collagen type iii


Summary: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.

Top Publications

  1. Luo R, Jeong S, Jin Z, Strokes N, Li S, Piao X. G protein-coupled receptor 56 and collagen III, a receptor-ligand pair, regulates cortical development and lamination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12925-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, collagen III regulates the proper lamination of the cerebral cortex by acting as the major ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain. ..
  2. Ghanaati S. Non-cross-linked porcine-based collagen I-III membranes do not require high vascularization rates for their integration within the implantation bed: a paradigm shift. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:3061-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis could explain the observed clinical complications associated with the retrieval of these materials after guided tissue regeneration...
  3. Monument M, Hart D, Befus A, Salo P, Zhang M, Hildebrand K. The mast cell stabilizer ketotifen reduces joint capsule fibrosis in a rabbit model of post-traumatic joint contractures. Inflamm Res. 2012;61:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a rabbit model of post-traumatic joint contractures, we investigated whether treatment with a mast cell stabilizer after joint injury would lessen the molecular manifestations of joint capsule fibrosis...
  4. Cohen A. Collagen Type III Glomerulopathies. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2012;19:101-6 pubmed publisher
    The 2 rare disorders characterized by the pathological accumulation of collagen type III in glomeruli are discussed...
  5. Satish L, Gallo P, Baratz M, Johnson S, Kathju S. Reversal of TGF-?1 stimulation of ?-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix components by cyclic AMP in Dupuytren's-derived fibroblasts. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:113 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, increasing cAMP levels show potential to inhibit the formation of myofibroblasts and accumulation of ECM components. Molecular agents that increase cAMP may therefore prove useful in mitigating DC progression or recurrence. ..
  6. Chen J, Zhu Y, Jiang Y, Yu H, Sun K, Song W, et al. A functional variant of the collagen type III alpha1 gene modify risk of sporadic intracranial aneurysms. Hum Genet. 2012;131:1137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The associations were independent of the presence of hemorrhagic stroke and hypertension. These results support the view that the functional variant of COL3A1 is genetic risk factors for IAs in the Chinese population. ..
  7. Vassiliadis E, Veidal S, Barascuk N, Mullick J, Clausen R, Larsen L, et al. Measurement of matrix metalloproteinase 9-mediated collagen type III degradation fragment as a marker of skin fibrosis. BMC Dermatol. 2011;11:6 pubmed publisher
  8. Liu Q, Humpe A, Kletsas D, Warnke F, Becker S, Douglas T, et al. Proliferation assessment of primary human mesenchymal stem cells on collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26:1004-10 pubmed
    ..Porcine collagen membranes showed good biocompatibility in vitro for hMSCs. If maximum cell proliferation rates are required, a prewash of membranes prior to application may be useful. ..
  9. Rørtveit R, Lingaas F, Bønsdorff T, Eggertsdóttir A, Grøndahl A, Thomassen R, et al. A canine autosomal recessive model of collagen type III glomerulopathy. Lab Invest. 2012;92:1483-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Collagen type III glomerulopathy (Col3GP) is a rare renal disease characterized by massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III...

More Information


  1. Barascuk N, Vassiliadis E, Larsen L, Wang J, Zheng Q, Xing R, et al. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of a specific MMP-9 mediated degradation fragment of type III collagen--A novel biomarker of atherosclerotic plaque remodeling. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:900-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a novel competitive ELISA, capable of measuring a urine biomarker indicative of pathological extracellular matrix remodeling in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. ..
  2. Naito Y, Sakamoto N, Oue N, Yashiro M, Sentani K, Yanagihara K, et al. MicroRNA-143 regulates collagen type III expression in stromal fibroblasts of scirrhous type gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 2014;105:228-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In stromal cells, miR-143 enhanced collagen type III expression in normal gastric fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts through activation of ..
  3. Chao Y, Tsuang Y, Sun J, Chen L, Chiang Y, Wang C, et al. Effects of shock waves on tenocyte proliferation and extracellular matrix metabolism. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2008;34:841-52 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment, up-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (at 6 and 24 h) and collagen type I, collagen type III and TGF-beta1 gene expression (at 24 h) were observed; these were followed by the increases in NO production ..
  4. Lui P, Chan L, Lee Y, Fu S, Chan K. Sustained expression of proteoglycans and collagen type III/type I ratio in a calcified tendinopathy model. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in collagen type III and I expression was observed after injury at Week 2...
  5. Williams K, Olsen D. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 cleavage site recognition and binding in full-length human type III collagen. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The relaxed tertiary structure in the MMP cleavage region may permit local collagen unwinding by MMP-1 that enables site-specific proteolysis. ..
  6. Asling B, Jirholt J, Hammond P, Knutsson M, Walentinsson A, Davidson G, et al. Collagen type III alpha I is a gastro-oesophageal reflux disease susceptibility gene and a male risk factor for hiatus hernia. Gut. 2009;58:1063-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4) Protein expression was analysed in oesophageal biopsies. A region on chromosome 2, containing collagen type III alpha 1 (COL3A1), was identified (LOD = 3...
  7. Barascuk N, Veidal S, Larsen L, Larsen D, Larsen M, Wang J, et al. A novel assay for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with liver fibrosis: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for a MMP-9 proteolytically revealed neo-epitope of type III collagen. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:899-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation...
  8. Zeng W, Chen W, Leng X, He J, Ma H. Chronic angiotensin-(1-7) administration improves vascular remodeling after angioplasty through the regulation of the TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway in rabbits. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The responsible mechanism may function through the possible down-regulation of TGF-beta1 levels and inhibition of the Smad2 pathway. ..
  9. Wang Q, Peng Z, Xiao S, Geng S, Yuan J, Li Z. RNAi-mediated inhibition of COL1A1 and COL3A1 in human skin fibroblasts. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:611-7 pubmed
    ..21% and 22.12% of control levels). These stably modified HSF cell lines may be used for the study of other types of collagen or proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). ..
  10. White B, Osier C, Gletsu N, Jeansonne L, Baghai M, Sherman M, et al. Abnormal primary tissue collagen composition in the skin of recurrent incisional hernia patients. Am Surg. 2007;73:1254-8 pubmed
    ..Such a primary collagen defect, in addition to abnormal scar formation, likely plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of recurrent incisional hernias. ..
  11. Gieling R, Wallace K, Han Y. Interleukin-1 participates in the progression from liver injury to fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G1324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IL-1 is an important participant, along with other cytokines, and controls the progression from liver injury to fibrogenesis through activation of HSCs in vivo. ..
  12. Jarvis G, Raynal N, Langford J, Onley D, Andrews A, Smethurst P, et al. Identification of a major GpVI-binding locus in human type III collagen. Blood. 2008;111:4986-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the ability of a triple-helical peptide to bind GpVI is not solely determined by the presence or spatial arrangement of these OGP/GPO motifs within the peptides. ..
  13. Veidal S, Vassiliadis E, Barascuk N, Zhang C, Segovia Silvestre T, KLICKSTEIN L, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis. Liver Int. 2010;30:1293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..23 and P=0.01), as evaluated by quantitative digital histology. The data suggest that MMP-9-mediated CO3 turnover is a central event in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, and that the neo-epitope generated may be a novel biochemical marker. ..
  14. Karamichos D, Guo X, Hutcheon A, Zieske J. Human corneal fibrosis: an in vitro model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:1382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This model should be useful in examining matrix deposition and assembly in a wound-healing situation. ..
  15. Li F, Fan C, Cheng T, Jiang C, Zeng B. Efficient inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression by ERK2 siRNAs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..MTT assays and flow cytometry revealed marked inhibition of RJATF proliferation, but no apoptosis. In conclusion, LV-mediated ERK2 siRNAs may represent novel therapies or drug targets for preventing joint adhesion formation. ..
  16. Oliveira G, Hawkins H, Chinkes D, Burke A, Tavares A, Ramos e Silva M, et al. Hypertrophic versus non hypertrophic scars compared by immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy: type I and III collagens. Int Wound J. 2009;6:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Easily accessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, type III collagen deposition may help in determining scar phenotype, differentiating hypertrophic and non hypertrophic scars. ..
  17. Kamiie J, Yasuno K, Ogihara K, Nakamura A, Tamahara S, Fujino Y, et al. Collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy with fibronectin deposition in a dog. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:688-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of CFGN in a nonhuman species with glomerular deposition of fibronectin and type III collagen. ..
  18. Ely J, Bishop M, Lammey M, Sleeper M, Steiner J, Lee D. Use of biomarkers of collagen types I and III fibrosis metabolism to detect cardiovascular and renal disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med. 2010;60:154-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, both biomarkers showed a significant trend to increase with disease severity. We conclude that ICTP and PIIINP warrant further study for antemortem detection of renal and myocardial fibrosis in chimpanzees. ..
  19. Alchi B, Nishi S, Narita I, Gejyo F. Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy: clinicopathologic overview of a rare glomerular disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49:499-506 pubmed
    ..A definite diagnosis can be established when typical histological findings are supported by immunohistochemistry for specific collagen types and electron microscopy with special staining methods. No specific treatment is available. ..
  20. Binnebösel M, Junge K, Kaemmer D, Krones C, Titkova S, Anurov M, et al. Intraperitoneally applied gentamicin increases collagen content and mechanical stability of colon anastomosis in rats. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data confirm that intraperitoneally applied gentamicin is able to enhance healing and stability of colonic anastomosis due to an increase of both the overall collagen content and collagen type I/III ratio. ..
  21. Wu J, Weis M, Kim L, Eyre D. Type III collagen, a fibril network modifier in articular cartilage. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18537-44 pubmed publisher
  22. Salsas Escat R, Stultz C. Conformational selection and collagenolysis in type III collagen. Proteins. 2010;78:325-35 pubmed publisher
  23. Lim X, Bless D, Munoz del Rio A, Welham N. Changes in cytokine signaling and extracellular matrix production induced by inflammatory factors in cultured vocal fold fibroblasts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:227-38 pubmed
    ..To evaluate previously established in vivo cytokine and ECM gene expression hypotheses, we examined in vitro vocal fold fibroblast responses to exogenous inflammatory factor stimulation...
  24. Weis M, Hudson D, Kim L, Scott M, Wu J, Eyre D. Location of 3-hydroxyproline residues in collagen types I, II, III, and V/XI implies a role in fibril supramolecular assembly. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2580-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of these B-clade sites were spaced apart by 231 residues. From these and other observations we propose a fundamental role for 3Hyp residues in the ordered self-assembly of collagen supramolecular structures. ..
  25. Heinemeier K, Olesen J, Haddad F, Schjerling P, Baldwin K, Kjaer M. Effect of unloading followed by reloading on expression of collagen and related growth factors in rat tendon and muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the tendon response was clearly different and less pronounced than the muscle tissue response. ..
  26. Kobayashi R, Yasuno K, Ogihara K, Yamaki M, Kagawa Y, Kamiie J, et al. Pathological characterization of collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy in a young dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1137-41 pubmed
    ..The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings of the present dog were consistent with those of the human, childhood form of collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy. ..
  27. Wang Z, Gao Z, Shi Y, Sun Y, Lin Z, Jiang H, et al. Inhibition of Smad3 expression decreases collagen synthesis in keloid disease fibroblasts. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2007;60:1193-9 pubmed
    ..It could be a new promising therapeutic approach to improve skin wound healing and inhibit progression of fibrotic conditions by interrupting the TGF-beta signal pathway. ..
  28. Ishikawa Y, Wirz J, Vranka J, Nagata K, Bachinger H. Biochemical characterization of the prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1.cartilage-associated protein.cyclophilin B complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17641-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex also delayed the in vitro fibril formation of type I collagen, indicating that this complex is also able to interact with triple helical collagen and acts as a collagen chaperone. ..
  29. Yamashita M, Bless D, Welham N. Morphological and extracellular matrix changes following vocal fold injury in mice. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010;192:262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..IHC was specific for procollagen type I, collagen type I, collagen type III, collagen type IV, elastin, decorin, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid binding protein 2...
  30. Maurer B, Stanczyk J, Jungel A, Akhmetshina A, Trenkmann M, Brock M, et al. MicroRNA-29, a key regulator of collagen expression in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data add the posttranscriptional regulation of collagens by miR-29a as a novel aspect to the fibrogenesis of SSc and suggest miR-29a as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  31. Fukui N, Ikeda Y, Ohnuki T, Tanaka N, Hikita A, Mitomi H, et al. Regional differences in chondrocyte metabolism in osteoarthritis: a detailed analysis by laser capture microdissection. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The change of gene expression profile was most obvious in the upper region of the degenerated cartilage. The altered gene expression at that region may be responsible for the loss of cartilage matrix associated with OA. ..
  32. Lebbink R, Raynal N, de Ruiter T, Bihan D, Farndale R, Meyaard L. Identification of multiple potent binding sites for human leukocyte associated Ig-like receptor LAIR on collagens II and III. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:202-10 pubmed publisher
  33. Fricke M, Langer C, Brunner E, Sakai L, Fuzesi L, Reinhardt D, et al. Fibrillin-1 in incisional hernias: an immunohistochemical study in scar and non-scar regions of human skin and muscle fasciae. J Anat. 2008;212:674-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that fibrillin-1 is a relevant factor contributing to tissue stability. Disturbances in its deposition, even before scar formation, may be an important factor to the development of incisional hernias. ..
  34. McGuire M, Scheyer E. Xenogeneic collagen matrix with coronally advanced flap compared to connective tissue with coronally advanced flap for the treatment of dehiscence-type recession defects. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1108-17 pubmed publisher
    ..When balanced with subject-reported esthetic values and compared to historical root coverage outcomes reported by other investigators, CM+CAF presents a viable alternative to CTG+CAF, without the morbidity of soft tissue graft harvest. ..
  35. Plancke A, Holder Espinasse M, Rigau V, Manouvrier S, Claustres M, Khau Van Kien P. Homozygosity for a null allele of COL3A1 results in recessive Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:1411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It opens up new perspectives for the understanding of COL3A1 genotype-phenotype correlations, which is required while considering targeted therapy. ..
  36. Jia P, Hu Y, Li G, Sun Y, Zhao J, Fu J, et al. Roles of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/PKB signaling pathways in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix genes in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Acta Cir Bras. 2017;32:350-358 pubmed publisher
    ..PD98059 and LY294002 can inhibit the ERK1/2 and PI3K/PKB signaling pathways, respectively, thus interfering with the biological effects of CTGF. This may be a new way to reduce PAH-PVR. ..
  37. Luo J. [Application of chemiluminescence immunoassay method in detection of serum index for liver fibrosis in patients with advanced schistosomiasis]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2011;23:107, 109 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the application of CLIA to detect the related serum indexes in patients with advanced schistosomiasis is useful in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. ..
  38. Mendes A, Ferro M, Rodrigues B, Souza M, Araújo R, Souza R. Quantification of left ventricular myocardial collagen system in children, young adults, and the elderly. Medicina (B Aires). 2012;72:216-20 pubmed
    ..The results showed the presence of collagen type III and collagen type I, both in the endomysium and perimysium of the 3 groups studied...
  39. Ahmed A, Schizas N, Li J, Ahmed M, Ostenson C, Salo P, et al. Type 2 diabetes impairs tendon repair after injury in a rat model. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:1784-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further our data suggest that therapeutic modulation of collagens or MMPs might be targets for new regenerative approaches in operated, injured, or maybe also degenerative tendon diseases in diabetes. ..
  40. Quintanar Stephano A, Ventura Juárez J, Sánchez Alemán E, Aldaba Muruato L, Cervantes García D, Gonzalez Blas D, et al. Liver cirrhosis reversion is improved in hamsters with a neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2017;69:496-503 pubmed publisher
  41. Böhning D, Böhning W, Guha N, Cowan D, Sonksen P, Holt R. Statistical methodology for age-adjustment of the GH-2000 score detecting growth hormone misuse. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2016;16:147 pubmed
    ..A final revised GH-2000 score formula is provided which is independent of the age of the athlete under consideration. ..
  42. Barbosa D, de Souza R, de Carvalho W, Xavier M, de Carvalho P, Cunha T, et al. Low-level laser therapy combined with platelet-rich plasma on the healing calcaneal tendon: a histological study in a rat model. Lasers Med Sci. 2013;28:1489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..05), whereas groups GIII and GIV showed no significant difference between them (p?>?0.05). For collagen type III, a significant difference was observed between GII and all other groups (p?<?0...
  43. Guo C, Xu L, He Q, Liang T, Duan X, Li R. Anti-fibrotic effects of puerarin on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats possibly through the regulation of PPAR-? expression and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;56:436-42 pubmed publisher
    ..It played a protective role in the liver tissue probably through regulating the PPAR-? expression and blocking the PI3K/Akt pathway to inhibit the excessive deposition of collagen. ..
  44. Skaf S, Thibault B, Khairy P, O Meara E, Fortier A, Vakulenko H, et al. Impact of Left Ventricular vs Biventricular Pacing on Reverse Remodelling: Insights From the Evaluation of Resynchronization Therapy for Heart Failure (EARTH) Trial. Can J Cardiol. 2017;33:1274-1282 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of secondary end points revealed advantages of BiV pacing over LV pacing on several other features of cardiac remodelling, providing mechanistic insights to support the main finding of the GREATER-EARTH trial. ..
  45. Zhang C, Wang Y, Chen H, Yang G, Wang S, Jiang M, et al. Protective effect of the herbal medicine Gan?fu?kang against carbon tetrachloride?induced liver fibrosis in rats. Mol Med Rep. 2013;8:954-62 pubmed publisher
  46. Obata Y, Nishino T, Kushibiki T, Tomoshige R, Xia Z, Miyazaki M, et al. HSP47 siRNA conjugated with cationized gelatin microspheres suppresses peritoneal fibrosis in mice. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:2688-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, RNA interference combined with CGMs as a drug-delivery system may lead to new strategies for knocking down specific genes in vivo. ..
  47. Madonna R, Delli Pizzi S, Di Donato L, Mariotti A, Di Carlo L, D Ugo E, et al. Non-invasive in vivo detection of peripheral limb ischemia improvement in the rat after adipose tissue-derived stromal cell transplantation. Circ J. 2012;76:1517-25 pubmed
    ..1)H-MRS and IRI are useful tools to monitor attempts at salvaging the ischemic tissues with cell-derived novel therapies. ..
  48. Li S, Wang L, Liu M, Jiang S, Zhang M, Tian Z, et al. Cannabinoid CBâ‚‚ receptors are involved in the regulation of fibrogenesis during skin wound repair in mice. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:3441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate fibrogenesis and the TGF‑β/Smad profibrotic signaling pathway during skin wound repair in the mouse. ..
  49. Wei J, Shi M, Wu W, Xu H, Wang T, Wang N, et al. I?B kinase-beta inhibitor attenuates hepatic fibrosis in mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:5203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..05). IKK2 inhibitor IMD markedly improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by lowering NF-?B activation, which could become a remedial target for liver fibrosis. ..
  50. Turner N, Pezzone M, Brown B, Badylak S. Quantitative multispectral imaging of Herovici's polychrome for the assessment of collagen content and tissue remodelling. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2013;7:139-48 pubmed publisher
  51. Pahk K, Joung C, Jung S, Young Song H, Yong Park J, Woo Byun J, et al. Visualization of Synthetic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerotic Carotid Rat Arteries by F-18 FDG PET. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6989 pubmed publisher
    ..Surrogate markers of synthetic VSMCs such as collagen type III, cyclophilin A, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 were increased in neointima region...
  52. Calvi E, Nahas F, Barbosa M, Ihara S, Calil J, Ferreira L. Immunohistochemical analysis of collagen content and types in the rectus abdominis muscle of cadavers of different ages. Acta Cir Bras. 2011;26 Suppl 2:3-7 pubmed
    ..However, no difference in the amount of type IV collagen was found between the groups. The amount of type I and type III collagen was higher in group A. ..
  53. Flevari P, Theodorakis G, Leftheriotis D, Kroupis C, Kolokathis F, Dima K, et al. Serum markers of deranged myocardial collagen turnover: their relation to malignant ventricular arrhythmias in cardioverter-defibrillator recipients with heart failure. Am Heart J. 2012;164:530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate their predictive ability. ..