collagen type x


Summary: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.

Top Publications

  1. Kawasaki Y, Kugimiya F, Chikuda H, Kamekura S, Ikeda T, Kawamura N, et al. Phosphorylation of GSK-3beta by cGMP-dependent protein kinase II promotes hypertrophic differentiation of murine chondrocytes. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes during skeletal growth is promoted by phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3beta by cGKII. ..
  2. Bateman J, Wilson R, Freddi S, Lamande S, Savarirayan R. Mutations of COL10A1 in Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Hum Mutat. 2005;25:525-34 pubmed
    ..Thus for both classes of mutations, functional haploinsufficiency is the most probable cause of the clinical phenotype in SMCD. ..
  3. Magee C, Nurminskaya M, Faverman L, Galera P, Linsenmayer T. SP3/SP1 transcription activity regulates specific expression of collagen type X in hypertrophic chondrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25331-8 pubmed
  4. Mwale F, Stachura D, Roughley P, Antoniou J. Limitations of using aggrecan and type X collagen as markers of chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:1791-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, caution must be exercised when using aggrecan and type X collagen as markers for chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy, respectively, in association with stem cell differentiation from this source. ..
  5. Drissi M, Li X, Sheu T, Zuscik M, Schwarz E, Puzas J, et al. Runx2/Cbfa1 stimulation by retinoic acid is potentiated by BMP2 signaling through interaction with Smad1 on the collagen X promoter in chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:1287-98 pubmed
    ..Factors or signals that alter either of these transcription factors regulate the rate of chondrocyte differentiation. ..
  6. Ornitz D, Marie P. FGF signaling pathways in endochondral and intramembranous bone development and human genetic disease. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1446-65 pubmed
  7. Yamashita S, Andoh M, Ueno Kudoh H, Sato T, Miyaki S, Asahara H. Sox9 directly promotes Bapx1 gene expression to repress Runx2 in chondrocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that the molecular pathway modulated by Bapx1 links two major regulators in chondrogenesis, Sox9 and Runx2, to coordinate skeletal formation. ..
  8. Simoes B, Conceição N, Viegas C, Pinto J, Gavaia P, Hurst L, et al. Identification of a promoter element within the zebrafish colXalpha1 gene responsive to runx2 isoforms Osf2/Cbfa1 and til-1 but not to pebp2alphaA2. Calcif Tissue Int. 2006;79:230-44 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that, as in mammals, runx2 plays a role in the development of the osteogenic lineage, supporting zebrafish as a model for studies of bone and cartilage development. ..
  9. Wilson R, Freddi S, Chan D, Cheah K, Bateman J. Misfolding of collagen X chains harboring Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia mutations results in aberrant disulfide bond formation, intracellular retention, and activation of the unfolded protein response. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15544-52 pubmed
    ..Our data provide the first clear evidence for misfolding of SMCD collagen X mutants, and we propose that solvent exposure of the NC1 thiol may trigger the recognition and degradation of mutant collagen X chains. ..

More Information


  1. Mwale F, Girard Lauriault P, Wang H, Lerouge S, Antoniou J, Wertheimer M. Suppression of genes related to hypertrophy and osteogenesis in committed human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on novel nitrogen-rich plasma polymer coatings. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:2639-47 pubmed
  2. Gebhard S, Poschl E, Riemer S, Bauer E, Hattori T, Eberspaecher H, et al. A highly conserved enhancer in mammalian type X collagen genes drives high levels of tissue-specific expression in hypertrophic cartilage in vitro and in vivo. Matrix Biol. 2004;23:309-22 pubmed
    ..These established transgenic lines should facilitate the genetic analysis of regulatory pathways of chondrocyte maturation and Col10a1 gene expression in the future. ..
  3. Daumer K, Tufan A, Tuan R. Long-term in vitro analysis of limb cartilage development: involvement of Wnt signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:526-41 pubmed
    ..Misexpression of all Wnt members decreased collagen type X expression and alkaline phosphatase activity at day 21...
  4. Lamas J, Rodriguez Rodriguez L, Vigo A, Alvarez Lafuente R, Lopez Romero P, Marco F, et al. Large-scale gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a putative role for COL10A1 in osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that OA may be linked to the intrinsic defective regenerative potential of BM-MSCs resulting from its reduced expression of fate commitment-related genes. ..
  5. Campbell M, Gress C, Appleman E, Jacenko O. Chicken collagen X regulatory sequences restrict transgene expression to hypertrophic cartilage in mice. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:487-99 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the 4.7-kb hypertrophic cartilage-specific promoter could be used for targeting transgenes to this tissue site in mice. ..
  6. Ho M, Tsang K, Lo R, Susic M, Makitie O, Chan T, et al. COL10A1 nonsense and frame-shift mutations have a gain-of-function effect on the growth plate in human and mouse metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1201-15 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide strong in vivo evidence for a gain-of-function effect that is linked to the activation of endoplasmic reticulum-stress response and altered chondrocyte differentiation, as a possible molecular pathogenesis for MCDS. ..
  7. Sweeney E, Campbell M, Watkins K, Hunter C, Jacenko O. Altered endochondral ossification in collagen X mouse models leads to impaired immune responses. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..These data link the disruption of collagen X function in the chondro-osseous junction to an altered hematopoietic stem cell niche in the marrow, resulting in impaired immune function. ..
  8. Sundaramurthy S, Mao J. Modulation of endochondral development of the distal femoral condyle by mechanical loading. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:229-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, mechanical stresses accelerate the formation of the secondary ossification center, and therefore modulate endochondral ossification. ..
  9. Kozhemyakina E, Cohen T, Yao T, Lassar A. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide represses chondrocyte hypertrophy through a protein phosphatase 2A/histone deacetylase 4/MEF2 pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5751-62 pubmed publisher
  10. Avaron F, Hoffman L, Guay D, Akimenko M. Characterization of two new zebrafish members of the hedgehog family: atypical expression of a zebrafish indian hedgehog gene in skeletal elements of both endochondral and dermal origins. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:478-89 pubmed
    ..The presence of cartilage markers suggests that the dermal fin ray possesses an intermediate phenotype between cartilage and bone. ..
  11. Wilson R, Freddi S, Bateman J. Collagen X chains harboring Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia NC1 domain mutations are selectively retained and degraded in stably transfected cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12516-24 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate, therefore, that the predominant effect of the NC1 mutations Y598D and 1963del10 is a reduction in the amount of functional collagen X within the growth cartilage extracellular matrix. ..
  12. Chapman K, Prendes M, Sternberg H, Kidd J, Funk W, Wagner J, et al. COL10A1 expression is elevated in diverse solid tumor types and is associated with tumor vasculature. Future Oncol. 2012;8:1031-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor microenvironment-specific expression of collagen X, together with its localization in the vasculature, may facilitate its use as a novel target for the diagnosis and treatment of diverse solid tumor types. ..
  13. Zheng Q, Zhou G, Morello R, Chen Y, Garcia Rojas X, Lee B. Type X collagen gene regulation by Runx2 contributes directly to its hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific expression in vivo. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:833-42 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that Col10a1 is a direct transcriptional target of Runx2 during chondrogenesis. ..
  14. Chambers D, Young D, Howard C, Thomas J, Boam D, Grant M, et al. An enhancer complex confers both high-level and cell-specific expression of the human type X collagen gene. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:505-8 pubmed
    ..The identified enhancer is a major element controlling both high-level and cell-specific expression of type X collagen gene. ..
  15. Wang G, Woods A, Sabari S, Pagnotta L, Stanton L, Beier F. RhoA/ROCK signaling suppresses hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13205-14 pubmed
    ..Finally, Y27632 treatment partially rescues the effects of RhoA overexpression. In summary, we identify the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway as a novel and important regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. ..
  16. Saito T, Fukai A, Mabuchi A, Ikeda T, Yano F, Ohba S, et al. Transcriptional regulation of endochondral ossification by HIF-2alpha during skeletal growth and osteoarthritis development. Nat Med. 2010;16:678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, HIF-2alpha is a central transactivator that targets several crucial genes for endochondral ossification and may represent a therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. ..
  17. Zheng Q, Keller B, Zhou G, Napierala D, Chen Y, Zabel B, et al. Localization of the cis-enhancer element for mouse type X collagen expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:1022-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This work will enable us to identify candidate transcription factors essential both for skeletal development and for the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders. ..
  18. Higashikawa A, Saito T, Ikeda T, Kamekura S, Kawamura N, Kan A, et al. Identification of the core element responsive to runt-related transcription factor 2 in the promoter of human type X collagen gene. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on molecular networks related to RUNX-2 and the HY box will lead to treatments of skeletal growth retardation, bone fracture, and OA. ..
  19. Jacenko O, Chan D, Franklin A, Ito S, Underhill C, Bateman J, et al. A dominant interference collagen X mutation disrupts hypertrophic chondrocyte pericellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan distribution in transgenic mice. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:2257-69 pubmed
    ..A provocative hypothesis links the disruption of the collagen X pericellular network and GAG/PG decompartmentalization to the potential locus for hematopoietic failure in the collagen X mice. ..
  20. Miyazawa T, Ogawa Y, Chusho H, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Komatsu Y, et al. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3604-10 pubmed
    ..This study provides in vivo and in vitro genetic evidence that cGKII plays a critical role in CNP-mediated endochondral ossification. ..
  21. Rajpar M, McDermott B, Kung L, Eardley R, Knowles L, Heeran M, et al. Targeted induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress induces cartilage pathology. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000691 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the contention that ER stress may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of many connective tissue disorders associated with the expression of mutant extracellular matrix proteins. ..
  22. Bateman J, Freddi S, Nattrass G, Savarirayan R. Tissue-specific RNA surveillance? Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay causes collagen X haploinsufficiency in Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia cartilage. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:217-25 pubmed
  23. Dong Y, Soung D, Schwarz E, O Keefe R, Drissi H. Wnt induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy through the Runx2 transcription factor. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:77-86 pubmed
  24. Li T, Zuscik M, Ionescu A, Zhang X, Rosier R, Schwarz E, et al. PGE2 inhibits chondrocyte differentiation through PKA and PKC signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2004;300:159-69 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate potent prostaglandin regulatory effects on chondrocyte maturation and show a role for both PKA and PKC signaling in PGE2 regulatory events. ..
  25. Riemer S, Gebhard S, Beier F, Poschl E, von der Mark K. Role of c-fos in the regulation of type X collagen gene expression by PTH and PTHrP: localization of a PTH/PTHrP-responsive region in the human COL10A1 enhancer. J Cell Biochem. 2002;86:688-99 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the presence of a PTH/PTHrP responsive element in the human COL10A1 enhancer, which may be represented by multiple putative AP-1 sites located in this region. ..
  26. Kamekura S, Kawasaki Y, Hoshi K, Shimoaka T, Chikuda H, Maruyama Z, et al. Contribution of runt-related transcription factor 2 to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in mice after induction of knee joint instability. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2462-70 pubmed
    ..RUNX-2 contributes to the pathogenesis of OA through chondrocyte hypertrophy and matrix breakdown after the induction of joint instability. ..
  27. Jacenko O, Roberts D, Campbell M, McManus P, Gress C, Tao Z. Linking hematopoiesis to endochondral skeletogenesis through analysis of mice transgenic for collagen X. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:2019-34 pubmed
    ..These hematopoietic defects underscore an unforeseen link between hypertrophic cartilage, endochondral ossification, and establishment of the marrow microenvironment required for blood cell differentiation. ..
  28. de Freitas P, Kojima T, Ubaidus S, Li M, Shang G, Takagi R, et al. Histological assessments on the abnormalities of mouse epiphyseal chondrocytes with short term centrifugal loading. Biomed Res. 2007;28:191-203 pubmed
    ..Summarizing, altered actin filaments associated with cell membranes, irregular cell shape and disappearance of intracolumnar extracellular fibrils suggest that hypergravity disturbs cell-to-matrix interactions in our cartilage model. ..
  29. Kadouchi I, Sakamoto K, Tangjiao L, Murakami T, Kobayashi E, Hoshino Y, et al. Latexin is involved in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:600-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that latexin is involved in BMP-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation and plays an important role in skeletogenesis and skeletal regeneration. ..
  30. He H, Wu Z, Zhang J, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Xu Y, et al. [Primary study on collagen X gene expression in the apical disc of idiopathic scoliosis]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004;84:1681-5 pubmed
    ..Collagen X expressed in the nucleus may be the result of secretion of chondrocyte-like cells in the disc under abnormal mechanical condition. ..
  31. Ishizuka Y, Shibukawa Y, Nagayama M, Decker R, Kinumatsu T, Saito A, et al. TMJ degeneration in SAMP8 mice is accompanied by deranged Ihh signaling. J Dent Res. 2014;93:281-7 pubmed publisher
  32. Osinga R, Di Maggio N, Todorov A, Allafi N, Barbero A, Laurent F, et al. Generation of a Bone Organ by Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Through Endochondral Ossification. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2016;5:1090-7 pubmed publisher
  33. Welker F, Hajdinjak M, Talamo S, Jaouen K, Dannemann M, David F, et al. Palaeoproteomic evidence identifies archaic hominins associated with the Châtelperronian at the Grotte du Renne. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:11162-11167 pubmed
    ..on ancient protein evidence through the identification of an archaic-derived amino acid sequence for the collagen type X, alpha-1 (COL10?1) protein...
  34. Forouhan M, Mori K, Boot Handford R. Paradoxical roles of ATF6α and ATF6β in modulating disease severity caused by mutations in collagen X. Matrix Biol. 2018;70:50-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The activities of both ATF6 isoforms and their separate roles need consideration when deciding how to target increased ER stress as a means of treating MCDS and other ER stress-associated diseases. ..
  35. Mwale F, Yao G, Ouellet J, Petit A, Antoniou J. Effect of parathyroid hormone on type X and type II collagen expression in mesenchymal stem cells from osteoarthritic patients. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010;16:3449-55 pubmed publisher
  36. Miyaji T, Nakase T, Onuma E, Sato K, Myoui A, Tomita T, et al. Monoclonal antibody to parathyroid hormone-related protein induces differentiation and apoptosis of chondrosarcoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2003;199:147-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the possibility that anti-PTHrP MoAb may be beneficial as a new treatment for chondrosarcoma. ..
  37. Grogan S, Rieser F, Winkelmann V, Berardi S, Mainil Varlet P. A static, closed and scaffold-free bioreactor system that permits chondrogenesis in vitro. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11:403-11 pubmed
  38. Hartley C, Edwards S, Mullan L, Bell P, Fresquet M, Boot Handford R, et al. Armet/Manf and Creld2 are components of a specialized ER stress response provoked by inappropriate formation of disulphide bonds: implications for genetic skeletal diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:5262-75 pubmed publisher
  39. Charlier E, Malaise O, Zeddou M, Neuville S, Cobraiville G, Deroyer C, et al. Restriction of spontaneous and prednisolone-induced leptin production to dedifferentiated state in human hip OA chondrocytes: role of Smad1 and β-catenin activation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016;24:315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Only dedifferentiated OA chondrocytes produced leptin. Prednisolone markedly enhanced leptin production, which involved Smad1 and β-catenin activation. ..
  40. Gebhard S, Hattori T, Bauer E, Bösl M, Schlund B, Poschl E, et al. BAC constructs in transgenic reporter mouse lines control efficient and specific LacZ expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes under the complete Col10a1 promoter. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;127:183-94 pubmed
    ..The Col10a1 specific BAC recombination vector described here will enable the specific analysis of effector gene functions in hypertrophic cartilage during skeletal development, endochondral ossification, and fracture callus healing. ..
  41. MacRae V, Burdon T, Ahmed S, Farquharson C. Ceramide inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation and bone growth is IGF-I independent. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:369-77 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, C2-ceramide inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in growth plate chondrocytes through an IGF-I independent mechanism. ..
  42. Ben Eliezer M, Phillip M, Gat Yablonski G. Leptin regulates chondrogenic differentiation in ATDC5 cell-line through JAK/STAT and MAPK pathways. Endocrine. 2007;32:235-44 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that these pathways are involved in leptin-induced growth. ..
  43. Wongin S, Ogawa Y, Kim M, Viravaidya Pasuwat K, Kino oka M. Chondrogenesis and hypertrophy in response to aggregate behaviors of human mesenchymal stem cells on a dendrimer-immobilized surface. Biotechnol Lett. 2017;39:1253-1261 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation of hMSCs affects the expression of type II and X collagens via effects on cell aggregate behavior and stress fiber formation. ..
  44. Almaawi A, Wang H, Ciobanu O, Rowas S, Rampersad S, Antoniou J, et al. Effect of acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on gene expression of mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:1039-46 pubmed publisher
  45. Ohno S, Tanaka N, Ueki M, Honda K, Tanimoto K, Yoneno K, et al. Mechanical regulation of terminal chondrocyte differentiation via RGD-CAP/beta ig-h3 induced by TGF-beta. Connect Tissue Res. 2005;46:227-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that mechanical strain negatively regulates the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes through the signal pathway of TGF-ss with the induction of RGD-CAP. ..
  46. Wang J, Wang X, Holz J, Rutkowski T, Wang Y, Zhu Z, et al. Runx1 is critical for PTH-induced onset of mesenchymal progenitor cell chondrogenic differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74255 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms behind PTH-enhanced cartilage regeneration. ..
  47. Challa T, Rais Y, Ornan E. Effect of adiponectin on ATDC5 proliferation, differentiation and signaling pathways. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;323:282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals novel and direct activity of adiponectin in chondrocytes, suggesting its positive effects on bone development. ..
  48. Aigner T, Oliveira A, Nascimento A. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas do not show a chondrocytic phenotype. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:214-21 pubmed
    ..Specimens from two tumors showed presence of collagen type II, and none was positive for collagen type X. Instead, collagen types I, III, and VI were diffusely positive. Also, S-100 protein was largely absent...
  49. Suda M, Tanaka K, Yasoda A, Komatsu Y, Chusho H, Miura M, et al. C-type natriuretic peptide/guanylate cyclase B system in ATDC5 cells, a chondrogenic cell line. J Bone Miner Metab. 2002;20:136-41 pubmed
    ..CNP or 8-bromo cGMP reduced [3H] thymidine uptake and slightly increased the message for collagen type X, which is a marker of hypertrophic chondrocytes...
  50. Wang G, Beier F. Rac1/Cdc42 and RhoA GTPases antagonistically regulate chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:1022-31 pubmed
  51. Maye P, Fu Y, Butler D, Chokalingam K, Liu Y, Floret J, et al. Generation and characterization of Col10a1-mcherry reporter mice. Genesis. 2011;49:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of long bones at birth suggests that residual hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the trabecular zone exist as two completely distinct cell populations. genesis 49:410-418, 2011. ..
  52. Yin M, Gentili C, Koyama E, Zasloff M, Pacifici M. Antiangiogenic treatment delays chondrocyte maturation and bone formation during limb skeletogenesis. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:56-65 pubmed
  53. Villemure I, Chung M, Seck C, Kimm M, Matyas J, Duncan N. Static compressive loading reduces the mRNA expression of type II and X collagen in rat growth-plate chondrocytes during postnatal growth. Connect Tissue Res. 2005;46:211-9 pubmed
  54. Jepsen K, Price C, Silkman L, Nicholls F, Nasser P, Hu B, et al. Genetic variation in the patterns of skeletal progenitor cell differentiation and progression during endochondral bone formation affects the rate of fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:1204-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that (1) different strains of mice express variations of skeletal stem cell lineage differentiation and (2) that these variations affect the rate of fracture healing. ..
  55. Las Heras F, Pritzker K, SO A, Tsui H, Chiu B, Inman R, et al. Aberrant chondrocyte hypertrophy and activation of ?-catenin signaling precede joint ankylosis in ank/ank mice. J Rheumatol. 2012;39:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the role of Ank in the maintenance of postnatal articular cartilage using the ank/ank mouse (mice homozygous for progressive ankylosis)...
  56. Li C, Liang Q, Zhou Q, Menga E, Cui X, Shu B, et al. A continuous observation of the degenerative process in the intervertebral disc of Smad3 gene knock-out mice. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:1363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..And the analysis of real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression of Col2alpha1, aggrecan, and TGF-beta1 decreased, while that of Col10alpha1 increased. Smad3 gene knock-out mice develop IVD degeneration with growth. ..
  57. Karimian E, Chagin A, Gjerde J, Heino T, Lien E, Ohlsson C, et al. Tamoxifen impairs both longitudinal and cortical bone growth in young male rats. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:1267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these rat data, we believe that Tam, if given to growing individuals, might compromise cortical bone growth, bone strength, and adult height. ..
  58. Jiang J, Leong N, Mung J, Hidaka C, Lu H. Interaction between zonal populations of articular chondrocytes suppresses chondrocyte mineralization and this process is mediated by PTHrP. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16:70-82 pubmed
    ..These findings also have significant implications in understanding the pathology of articular cartilage as well as devising strategies for functional cartilage repair. ..
  59. Talwar R, Wong B, Svoboda K, Harper R. Effects of estrogen on chondrocyte proliferation and collagen synthesis in skeletally mature articular cartilage. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:600-9 pubmed
  60. Stewart M, Kadlcek R, Robbins P, MacLeod J, Ballock R. Expression and activity of the CDK inhibitor p57Kip2 in chondrocytes undergoing hypertrophic differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:123-32 pubmed
    Growth plates of p57-null mice exhibit several abnormalities, including loss of collagen type X (CollX) expression. The phenotypic consequences of p57 expression were assessed in an in vitro model of hypertrophic differentiation...
  61. Suh J, Kim Y, Park J, Sonn J, Kim W. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by fibroblast growth factor 2 in cultured chick embryo chondrocytes. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:203-12 pubmed
  62. Quintin A, Schizas C, Scaletta C, Jaccoud S, Applegate L, Pioletti D. Plasticity of fetal cartilaginous cells. Cell Transplant. 2010;19:1349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that fetal cells are already differentiated cells and may be a good compromise between stem cells and adult tissue cells for a cell-based therapy. ..
  63. Cao Z, Huang S, Dou C, Xiang Q, Dong S. Cyanidin suppresses autophagic activity regulating chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that cyanidin was a potential therapeutic agent for keeping mature chondrocyte functions. ..
  64. Ikeda T, Mabuchi A, Fukuda A, Kawakami A, Ryo Y, Yamamoto S, et al. Association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in cartilage-specific collagen genes with knee and hip osteoarthritis in the Japanese population. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:1290-6 pubmed
    ..48). Haplotype analysis showed significant association between a specific haplotype of COL2A1 and hip OA (p = 0.024; OR = 1.30). Further analysis of these two genes will shed light on the molecular mechanisms of OA. ..
  65. Takeyama K, Chatani M, Inohaya K, Kudo A. TGFβ-2 signaling is essential for osteoblast migration and differentiation during fracture healing in medaka fish. Bone. 2016;86:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus demonstrated that TGFβ-2 functioned specifically during fracture healing to stimulate the migration of osteoblasts as well as the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. ..
  66. Nakase T, Ariga K, Meng W, Iwasaki M, Tomita T, Myoui A, et al. Distribution of genes for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide, Indian hedgehog, PTH receptor and patched in the process of experimental spondylosis in mice. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:82-7 pubmed
    ..PTHR; a receptor for PTHrP), patched (Ptc; a receptor for Ihh), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, and collagen type X (COL10; a marker for mature chondrocyte) was localized in the tissue sections by performing in situ ..
  67. Huch K, Mordstein V, Stove J, Nerlich A, Amholdt H, Delling G, et al. Expression of collagen type I, II, X and Ki-67 in osteochondroma compared to human growth plate cartilage. Eur J Histochem. 2002;46:249-58 pubmed
    ..that stained positive for collagen type I while collagen II was expressed in the rest of the cartilage and collagen type X was restricted to the hypertrophic zone...
  68. Sweeney E, Roberts D, Jacenko O. Altered matrix at the chondro-osseous junction leads to defects in lymphopoiesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1237:79-87 pubmed publisher
  69. Boudko S, Engel J, Bachinger H. The crucial role of trimerization domains in collagen folding. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the current knowledge of the structure and function of these trimerization domains. ..
  70. Mora G, Alvarez E, Ripalda P, Forriol F. Articular cartilage degeneration after frozen meniscus and Achilles tendon allograft transplantation: experimental study in sheep. Arthroscopy. 2003;19:833-41 pubmed
    ..Meniscal replacement with meniscal and Achilles tendon allografts provides partial protection against articular damage after a meniscectomy. ..
  71. Kocamaz E, Gok D, Cetinkaya A, Tufan A. Implication of C-type natriuretic peptide-3 signaling in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy during TGF-?1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Mol Histol. 2012;43:497-508 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CNP-3/NPR-B signaling may strongly be involved in synthesis of glycosaminoglycans of the chondrogenic matrix and hypertrophy of differentiated chondrocytes during TGF-?1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. ..
  72. Vinardell T, Rolfe R, Buckley C, Meyer E, Ahearne M, Murphy P, et al. Hydrostatic pressure acts to stabilise a chondrogenic phenotype in porcine joint tissue derived stem cells. Eur Cell Mater. 2012;23:121-32; discussion 133-4 pubmed
  73. Zhang Y, Chen A, Guo F, Huang S, Xiong W, Li Q. [Regulation of differentiation and proliferation of epiphysis stem cells by Notch1 signaling system]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005;85:3430-4 pubmed
    ..When the Notch signaling system is activated the epiphysis stem cells proliferate, and when the Notch signaling system is suppressed the epiphysis stem cells differentiate. ..
  74. Adams S, Pallante K, Niu Z, Cohen A, Lu J, Leboy P. Stimulation of type-X collagen gene transcription by retinoids occurs in part through the BMP signaling pathway. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A Suppl 3:29-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, while retinoic acid appears to stimulate type-X collagen gene transcription in part by stimulating the BMP signaling pathway, it also acts in part through mechanisms that are independent of BMP. ..
  75. Luo J, Zhou Z, Zhang H, Ma R, Hou J. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013;164:410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers. ..
  76. Kim K, Sampson E, Maynard R, O Keefe R, Chen D, Drissi H, et al. Ski inhibits TGF-?/phospho-Smad3 signaling and accelerates hypertrophic differentiation in chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:2156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that inhibition of TGF-? signaling by Ski, which involves its association with phospho-Smad3 and recruitment of HDAC4 and 5, leads to accelerated chondrocyte differentiation. ..
  77. Hinoi E, Takarada T, Fujimori S, Wang L, Iemata M, Uno K, et al. Nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2 negatively regulates chondrogenesis. Bone. 2007;40:337-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Nrf2 may be a negative regulator of the cellular differentiation toward maturation in chondrocytes. ..
  78. Sobue T, Yeh W, Chhibber A, Utreja A, Diaz Doran V, Adams D, et al. Murine TMJ loading causes increased proliferation and chondrocyte maturation. J Dent Res. 2011;90:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Forced mouth opening causes an increase in the expression of chondrocyte maturation markers and an increase in subchondral trabecular spacing. ..
  79. Tai Z, Huang L, Lu F, Shi Y, Ma S, Cheng J, et al. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to Kashin-Beck disease in a Tibetan population. BMC Med Genet. 2017;18:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, genetic variants in chondrogenesis-related genes COL10A1 and HABP2 may play a role in the risk of developing KBD in the Tibetan population. ..