Summary: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.

Top Publications

  1. Taff H, Nett J, Zarnowski R, Ross K, Sanchez H, Cain M, et al. A Candida biofilm-induced pathway for matrix glucan delivery: implications for drug resistance. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002848 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the discovery of inhibitors for these enzymes would provide promising anti-biofilm therapeutics. ..
  2. Chebli Y, Kaneda M, Zerzour R, Geitmann A. The cell wall of the Arabidopsis pollen tube--spatial distribution, recycling, and network formation of polysaccharides. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1940-55 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of strategic enzymatic treatments also suggests that pectins, cellulose, and callose are highly cross linked to each other...
  3. Henriquez M, Wolski E, Molina O, Adam L, Andreu A, Daayf F. Effects of glucans and eicosapentaenoic acid on differential regulation of phenylpropanoid and mevalonic pathways during potato response to Phytophthora infestans. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;60:119-28 pubmed publisher
    The effects of Phytophthora infestans glucans, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolates of this pathogen, on the differential expression of eight genes from the phenylpropanoid and the mevalonate (Ac-MVA) pathways were analyzed in potato ..
  4. Sharma N, Prasad G, Choudhury A. Utilization of corn steep liquor for biosynthesis of pullulan, an important exopolysaccharide. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;93:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations may be helpful in development of a cost effective process for pullulan production...
  5. Machová E, Bystricky S. Antioxidant capacities of mannans and glucans are related to their susceptibility of free radical degradation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;61:308-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper presents antioxidant properties of prepared yeast mannans, commercial ?-glucans as well as the chemically prepared carboxymethylated ?-glucan (CM-glucan)...
  6. Qin P, Ting D, Shieh A, McCormick S. Callose plug deposition patterns vary in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes and tomato species. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:178 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings lay a foundation for mapping genes that regulate callose plug deposition or that determine pollen tube length or growth rate. ..
  7. Lafond M, Navarro D, Haon M, Couturier M, Berrin J. Characterization of a broad-specificity ?-glucanase acting on ?-(1,3)-, ?-(1,4)-, and ?-(1,6)-glucans that defines a new glycoside hydrolase family. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:8540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..first report of an enzyme that displays bifunctional exo-?-(1,3)/(1,6) and endo-?-(1,4) activities toward beta-glucans and therefore cannot readily be assigned to existing Enzyme Commission groups...
  8. Bontemps Gallo S, Madec E, Dondeyne J, Delrue B, Robbe Masselot C, Vidal O, et al. Concentration of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) modulates the activation level of the RcsCD RcsB phosphorelay in the phytopathogen bacteria Dickeya dadantii. Environ Microbiol. 2013;15:881-94 pubmed publisher
    Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) are general constituents of many Proteobacteria. Synthesis of these oligosaccharides is repressed by increased osmolarity of the medium...
  9. Wiater A, Paduch R, Choma A, Pleszczyńska M, Siwulski M, Dominik J, et al. Biological study on carboxymethylated (1?3)-?-D-glucans from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:1014-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of the biological activity of the carboxymethylated (CM) (1?3)-?-D-glucans was based on an assessment of their cytotoxic, mitochondrial metabolism-modulating, and free radical scavenging ..

More Information


  1. Cheng K, Demirci A, Catchmark J. Pullulan: biosynthesis, production, and applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;92:29-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the potential applications of pullulan through chemical modification as a novel biologically active derivative are also discussed. ..
  2. Zavaliev R, Sagi G, Gera A, Epel B. The constitutive expression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmal-associated class 1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptide impairs plant development and virus spread. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed reduction in Pd permeability could be due to a partial Pd occlusion caused either by the accumulation of AtRGP2:GFP fusion in Pd, and/or by constriction of Pd by the excessive callose accumulation. ..
  3. Sarkar R, Nandan C, Bhunia S, Maiti S, Maiti T, Sikdar S, et al. Glucans from alkaline extract of a hybrid mushroom (backcross mating between PfloVv12 and Volvariella volvacea): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties. Carbohydr Res. 2012;347:107-13 pubmed publisher
    Two different glucans (water-soluble PS-I, water-insoluble PS-II) were isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruit bodies of hybrid mushroom. PS-I was found to consist of only (1?6)-linked ?-D-glucopyranose...
  4. Vander Kooi C, Taylor A, Pace R, Meekins D, Guo H, Kim Y, et al. Structural basis for the glucan phosphatase activity of Starch Excess4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal the unique tertiary architecture of SEX4 that provides the physical basis for its function as a glucan phosphatase. ..
  5. Chen X, Kim J. Callose synthesis in higher plants. Plant Signal Behav. 2009;4:489-92 pubmed
    ..In this mini-review, we highlight recent progress in understanding callose biosynthesis and degradation and discuss the future challenges of unraveling the mechanism(s) by which callose synthase operate. ..
  6. Ojha A, Chandra K, Ghosh K, Islam S. Glucans from the alkaline extract of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus florida, cv Assam Florida: isolation, purification, and characterization. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:2157-63 pubmed publisher
    Three different glucans (PS-I, PS-II, and PS-III) were isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of an edible mushroom Pleurotus florida, cultivar Assam Florida...
  7. Latge J. Tasting the fungal cell wall. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:863-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though the receptors recognizing mannans and beta-1,3-glucans have been extensively studied to date, the epitope of the polysaccharide ligand is often not well defined...
  8. Bouchart F, Boussemart G, Prouvost A, Cogez V, Madec E, Vidal O, et al. The virulence of a Dickeya dadantii 3937 mutant devoid of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans is restored by inactivation of the RcsCD-RcsB phosphorelay. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The virulence of D. dadantii involves several factors, including the osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) that are general constituents of the envelope of proteobacteria...
  9. Daudi A, Cheng Z, O Brien J, Mammarella N, Khan S, Ausubel F, et al. The apoplastic oxidative burst peroxidase in Arabidopsis is a major component of pattern-triggered immunity. Plant Cell. 2012;24:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In aggregate, these data demonstrate that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in Arabidopsis basal resistance mediated by the recognition of MAMPs. ..
  10. Adams Phillips L, Briggs A, Bent A. Disruption of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation mechanisms alters responses of Arabidopsis to biotic stress. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a functional component in plant responses to biotic stress. ..
  11. Sampedro J, Pardo B, Gianzo C, Guitián E, Revilla G, Zarra I. Lack of ?-xylosidase activity in Arabidopsis alters xyloglucan composition and results in growth defects. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The promoter of AtXYL1 was shown to direct expression to many different organs and cell types undergoing cell wall modifications, including trichomes, vasculature, stomata, and elongating anther filaments. ..
  12. Eklöf J, Brumer H. The XTH gene family: an update on enzyme structure, function, and phylogeny in xyloglucan remodeling. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:456-66 pubmed publisher
  13. Chevalier L, Bernard S, Ramdani Y, Lamour R, Bardor M, Lerouge P, et al. Subcompartment localization of the side chain xyloglucan-synthesizing enzymes within Golgi stacks of tobacco suspension-cultured cells. Plant J. 2010;64:977-89 pubmed publisher
  14. Park Y, Cosgrove D. Changes in cell wall biomechanical properties in the xyloglucan-deficient xxt1/xxt2 mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate the need for multiple biomechanical assays to evaluate wall properties and indicate that the common depiction of a cellulose-xyloglucan network as the major load-bearing structure is in need of revision. ..
  15. Sampedro J, Gianzo C, Iglesias N, Guitián E, Revilla G, Zarra I. AtBGAL10 is the main xyloglucan ?-galactosidase in Arabidopsis, and its absence results in unusual xyloglucan subunits and growth defects. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression was high in many cell types undergoing wall extension or remodeling, such as young stems, abscission zones, or developing vasculature, showing good correlation with ?-xylosidase expression. ..
  16. Edwards J, Alore E, Rappleye C. The yeast-phase virulence requirement for ?-glucan synthase differs among Histoplasma capsulatum chemotypes. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell wall of chemotype II yeast contains a layer of ?-(1,3)-glucan that masks immunostimulatory ?-(1,3)-glucans from detection by the Dectin-1 receptor on host phagocytes...
  17. Christiansen C, Abou Hachem M, Janecek S, Viksø Nielsen A, Blennow A, Svensson B. The carbohydrate-binding module family 20--diversity, structure, and function. FEBS J. 2009;276:5006-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, some applications of SBDs as affinity or immobilization tags and, recently, in biofuel and in planta bioengineering are presented. ..
  18. Killiny N, Almeida R. Host structural carbohydrate induces vector transmission of a bacterial plant pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of how vector-borne pathogens transition from host to vector, and vice versa, may lead to previously undiscovered disease-control strategies. ..
  19. Hayashi T, Kaida R. Functions of xyloglucan in plant cells. Mol Plant. 2011;4:17-24 pubmed publisher
  20. Boridy S, Takahashi H, Akiyoshi K, Maysinger D. The binding of pullulan modified cholesteryl nanogels to Abeta oligomers and their suppression of cytotoxicity. Biomaterials. 2009;30:5583-91 pubmed publisher
  21. Lopez M, Bizot H, Chambat G, Marais M, Zykwinska A, Ralet M, et al. Enthalpic studies of xyloglucan-cellulose interactions. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:1417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the presence of an exothermic interaction mechanism has long been established, the presence of an endothermic interaction mechanism has never been reported. ..
  22. Queiroz L, Nascimento M, Cruz A, Castro A, Moura M, Baseia I, et al. Glucans from the Caripia montagnei mushroom present anti-inflammatory activity. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..3+/-4.1) of beta-glucans and proteins (2.2+/-0.3%)...
  23. Millet Y, Danna C, Clay N, Songnuan W, Simon M, Werck Reichhart D, et al. Innate immune responses activated in Arabidopsis roots by microbe-associated molecular patterns. Plant Cell. 2010;22:973-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways. ..
  24. Wong D, Chan V, McCormack A, Batt S. Cloning and characterization of an exo-xylogucanase from rumenal microbial metagenome. Protein Pept Lett. 2010;17:803-8 pubmed
    ..towards only xyloglucan and oligoxyloglucan substrates with no detectable activity on unsubstituted linear glucans, CMC, laminarin, and lichenan...
  25. Wong D, Chan V, McCormack A, Batt S. A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase: biochemical properties and inhibition studies. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:1463-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of XXXG resulted in linear noncompetitive inhibition on the hydrolysis of tamarind xyloglucan giving a K (i) of 1.46 +/- 0.13 mM. The enzyme was devoid of transglycosylase activities. ..
  26. Xie B, Wang X, Hong Z. Precocious pollen germination in Arabidopsis plants with altered callose deposition during microsporogenesis. Planta. 2010;231:809-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that precocious pollen germination in Arabidopsis could be triggered by a genetic alteration and a physiological condition. ..
  27. Sadovskaya I, Vinogradov E, Li J, Hachani A, Kowalska K, Filloux A. High-level antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm: the ndvB gene is involved in the production of highly glycerol-phosphorylated beta-(1->3)-glucans, which bind aminoglycosides. Glycobiology. 2010;20:895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we identified anionic cyclic glucans produced by P. aeruginosa, which are associated with the matrix of strains PAKDeltaretS and PA14...
  28. Kralj S, Grijpstra P, van Leeuwen S, Leemhuis H, Dobruchowska J, van der Kaaij R, et al. 4,6-?-glucanotransferase, a novel enzyme that structurally and functionally provides an evolutionary link between glycoside hydrolase enzyme families 13 and 70. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:8154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that GTFB represents a novel evolutionary intermediate between the GH13 and GH70 enzyme families, and we speculate about its origin. ..
  29. Koh E, Zhou L, Williams D, Park J, Ding N, Duan Y, et al. Callose deposition in the phloem plasmodesmata and inhibition of phloem transport in citrus leaves infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus". Protoplasma. 2012;249:687-97 pubmed publisher
  30. Neyrinck A, Possemiers S, Verstraete W, De Backer F, Cani P, Delzenne N. Dietary modulation of clostridial cluster XIVa gut bacteria (Roseburia spp.) by chitin-glucan fiber improves host metabolic alterations induced by high-fat diet in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:51-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Nett J, Sanchez H, Cain M, Andes D. Genetic basis of Candida biofilm resistance due to drug-sequestering matrix glucan. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:171-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide the genetic basis for how biofilm matrix production governs drug resistance by impeding drug diffusion and also identify a useful biofilm drug target. ..
  32. Shi P, Yao G, Yang P, Li N, Luo H, Bai Y, et al. Cloning, characterization, and antifungal activity of an endo-1,3-beta-D: -glucanase from Streptomyces sp. S27. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of glucans with a beta-1,3-linkage using an endolytic mode of action...
  33. Zavaliev R, Ueki S, Epel B, Citovsky V. Biology of callose (?-1,3-glucan) turnover at plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, studies on mechanisms of callose turnover at Pd during viral cell-to-cell spread are of importance for our understanding of host mechanisms exploited by viruses in order to successfully spread within the infected plant...
  34. Silipo A, Erbs G, Shinya T, Dow J, Parrilli M, Lanzetta R, et al. Glyco-conjugates as elicitors or suppressors of plant innate immunity. Glycobiology. 2010;20:406-19 pubmed publisher
  35. Warner C, Hoy J, Shilling T, Linnen M, Ginder N, Ford C, et al. Tertiary structure and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 44 endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..It also extensively converts lichenan to oligosaccharides of intermediate size and attacks Avicel to a limited extent. The enzyme has an optimal temperature in a 10-min assay of 55 degrees C and an optimal pH of 5.0. ..
  36. Mäkeläinen H, Hasselwander O, Rautonen N, Ouwehand A. Panose, a new prebiotic candidate. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49:666-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study has provided the first data on pure panose fermentation by the endogenous microbiota and extends our knowledge of the selective fermentation of oligosaccharides by the intestinal microbes. ..
  37. Martín Martín A, Sancho P, de Miguel M, Fernández Lago L, Vizcaino N. Quorum-sensing and BvrR/BvrS regulation, the type IV secretion system, cyclic glucans, and BacA in the virulence of Brucella ovis: similarities to and differences from smooth brucellae. Infect Immun. 2012;80:1783-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A1 murine macrophages. Defects in the synthesis of cyclic ß-1,2 glucans reduced the uptake of B...
  38. Nett J, Crawford K, Marchillo K, Andes D. Role of Fks1p and matrix glucan in Candida albicans biofilm resistance to an echinocandin, pyrimidine, and polyene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3505-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased resistance to anidulafungin and amphotericin B was observed for biofilms overexpressing FKS1. These findings suggest that Candida biofilm glucan sequestration is a multidrug resistance mechanism. ..
  39. Luna E, Pastor V, Robert J, Flors V, Mauch Mani B, Ton J. Callose deposition: a multifaceted plant defense response. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that callose is a multifaceted defense response that is controlled by distinct signaling pathways, depending on the environmental conditions and the challenging pathogen-associated molecular pattern. ..
  40. Henry C, Latge J, Beauvais A. ?1,3 glucans are dispensable in Aspergillus fumigatus. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..deletions of the three ?1,3 glucan synthase genes (AGS1, AGS2, and AGS3) has a cell wall devoid of ?1,3 glucans. The lack of ?1,3 glucans affects neither conidial germination nor mycelial vegetative growth and is compensated ..
  41. Lavi I, Levinson D, Peri I, Nimri L, Hadar Y, Schwartz B. Orally administered glucans from the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius reduce acute inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of the present study were to determine whether orally administered glucans from the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis ..
  42. Cheng K, Demirci A, Catchmark J. Continuous pullulan fermentation in a biofilm reactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:921-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0%. The ratio of hyphal cells of A. pullulans increased when it was grown on the PCS shaft. Overall, the increased pullulan productivity can be achieved through biomass retention by using PCS biofilm reactor. ..
  43. Tepetes K, Asprodini E, Christodoulidis G, Spyridakis M, Kouvaras E, Hatzitheofilou K. Prevention of postoperative adhesion formation by individual and combined administration of 4 per cent icodextrin and dimetindene maleate. Br J Surg. 2009;96:1476-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined administration of 4 per cent icodextrin and dimetindene maleate may be used safely and efficaciously to prevent surgically induced adhesions. ..
  44. Ambatipudi K, Hagen F, Delahunty C, Han X, Shafi R, Hryhorenko J, et al. Human common salivary protein 1 (CSP-1) promotes binding of Streptococcus mutans to experimental salivary pellicle and glucans formed on hydroxyapatite surface. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:6605-14 pubmed publisher to rCSP-1 (10 ?g/mL) in saliva displayed enhanced adherence to experimental salivary pellicle and to glucans in the pellicle formed on hydroxyapatite surfaces...
  45. Paniagua R, Ventura M, Avila Díaz M, Cisneros A, Vicenté Martínez M, Furlong M, et al. Icodextrin improves metabolic and fluid management in high and high-average transport diabetic patients. Perit Dial Int. 2009;29:422-32 pubmed
  46. Zhang H, Li X, Gao F, Liu L, Zhou Z, Zhang Q. Preparation of folate-modified pullulan acetate nanoparticles for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Drug Deliv. 2010;17:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytotoxic effect of FPA/EPI NPs to KB cells was inhibited by an excess amount of folic acid, suggesting that the binding and/or uptake were mediated by the folate receptor. ..
  47. Criado O, Aguado C, Gayarre J, Durán Trío L, Garcia Cabrero A, Vernia S, et al. Lafora bodies and neurological defects in malin-deficient mice correlate with impaired autophagy. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1521-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Because this dysfunction precedes other pathological manifestations, we propose that decreased autophagy plays a primary role in the formation of LBs and it is critical in LD pathogenesis. ..
  48. Liepman A, Wightman R, Geshi N, Turner S, Scheller H. Arabidopsis - a powerful model system for plant cell wall research. Plant J. 2010;61:1107-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have improved our understanding of both the mechanisms of cell-wall biosynthesis and the functions of various cell-wall polymers, and have highlighted areas where further research is needed. ..
  49. Mullendore D, Windt C, van As H, Knoblauch M. Sieve tube geometry in relation to phloem flow. Plant Cell. 2010;22:579-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on the temporal development of callose show that small sieve plate pores might be occluded by callose within minutes, but plants containing sieve tubes with large pores need additional mechanisms. ..
  50. Trew G, Pistofidis G, Pados G, Lower A, Mettler L, Wallwiener D, et al. Gynaecological endoscopic evaluation of 4% icodextrin solution: a European, multicentre, double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety in the reduction of de novo adhesions after laparoscopic gynaecological surgery. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:2015-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The study provides direction for future research into adhesion reduction strategies in site specific surgery. ..
  51. Ito K, Ito S, Shimamura T, Weyand S, Kawarasaki Y, Misaka T, et al. Crystal structure of glucansucrase from the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. J Mol Biol. 2011;408:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..mutans glycosyltransferase (GTF-SI), which synthesizes soluble and insoluble glucans and is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 70 GSase in the free enzyme form and in complex with acarbose and ..
  52. Keppler Ross S, Douglas L, Konopka J, Dean N. Recognition of yeast by murine macrophages requires mannan but not glucan. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that mannose side chains or mannosylated proteins are the ligands recognized by murine macrophages prior to fungal uptake. ..
  53. Scheller H, Ulvskov P. Hemicelluloses. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2010;61:263-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemicelluloses include xyloglucans, xylans, mannans and glucomannans, and beta-(1-->3,1-->4)-glucans. These types of hemicelluloses are present in the cell walls of all terrestrial plants, except for beta-(1-->3,..