylase inducers in Aspergillus nidulans based on nuclear localization of AmyR. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:1629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..of amylolytic genes in Aspergillus nidulans, localizes to the nucleus in response to the physiological inducer isomaltose. Maltose, kojibiose, and D: -glucose were also found to trigger the nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR...
  28. Sánchez Fernández E, Rísquez Cuadro R, Aguilar Moncayo M, García Moreno M, Ortiz Mellet C, Garcia Fernandez J. Generalized anomeric effect in gem-diamines: stereoselective synthesis of alpha-N-linked disaccharide mimics. Org Lett. 2009;11:3306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..which has been exploited for the stereoselective synthesis of configurationally stable alpha-N-linked azadisaccharide heteroanalogues of the natural disaccharides maltose and isomaltose as aglycon-sensitive inhibitors of isomaltase.
  29. Vetere A, Gamini A, Campa C, Paoletti S. Regiospecific transglycolytic synthesis and structural characterization of 6-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranose (isomaltose). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;274:99-104 pubmed
    The enzymatic synthesis of 6-O-alpha-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranose (isomaltose) was achieved...
  30. Erhardt F, Kügler J, Chakravarthula R, Jördening H. Co-immobilization of dextransucrase and dextranase for the facilitated synthesis of isomalto-oligosaccharides: Preparation, characterization and modeling. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;100:673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, at low glucose:sucrose ratios isomaltose synthesis is featured primarily by DN action...
  31. Quezada Calvillo R, Robayo Torres C, Opekun A, Sen P, Ao Z, Hamaker B, et al. Contribution of mucosal maltase-glucoamylase activities to mouse small intestinal starch alpha-glucogenesis. J Nutr. 2007;137:1725-33 pubmed
    ..Acarbose inhibition was most potent against maltase-glucoamylase activities of the wild-type mouse. The consortium of 6 interactive enzymes appears to be a mechanism for adaptation of alpha-glucogenesis to a wide range of food starches. ..
  32. Oizumi T, Daimon M, Jimbu Y, Kameda W, Arawaka N, Yamaguchi H, et al. A palatinose-based balanced formula improves glucose tolerance, serum free fatty acid levels and body fat composition. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007;212:91-9 pubmed
    ..5 vs 11.2 +/- 30.2% change, p = 0.024). PBF also had the beneficial effects on serum free fatty acids levels and visceral fat area. In conclusion, PBF consumption has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome-related parameters in humans. ..
  33. Rufian Henares J, Delgado Andrade C, Morales F. Application of a fast high-performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of furanic compounds and glucosylisomaltol in breakfast cereals. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:161-5 pubmed
    ..4, and 99.4%, respectively. The coefficients of variation were 3.67, 2.42, and 1.59% for HMF, furfural, and GIM, respectively. The detection limit was 0.01 mg/kg, and the quantitation limit was 0.05 mg/kg for the 3 studied compounds. ..
  34. Börnke F, Hajirezaei M, Sonnewald U. Cloning and characterization of the gene cluster for palatinose metabolism from the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia rhapontici. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2425-30 pubmed
    ..Palatinose activation is inhibited by sucrose. Functional expression of palI and palQ in Escherichia coli revealed sucrose isomerase and palatinase activity, respectively. ..
  35. Nielsen B, Lehmbeck J, Frandsen T. Cloning, heterologous expression, and enzymatic characterization of a thermostable glucoamylase from Talaromyces emersonii. Protein Expr Purif. 2002;26:1-8 pubmed
    ..niger. The expressed enzyme shows high specific activity towards maltose, isomaltose, and maltoheptaose, having 3-6-fold elevated k(cat) compared to A. niger glucoamylase. T...
  36. van der Heijden A, Lee T, van Rantwijk F, van Bekkum H. Glycosidation of fructose-containing disaccharides using MCM-41 material as the catalyst. Carbohydr Res. 2002;337:1993-8 pubmed
    ..Leucrose was found to be less reactive than the two other disaccharides, in accordance with the absence of furanose forms in leucrose. ..
  37. Fujimoto Z, Kishine N, Suzuki N, Suzuki R, Mizushima D, Momma M, et al. Isomaltooligosaccharide-binding structure of Paenibacillus sp. 598K cycloisomaltooligosaccharide glucanotransferase. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..The structure indicated that the concave surface between the catalytic domain and PsCBM35-1 plays a guiding route for the long-chained substrate at the cyclization reaction. ..
  38. Tonouchi H, Yamaji T, Uchida M, Koganei M, Sasayama A, Kaneko T, et al. Studies on absorption and metabolism of palatinose (isomaltulose) in rats. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:10-4 pubmed publisher
    ..H2 was hardly detected with both palatinose and sucrose and no significant difference was observed between the two groups. These results suggest that palatinose is utilised in vivo at a rate equal to that of sucrose. ..
  39. Seki T, Hamada A, Egawa Y, Yamaki T, Uchida M, Natsume H, et al. Evaluation of the effects of absorption enhancers on Caco-2 cell monolayers by using a pore permeation model involving two different sizes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36:1862-6 pubmed
    ..The simulation curves for molecular weight (MW)-P calculated from the membrane parameters could be used to predict the P of drugs with different MWs. ..
  40. Lee G, Jung J, Seo D, Hansin J, Ha S, Cha J, et al. Isomaltulose production via yeast surface display of sucrose isomerase from Enterobacter sp. FMB-1 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:9179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..4-7.4% conversion yield. It suggested that the bioconversion of sucrose to isomaltulose can be successfully performed by the dESI on the surface of host S. cerevisiae. ..
  41. Hu Y, Ketabi A, Buchko A, Gänzle M. Metabolism of isomalto-oligosaccharides by Lactobacillus reuteri and bifidobacteria. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013;57:108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Lactobacilli metabolized isomaltose preferentially over oligosaccharides with higher DP...
  42. Konishi M, Nishi S, Takami H, Shimane Y, Nagano Y, Mori K, et al. Unique substrate specificity of a thermostable glycosyl hydrolase from an uncultured Anaerolinea, derived from bacterial mat on a subsurface geothermal water stream. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1887-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It was optimally active at 65 °C and from pH 4 to 8. rGH showed hydrolytic activity for ?-1,1, ?-1,2 and ?-1,6 linkages, including isomaltose, but not ?-1,4 and ?-linkages.
  43. Dube J, Allison K, Rousson V, Goodpaster B, Amati F. Exercise dose and insulin sensitivity: relevance for diabetes prevention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:793-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The implication of this observation is of importance for the adaptation of exercise prescription in clinical situations. ..
  44. Gozu Y, Ishizaki Y, Hosoyama Y, Miyazaki T, Nishikawa A, Tonozuka T. A glycoside hydrolase family 31 dextranase with high transglucosylation activity from Flavobacterium johnsoniae. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016;80:1562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..When isomaltose was used as a substrate, the enzyme catalyzed disproportionation to form isomaltooligosaccharides...
  45. Peltroche Llacsahuanga H, Hauk C, Kock R, Lampert F, Lütticken R, Haase G. Assessment of acid production by various human oral micro-organisms when palatinose or leucrose is utilized. J Dent Res. 2001;80:378-84 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the anticariogenic potential of sucrose substitutes in food might be limited. ..
  46. Sugimoto M, Furui S, Sasaki K, Suzuki Y. Transglucosylation activities of multiple forms of alpha-glucosidase from spinach. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:1160-3 pubmed
    ..I, which has high activity toward not only maltooligosaccharides but also soluble starch and can hydrolyze isomaltose, produced maltotriose, isomaltose, and panose, and alpha-glucosidase IV, which has high activity toward ..
  47. Kang H, Oh J, Kim D. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the glucansucrase DSRWC from Weissella cibaria synthesizing a alpha(1-->6) glucan. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;292:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressed recombinant DSRWC (rDSRWC) synthesized oligosaccharides in the presence of maltose or isomaltose as an acceptor and the synthesized products included alpha-1,6-linked glucosyl residues in addition to the ..
  48. Mundra P, Desai K, Lele S. Application of response surface methodology to cell immobilization for the production of palatinose. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:2892-6 pubmed
    ..25 mm bead diameter. Thus, the E. rhapontici NCPPB 1578 immobilization in alginate bead and subsequent palatinose yield was successfully improved by application of RSM technique. ..
  49. Basnayake S, Morgan T, Wu L, Birch R. Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase. Plant Biotechnol J. 2012;10:217-25 pubmed publisher
  50. Yoshioka S, Forney K, Aso Y, Pikal M. Effect of sugars on the molecular motion of freeze-dried protein formulations reflected by NMR relaxation times. Pharm Res. 2011;28:3237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..T(1?)) was determined for both protein and sugar carbons in freeze-dried lysozyme-sugar (trehalose, sucrose and isomaltose) formulations using solid-state (13)C NMR...
  51. Sato K, Arai H, Miyazawa Y, Fukaya M, Uebanso T, Koganei M, et al. Palatinose and oleic acid act together to prevent pancreatic islet disruption in nondiabetic obese Zucker rats. J Med Invest. 2008;55:183-95 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that pancreatic islets may be initial sites that translate the effects of different combinations of dietary carbohydrates and fats into metabolic changes...
  52. Cai Y, Liu J, Shi Y, Liang L, Mou S. Determination of several sugars in serum by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1085:98-103 pubmed
    In this paper, a sensitive, simple and direct method for simultaneous determination of glucose, ribose, isomaltose and maltose in serum sample by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric ..
  53. Niu X, Shen F, Yu Y, Yan Z, Xu K, Yu H, et al. Analysis of sugars in Chinese rice wine by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with partial least-squares regression. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7271-8 pubmed publisher
    The feasibility of rapid analysis for oligosaccharides, including isomaltose, isomaltotriose, maltose, and panose, in Chinese rice wine by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy together with partial least-squares ..