type iii secretion systems


Summary: Multiprotein transmembrane complexes in GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA involved in either the secretion of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm into host cells, or the secretion and assembly of flagellar components. The major component of the T3SSs is called the injectosome or needle complex.

Top Publications

  1. Liu L, Nie P, Yu H, Xie H. Regulation of Type III Secretion of Translocon and Effector Proteins by the EsaB/EsaL/EsaM Complex in Edwardsiella tarda. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..tarda during a coinfection model. These results demonstrate that EsaB/EsaL/EsaM form a ternary complex controlling the secretion of T3SS translocon and effector proteins and contributing to E. tarda pathogenesis. ..
  2. Satchell K. Multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) Toxins of Vibrios. Microbiol Spectr. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..The catalytic function of domains and how the toxins are linked to pathogenesis of human and animals is described. ..
  3. Zhang Z, Ma K, Gao L, Hu Z, Schwizer S, Ma W, et al. Mechanism of host substrate acetylation by a YopJ family effector. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17115 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides critical mechanistic insights into the virulence activity of YopJ class of acetyltransferases. ..
  4. Kim D, Seo S, Zeng M, Kim W, Kamada N, Inohara N, et al. Mesenchymal Cell-Specific MyD88 Signaling Promotes Systemic Dissemination of Salmonella Typhimurium via Inflammatory Monocytes. J Immunol. 2017;199:1362-1371 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that S. Typhimurium promotes its systemic growth and dissemination through MyD88 signaling pathways in mesenchymal cells. ..
  5. de Souza Santos M, Salomon D, Orth K. T3SS effector VopL inhibits the host ROS response, promoting the intracellular survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006438 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first example of how a T3SS2 effector contributes to the intracellular survival of V. parahaemolyticus, supporting the establishment of a protective intracellular replicative niche. ..
  6. Göhler A, Trung T, Hopf V, Kohler C, Hartleib J, Wuthiekanun V, et al. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017;83: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that our quantitative multitarget approach might be useful in defining areas where there is a risk of B. pseudomallei infections in different parts of the world. ..
  7. Katsowich N, Elbaz N, Pal R, Mills E, Kobi S, Kahan T, et al. Host cell attachment elicits posttranscriptional regulation in infecting enteropathogenic bacteria. Science. 2017;355:735-739 pubmed publisher
    ..The CesT-CsrA interaction provokes reprogramming of expression of virulence and metabolic genes. This regulation is likely required for the pathogen's adaptation to life on the epithelium surface. ..
  8. Zwack E, Feeley E, Burton A, Hu B, Yamamoto M, Kanneganti T, et al. Guanylate Binding Proteins Regulate Inflammasome Activation in Response to Hyperinjected Yersinia Translocon Components. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that lysosomal damage by Yersinia translocon proteins promotes inflammasome activation and implicate GBPs as key regulators of this process. ..
  9. Dey S, Anbanandam A, Mumford B, De Guzman R. Characterization of Small-Molecule Scaffolds That Bind to the Shigella Type III Secretion System Protein IpaD. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1534-1541 pubmed publisher
    ..NMR mapping revealed potential hotspots in IpaD for binding small molecules. These scaffolds can be used as building blocks in developing small-molecule inhibitors of IpaD that could lead to new anti-infectives. ..

More Information


  1. Finn C, Chong A, Cooper K, Starr T, Steele Mortimer O. A second wave of Salmonella T3SS1 activity prolongs the lifespan of infected epithelial cells. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006354 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments. ..
  2. Jeon J, Kim Y, Shin H, Ha U. T3SS effector ExoY reduces inflammasome-related responses by suppressing bacterial motility and delaying activation of NF-κB and caspase-1. FEBS J. 2017;284:3392-3403 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa ExoY can reduce inflammasome-related responses by influencing both the host and the bacterium itself by delaying the activation of inflammatory pathways and suppressing bacterial motility. ..
  3. Chakravarty S, Melton C, Bailin A, Yahr T, Anderson G. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Magnesium Transporter MgtE Inhibits Type III Secretion System Gene Expression by Stimulating rsmYZ Transcription. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa In this study, we describe the mechanism of MgtE-dependent inhibition of the T3SS. Our report also illustrates how MgtE might respond to environmental cues, such as magnesium levels, to fine-tune T3SS gene expression. ..
  4. Tan Y, Liu W, Zhang Q, Cao S, Zhao H, Wang T, et al. Yersinia pestis YopK Inhibits Bacterial Adhesion to Host Cells by Binding to the Extracellular Matrix Adaptor Protein Matrilin-2. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Taking these results together, we propose a model that the T3SS-secreted YopK hinders bacterial adhesion to HeLa cells by binding to MATN2, which is ubiquitously exposed on eukaryotic cells. ..
  5. Yamamoto D, Hernandes R, Liberatore A, Abe C, Souza R, Romão F, et al. Escherichia albertii, a novel human enteropathogen, colonizes rat enterocytes and translocates to extra-intestinal sites. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171385 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our approaches allowed us to draft a general E. albertii infection route from the colonization till the bacterial spreading in vivo. ..
  6. Notti R, Stebbins C. The Structure and Function of Type III Secretion Systems. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    b>Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) afford Gram-negative bacteria an intimate means of altering the biology of their eukaryotic hosts--the direct delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to that of the eukaryote...
  7. Fabiani F, Renault T, Peters B, Dietsche T, Gálvez E, Guse A, et al. A flagellum-specific chaperone facilitates assembly of the core type III export apparatus of the bacterial flagellum. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002267 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results suggest that FliO functions as a novel, flagellar T3SS-specific chaperone, which facilitates quality control and productive assembly of the core T3SS export machinery. ..
  8. Mattock E, Blocker A. How Do the Virulence Factors of Shigella Work Together to Cause Disease?. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:64 pubmed publisher
  9. Howe K, Salehi S, Hartford Bailey R, Brooks J, Wills R, Lawrence M, et al. Supplemental invasion of Salmonella from the perspective of Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Typhimurium. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:88 pubmed publisher
    ..A different result was observed for Typhimurium as the mutation significantly lowered the rate of invasion in comparison to the wild-type strain. ..
  10. Abe A, Nishimura R, Kuwae A. Bordetella effector BopN is translocated into host cells via its N-terminal residues. Microbiol Immunol. 2017;61:206-214 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, BopN appears to play an auxiliary role in BteA-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, BopN can apparently translocate into host cells and may facilitate activity of BteA. ..
  11. Ruan H, Zhang Z, Wang S, Nickels L, Tian L, Qiao J, et al. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) Mediates Ubiquitination-Dependent STAT3 Activation upon Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    i>Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can inject effector proteins into host cells via type III secretion systems (T3SSs)...
  12. Pilla G, McVicker G, Tang C. Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007014 pubmed publisher
    ..Intra- and inter-molecular events between ISs, which are abundant in Shigella spp., mediate plasticity of S. flexneri pINV. ..
  13. Deng W, Marshall N, Rowland J, McCoy J, Worrall L, Santos A, et al. Assembly, structure, function and regulation of type III secretion systems. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;15:323-337 pubmed publisher
    b>Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts...
  14. Mellies J, Platenkamp A, Osborn J, Ben Avi L. PerC Manipulates Metabolism and Surface Antigens in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:32 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, this protein controls niche adaptation, and could help to explain the function of the PerC homologs (Pch), many of which are encoded within prophages in related, Gram-negative pathogens. ..
  15. Schulmeyer K, Yahr T. Post-transcriptional regulation of type III secretion in plant and animal pathogens. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2017;36:30-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Type III secretion systems (T3SS) serve as a primary anti-host defense mechanism for many Gram-negative plant and animal pathogens. T3SS production is tightly controlled and activated by host-associated signals...
  16. Zigangirova N, Kost E, Didenko L, Kapotina L, Zayakin E, Luyksaar S, et al. A small-molecule compound belonging to a class of 2,4-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazine-5-ones inhibits intracellular growth and persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Med Microbiol. 2016;65:91-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that our T3SS inhibitor may be effective in the treatment of both productive and persistent infections. ..
  17. Diepold A, Armitage J. Type III secretion systems: the bacterial flagellum and the injectisome. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015;370: pubmed publisher