Summary: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).

Top Publications

  1. Parry A, Clemson N, Ellis J, Bernhard S, Davis B, Cameron N. 'Multicopy multivalent' glycopolymer-stabilized gold nanoparticles as potential synthetic cancer vaccines. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:9362-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The polymers were then conjugated to gold nanoparticles, yielding 'multicopy-multivalent' nanoscale glycoconjugates...
  2. Smits P, Hofma S, Togni M, Vazquez N, Valdes M, Voudris V, et al. Abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (COMPARE II): a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2013;381:651-60 pubmed publisher
    Drug-eluting stents with durable biocompatible or biodegradable polymers have been developed to address the risk of thrombosis associated with first-generation drug-eluting stents...
  3. Xu S, Lu H, Li J, Song X, Wang A, Chen L, et al. Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers-capped CdTe quantum dots for the fluorescent sensing of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013;5:8146-54 pubmed publisher
    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with trinitrophenol (TNP) as a dummy template molecule capped with CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES) as the functional monomer and tetraethoxysilane (..
  4. Tertis M, Florea A, Sandulescu R, Cristea C. Carbon based electrodes modified with horseradish peroxidase immobilized in conducting polymers for acetaminophen analysis. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:4841-54 pubmed publisher
    ..36 ± 0.013 ?M and the linear range 9.99-79.01 ?M for the HRP-SWCNT/PEI in GCE configuration. The biosensors were successfully applied for the detection of acetaminophen in several drug formulations...
  5. Cafferty B, Gállego I, Chen M, Farley K, Eritja R, Hud N. Efficient self-assembly in water of long noncovalent polymers by nucleobase analogues. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:2447-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study have implications for the design of new self-assembling structures and hydrogel-forming molecules and may provide insights into the origin of the first RNA-like polymers.
  6. Xu Z, Wen G, Kuang D, Zhang F, Tang S. Selective separation of deltamethrin by molecularly imprinted polymers using a ?-cyclodextrin derivative as the functional monomer. J Environ Sci Health B. 2013;48:336-43 pubmed publisher
    ..2-93.4% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.03-6.19%. The method has been successfully applied to the enrichment of trace deltamethrin from real water samples. ..
  7. Cushing K, Piyasena M, Carroll N, Maestas G, López B, Edwards B, et al. Elastomeric negative acoustic contrast particles for affinity capture assays. Anal Chem. 2013;85:2208-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach has potential applications in the development of rapid assays that detect the presence of low concentrations of biomarkers in a number of biological sample types. ..
  8. Tobimatsu Y, Chen F, Nakashima J, Escamilla Trevino L, Jackson L, Dixon R, et al. Coexistence but independent biosynthesis of catechyl and guaiacyl/syringyl lignin polymers in seed coats. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2587-600 pubmed publisher
    Lignins are phenylpropanoid polymers, derived from monolignols, commonly found in terrestrial plant secondary cell walls...
  9. Lomas D. Twenty years of polymers: a personal perspective on alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. COPD. 2013;10 Suppl 1:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..the common severe Z deficiency allele causes mutant alpha-1 antitrypsin to be retained as inclusions of ordered polymers within hepatocytes...

More Information


  1. Lin Y, Zhang Z. Influence of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers. J Chem Phys. 2013;138:094905 pubmed publisher
    ..polymer networks, Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, which separately model dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers. Our goal is to explore the impact of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in these two important polymer ..
  2. De Volder M, Tawfick S, Baughman R, Hart A. Carbon nanotubes: present and future commercial applications. Science. 2013;339:535-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Shue L, Yufeng Z, Mony U. Biomaterials for periodontal regeneration: a review of ceramics and polymers. Biomatter. 2012;2:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They fall into two broad classes: ceramics and polymers. The available ceramic-based materials include calcium phosphate (eg, tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite), ..
  4. Li J, Liu J, Wei C, Liu B, O DONNELL M, Gao X. Emerging applications of conjugated polymers in molecular imaging. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:17006-15 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention from the imaging community as a new class of contrast agent due to their intriguing structural, chemical, and optical properties...
  5. Xue C, Han Q, Wang Y, Wu J, Wen T, Wang R, et al. Amperometric detection of dopamine in human serum by electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles doped molecularly imprinted polymers. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;49:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..of trace dopamine (DA) in human serums was achieved by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) doped molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)...
  6. Serruys P, Farooq V, Kalesan B, de Vries T, Buszman P, Linke A, et al. Improved safety and reduction in stent thrombosis associated with biodegradable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: final 5-year report of the LEADERS (. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013;6:777-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Limus Eluted From A Durable Versus ERodable Stent Coating [LEADERS] trial; NCT00389220). ..
  7. Kijima M, Oaki Y, Munekawa Y, Imai H. Synthesis and morphogenesis of organic and inorganic polymers by means of biominerals and biomimetic materials. Chemistry. 2013;19:2284-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, the approach for the coupled synthesis and morphogenesis can be applied to a variety of combinations of the templates and polymer materials. ..
  8. Navarese E, Castriota F, Sangiorgi G, Cremonesi A. From the abluminal biodegradable polymer stent to the polymer free stent. Clinical evidence. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2013;61:243-54 pubmed
    ..In this article we discuss the perceived need for BDS-polymer free stents, the current clinical evidence, limits and future perspectives. ..
  9. Aminlashgari N, Höglund O, Borg N, Hakkarainen M. Degradation profile and preliminary clinical testing of a resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:6898-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanical performance of the perforated band was followed for the first week of hydrolysis and the results suggest that sufficient strength is retained during the healing time of the blood vessels. ..
  10. Ortega J, Hartman J, Rodriguez J, Maitland D. Virtual treatment of basilar aneurysms using shape memory polymer foam. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:725-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The Newtonian viscosity model and the porous media model capture similar qualitative trends, though both yield a smaller volume of thrombus within the SMP foam. ..
  11. Wang S, Shi W, Yu S, Yi X. Rapid cultivation of aerobic granular sludge by bone glue augmentation and contaminant removal characteristics. Water Sci Technol. 2013;67:1627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..AGS possessed better chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P removal efficiency (of 86.7, 90.6 and 93.8%, respectively) and no nitrite accumulation was observed in the whole process. ..
  12. Al Ahmad A, Laird D, Zou P, Tomakidi P, Steinberg T, Lienkamp K. Nature-inspired antimicrobial polymers--assessment of their potential for biomedical applications. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73812 pubmed publisher
    ..synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs), a promising new class of antimicrobial polymers with cell-selectivity and low resistance development potential, for clinical applications...
  13. Takahashi H, Palermo E, Yasuhara K, Caputo G, Kuroda K. Molecular design, structures, and activity of antimicrobial peptide-mimetic polymers. Macromol Biosci. 2013;13:1285-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, these polymers also did not result in any measurable resistance development in E. coli...
  14. Lui L, Xue X, Sui C, Brown A, Pritchard D, Halliday N, et al. Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes. Nat Chem. 2013;5:1058-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are therefore a ..
  15. Li W, Zhang Q, Zheng G, Seh Z, Yao H, Cui Y. Understanding the role of different conductive polymers in improving the nanostructured sulfur cathode performance. Nano Lett. 2013;13:5534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Conductive polymers in combination with nanostructured sulfur have attracted great interest as promising matrices for the confinement ..
  16. Rosebrugh L, Marx V, Keitz B, Grubbs R. Synthesis of highly cis, syndiotactic polymers via ring-opening metathesis polymerization using ruthenium metathesis catalysts. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:10032-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The first example of ruthenium-mediated ring-opening metathesis polymerization generating highly cis, highly tactic polymers is reported...
  17. Zou X, Zhou Y, Yang S. Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2013;110:2105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. ..
  18. Natsuaki M, Kozuma K, Morimoto T, Kadota K, Muramatsu T, Nakagawa Y, et al. Biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent: a randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:181-190 pubmed publisher
    ..One-year clinical outcome after both BES and EES use was excellent, with a low rate of TLR and extremely low rate of stent thrombosis. ..
  19. Senthilnathan J, Weng C, Liao J, Yoshimura M. Submerged liquid plasma for the synthesis of unconventional nitrogen polymers. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2414 pubmed publisher
    ..the formation of radical monomers, which undergoes further rearrangement to form low-molecular (LM) nitrogen polymers (NPs)...
  20. Pardeshi S, Dhodapkar R, Kumar A. Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanoparticles prepared using precipitation polymerisation method for selective extraction of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis. Food Chem. 2014;146:385-93 pubmed publisher
    This paper reports the preparation of gallic acid (GA) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the precipitation polymerisation and highlights the effect of porogen on particle size and specific molecular recognition properties...
  21. Jeon W, Lee S, Manjunatha D, Ban C. A colorimetric aptasensor for the diagnosis of malaria based on cationic polymers and gold nanoparticles. Anal Biochem. 2013;439:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the cationic polymers, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), aggregate gold ..
  22. Li W, Zhang L, Zhang G, Wei H, Zhao M, Li H, et al. The finely regulating well-defined functional polymeric nanocarriers for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013;13:643-52 pubmed
    ..And how to improve the cancer immunotherapy by finely nanocarrier's engineering (nanoimmunotherapy) was systematically illustrated with special focus on the unique pathology of tumor microenviroments and properties of immuno cells. ..
  23. Christiansen E, Jensen L, Thayssen P, Tilsted H, Krusell L, Hansen K, et al. Biolimus-eluting biodegradable polymer-coated stent versus durable polymer-coated sirolimus-eluting stent in unselected patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (SORT OUT V): a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2013;381:661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We will need to obtain long-term data before we can make recommendations for the role of this biolimus-eluting stent in routine clinical practice. Terumo and Cordis (Johnson & Johnson). ..
  24. Mudgil D, Barak S. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;61:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. ..
  25. Liu J, Huang W, Pang Y, Yan D. Hyperbranched polyphosphates: synthesis, functionalization and biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev. 2015;44:3942-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the integration of the advantages of both hyperbranched polymers and polyphosphates, HBPPs are versatile in chemical structure, flexible in physicochemical properties, water ..
  26. Salmanpour M, Tamaddon A, Yousefi G, Mohammadi Samani S. "Grafting-from" synthesis and characterization of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly (benzyl L-glutamate) micellar nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications. Bioimpacts. 2017;7:155-166 pubmed publisher
    ..The polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, size exclusion chromatography and differential scanning ..
  27. Realini M, Conti C, Botteon A, Colombo C, Matousek P. Development of a full micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy prototype as a portable analytical tool. Analyst. 2017;142:351-355 pubmed publisher
    ..in panels, canvases and mural paintings, painted statues and decorated objects in cultural heritage or stratified polymers, and biological, catalytic and forensics samples where invasive analysis is undesirable or impossible to perform...
  28. El Hachemi Z, Balaban T, Campos J, Cespedes S, Crusats J, Escudero C, et al. Effect of Hydrodynamic Forces on meso-(4-Sulfonatophenyl)-Substituted Porphyrin J-Aggregate Nanoparticles: Elasticity, Plasticity and Breaking. Chemistry. 2016;22:9740-9 pubmed publisher
    The J aggregates of 4-sulfonatophenyl meso-substituted porphyrins are non-covalent polymers obtained by self-assembly that form nanoparticles of different morphologies...
  29. Sarika P, James N. Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles from cationised gelatin and sodium alginate for curcumin delivery. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;148:354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..prepared from cationically modified gelatin and sodium alginate (Alg) by electrostatic complexation between the polymers. Cationised gelatin (CG) is prepared by the reaction of gelatin with ethylenediamine...
  30. Zhang H, Kou W, Bibi A, Jia Q, Su R, Chen H, et al. Internal Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Determination of Fluoroquinolones Captured by Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers from Raw Milk. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14714 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein solid-phase extraction based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MMIPs-SPE-iEESI-MS) was designed for ..
  31. Ribeiro C, Sencadas V, Correia D, Lanceros Méndez S. Piezoelectric polymers as biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015;136:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides thus a compilation of the most relevant results and strategies and a start point for novel research pathways in the most relevant and challenging open questions. ..
  32. Buch Månson N, Spangenberg A, Gómez L, Malval J, Soppera O, Martinez K. Rapid Prototyping of Polymeric Nanopillars by 3D Direct Laser Writing for Controlling Cell Behavior. Sci Rep. 2017;7:9247 pubmed publisher
    ..nano- and micron-sized structures are therefore of great interest in the field of tissue engineering, where polymers are particularly attractive due to excellent biocompatibility and versatile fabrication methods...
  33. Ntwampe I, Waanders F, Bunt J. Destabilization dynamics of clay and acid-free polymers of ferric and magnesium salts in AMD without pH adjustment. Water Sci Technol. 2016;74:861-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The polymers used in exp A exhibited TSS removal efficiency (E%) which was slightly lower compared with the polymer used in ..
  34. Hayden O. One Binder to Bind Them All. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16: pubmed
    ..With synthetic alternatives, such as molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), less sensor development time and higher stability of the binder can be achieved...
  35. He W, Choi I, Lee J, Hur J. Coupling effects of abiotic and biotic factors on molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in a freshwater wetland. Sci Total Environ. 2016;544:525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..For 2-year long monthly monitoring, bio-polymers (BP), humic substances (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular-weight (LMW) neutrals, and LMW acids displayed ..
  36. Giulbudagian M, Rancan F, Klossek A, Yamamoto K, Jurisch J, Neto V, et al. Correlation between the chemical composition of thermoresponsive nanogels and their interaction with the skin barrier. J Control Release. 2016;243:323-332 pubmed publisher
    ..using dendritic polyglycerol as a multifunctional crosslinker and three different kinds of thermoresponsive polymers as linear counterpart: poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM), p(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate - co ..
  37. Garcia Amorós J, Tang S, Zhang Y, Thapaliya E, Raymo F. Self-Assembling Nanoparticles of Amphiphilic Polymers for In Vitro and In Vivo FRET Imaging. Top Curr Chem. 2016;370:29-59 pubmed publisher
    Self-assembling nanoparticles of amphiphilic polymers are viable delivery vehicles for transporting hydrophobic molecules across hydrophilic media...
  38. Wan W, Zhou P, Cheng F, Sun X, Lv X, Li K, et al. Thermo-responsive behavior of borinic acid polymers: experimental and molecular dynamics studies. Soft Matter. 2015;11:7159-64 pubmed publisher
    The thermo-responsive properties of borinic acid polymers were investigated by experimental and molecular dynamics simulation studies...
  39. Xu Q, Shoji M, Shibata S, Naito M, Sato K, Elsliger M, et al. A Distinct Type of Pilus from the Human Microbiome. Cell. 2016;165:690-703 pubmed publisher
    Pili are proteinaceous polymers of linked pilins that protrude from the cell surface of many bacteria and often mediate adherence and virulence...
  40. HERNANDEZ C, Gulati S, Fioravanti G, Stewart P, Exner A. Cryo-EM Visualization of Lipid and Polymer-Stabilized Perfluorocarbon Gas Nanobubbles - A Step Towards Nanobubble Mediated Drug Delivery. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13517 pubmed publisher
    Gas microbubbles stabilized with lipids, surfactants, proteins and/or polymers are widely used clinically as ultrasound contrast agents. Because of their large 1-10?µm size, applications of microbubbles are confined to the blood vessels...
  41. Haase F, Banerjee T, Savasci G, Ochsenfeld C, Lotsch B. Structure-property-activity relationships in a pyridine containing azine-linked covalent organic framework for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Faraday Discuss. 2017;201:247-264 pubmed publisher
    Organic solids such as covalent organic frameworks (COFs), porous polymers and carbon nitrides have garnered attention as a new generation of photocatalysts that offer tunability of their optoelectronic properties both at the molecular ..
  42. Aiello F, Balzano F, Carpita L, Fabiano A, Zambito Y, Uccello Barretta G. Role of nanostructured aggregation of chitosan derivatives on [5-methionine]enkephalin affinity. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;157:321-324 pubmed publisher
    ..Nanoaggregates showed enhanced drug affinity in comparison with corresponding polymers, especially in the case of thiolated systems.
  43. Govan J, Gun ko Y. Recent Advances in the Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Support for Homogeneous Catalysts. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2014;4:222-241 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of catalytically active small organic molecules and polymers are also reviewed...
  44. Ikeuchi Takahashi Y, Ishihara C, Onishi H. Evaluation of polyvinyl alcohols as mucoadhesive polymers for mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared by direct compression. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2017;43:1489-1500 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the optimal characteristics of PVA, and the usefulness of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing this PVA was suggested from their formulation properties. ..
  45. Alcon I, Reta D, Moreira I, Bromley S. Design of multi-functional 2D open-shell organic networks with mechanically controllable properties. Chem Sci. 2017;8:1027-1039 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular building blocks for materials science, having been used in breakthrough syntheses of organic magnetic polymers and metal organic frameworks...
  46. Habibi Khorasani M, Mohammadpour A, Mohajeri S. Development of solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography for analysis of tramadol in brain tissue using its molecularly imprinted polymer. Biomed Chromatogr. 2017;31: pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrated the potential of MISPME for rapid, sensitive and cost-effective sample analysis. ..
  47. Gumaste S, Gupta S, Serajuddin A. Investigation of Polymer-Surfactant and Polymer-Drug-Surfactant Miscibility for Solid Dispersion. AAPS J. 2016;18:1131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also identify the HPMCAS-poloxamer 188 mixture as an optimal surface-active carrier system for SD. ..
  48. Huang S, O Donnell K, Keen J, Rickard M, McGinity J, Williams R. A New Extrudable Form of Hypromellose: AFFINISOLâ„¢ HPMC HME. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2016;17:106-19 pubmed publisher
    ..the extrudability and performance of AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME (100LV and 4M) as compared to other widely used polymers in HME, including HPMC 2910 100cP (the currently available hypromellose), Soluplus®, Kollidon® VA 64, and ..
  49. Olthof M, Tryfonidou M, Liu X, Pouran B, Meij B, Dhert W, et al. Phosphate functional groups improve OPF osteoconduction and BMP-2 osteoinductive efficacy. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..large quantities, drug delivery functionality, and modifiable chemistry and mechanical properties makes synthetic polymers highly suitable candidates for bone grafting...
  50. Dai Y, Kizjakina K, Campbell A, Korasick D, Tanner J, Sobrado P. Flavin-N5 Covalent Intermediate in the Non-redox Dehalogenation Reaction Catalyzed by an Atypical Flavoenzyme. Chembiochem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..hydratase (2-HAH) catalyzes the conversion of 2-chloroacrylate, a major component in the manufacture of acrylic polymers, to pyruvate. The enzyme from has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized...
  51. Moghaddam S, Thormann E. Hofmeister effect on thermo-responsive poly(propylene oxide): Role of polymer molecular weight and concentration. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2016;465:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..is interpreted in terms of a scaling law between the molecular weight and the accessible surface area of the polymers. Increasing the PPO concentration further diminished the NaCl effect, but amplified the NaSCN effect...
  52. Shi W, Hu K, Wu Q, Mei L, Zhang X, Ma L, et al. Novel Viologen Derivative Based Uranyl Coordination Polymers Featuring Photochromic Behaviors. Chemistry. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    A series of novel uranyl coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions...
  53. Sun S, Wu P. Conformational changes in the heat-induced crystallization of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) in the solid state. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015;17:31084-92 pubmed publisher
    ..structure of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) represents an important class of stimuli-responsive synthetic polymers. Unlike PNIPAM, PIPOZ exhibits an unusual heat-induced crystallization behaviour at around 120 °C in the solid ..