bacterial secretion systems


Summary: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.

Top Publications

  1. Edgren T, Forsberg A, Rosqvist R, Wolf Watz H. Type III secretion in Yersinia: injectisome or not?. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002669 pubmed publisher
  2. Ali S, Duan J, Charles T, Glick B. A bioinformatics approach to the determination of genes involved in endophytic behavior in Burkholderia spp. J Theor Biol. 2014;343:193-8 pubmed
    ..Nearly all of the genes identified by this bioinformatics procedure encode function previously suggested in other studies to be involved in endophytic behavior. ..
  3. da Cunha M, Pais S, Bugalhão J, Mota L. The Chlamydia trachomatis type III secretion substrates CT142, CT143, and CT144 are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178856 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest that the CT142, CT143, and CT144 type III secretion substrates are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion where they might form a protein complex. ..
  4. Ward A, Sali A, Wilson I. Biochemistry. Integrative structural biology. Science. 2013;339:913-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Monack D, Hultgren S. The complex interactions of bacterial pathogens and host defenses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013;16:1-3 pubmed publisher
  6. Wenren L, Sullivan N, Cardarelli L, Septer A, Gibbs K. Two independent pathways for self-recognition in Proteus mirabilis are linked by type VI-dependent export. MBio. 2013;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins together form a mechanistic network for self-recognition that can serve as a foundation for examining the prevalent biological phenomena of territorial behaviors and self-recognition in a simple, bacterial model system. ..
  7. Lenders M, Reimann S, Smits S, Schmitt L. Molecular insights into type I secretion systems. Biol Chem. 2013;394:1371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will provide a detailed view of the components of the translocator and will summarize structural as well as functional data. ..
  8. Mortimer T, Weber A, PEPPERELL C. Evolutionary Thrift: Mycobacteria Repurpose Plasmid Diversity during Adaptation of Type VII Secretion Systems. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:398-413 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss further implications for the choice of model organism to study ESX functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ..
  9. Nunes Alves C. Bacterial secretion: A trans-kingdom effector. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014;12:460-1 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Oikonomou C, Jensen G. Cellular Electron Cryotomography: Toward Structural Biology In Situ. Annu Rev Biochem. 2017;86:873-896 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the integration of ECT with other techniques, including lower-resolution fluorescence imaging and higher-resolution atomic structure determination, to cover the full scale of cellular processes. ..
  2. Chakravarty S, Melton C, Bailin A, Yahr T, Anderson G. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Magnesium Transporter MgtE Inhibits Type III Secretion System Gene Expression by Stimulating rsmYZ Transcription. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa In this study, we describe the mechanism of MgtE-dependent inhibition of the T3SS. Our report also illustrates how MgtE might respond to environmental cues, such as magnesium levels, to fine-tune T3SS gene expression. ..
  3. Jang K, Lee Z, Kim B, Jung Y, Han H, Kim M, et al. Identification and characterization of Vibrio vulnificus plpA encoding a phospholipase A2 essential for pathogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17129-17143 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study demonstrated that VvPlpA is a type II secretion system-dependent secretory phospholipase A2 regulated by HlyU and CRP and is essential for the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus. ..
  4. Costa S, Schmitz A, Jahufar F, Boyd J, Cho M, Glicksman M, et al. A new means to identify type 3 secreted effectors: functionally interchangeable class IB chaperones recognize a conserved sequence. MBio. 2012;3: pubmed publisher
  5. Henderson B, Ward J, Ready D. Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans: a triple A* periodontopathogen?. Periodontol 2000. 2010;54:78-105 pubmed publisher
  6. Sugawara M, Epstein B, Badgley B, Unno T, Xu L, Reese J, et al. Comparative genomics of the core and accessory genomes of 48 Sinorhizobium strains comprising five genospecies. Genome Biol. 2013;14:R17 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of genes present in the accessory genomes of members of this genus indicates that each bacterium has adopted slightly different strategies to interact with diverse plant genera and soil environments. ..
  7. Filloux A. Microbiology: a weapon for bacterial warfare. Nature. 2013;500:284-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Ezenwa V, Gerardo N, Inouye D, Medina M, Xavier J. Microbiology. Animal behavior and the microbiome. Science. 2012;338:198-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Siegrist M, Steigedal M, Ahmad R, Mehra A, Dragset M, Schuster B, et al. Mycobacterial Esx-3 requires multiple components for iron acquisition. MBio. 2014;5:e01073-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Although protein export clearly contributes to type VII function, the relationship is not absolute. ..
  10. Green E, Mecsas J. Bacterial Secretion Systems: An Overview. Microbiol Spectr. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we address recent findings that indicate that the innate immune system of the host can detect and respond to the presence of protein secretion systems during mammalian infection. ..
  11. Barta M, Shearer J, Arizmendi O, Tremblay J, Mehzabeen N, Zheng Q, et al. Single-domain antibodies pinpoint potential targets within Shigella invasion plasmid antigen D of the needle tip complex for inhibition of type III secretion. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16677-16687 pubmed publisher
  12. Newton H, Roy C. The Coxiella burnetii Dot/Icm system creates a comfortable home through lysosomal renovation. MBio. 2011;2: pubmed publisher
  13. Harrison J, Dung T, Siddiqui F, Korbrisate S, Bukhari H, Tra M, et al. Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1026-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam. ..
  14. Mills E, Baruch K, Aviv G, Nitzan M, Rosenshine I. Dynamics of the type III secretion system activity of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. MBio. 2013;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the newly described microscopy-based assay can be readily adapted to study the dynamics of TTSS activity in other pathogens. ..
  15. Zhang W, Yu W, Liu D, Li M, DU P, Wu Y, et al. T4SP: a novel tool and database for type IV secretion systems in bacterial genomes. Biomed Environ Sci. 2013;26:614-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Hartmann N, Büttner D. The inner membrane protein HrcV from Xanthomonas spp. is involved in substrate docking during type III secretion. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:1176-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the FHIPEP motif abolish HrcV function but do not affect the interaction of HrcVC with effector proteins. ..
  17. Hu B, Lara Tejero M, Kong Q, Galan J, Liu J. In Situ Molecular Architecture of the Salmonella Type III Secretion Machine. Cell. 2017;168:1065-1074.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide major insight into the structure and assembly of a broadly distributed protein secretion machine. ..
  18. Coll N, Valls M. Current knowledge on the Ralstonia solanacearum type III secretion system. Microb Biotechnol. 2013;6:614-20 pubmed publisher
  19. Harms A, Liesch M, Körner J, Quebatte M, Engel P, Dehio C. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007077 pubmed publisher