casein kinase idelta


Summary: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.

Top Publications

  1. Long A, Zhao H, Huang X. Structural basis for the interaction between casein kinase 1 delta and a potent and selective inhibitor. J Med Chem. 2012;55:956-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and specific inhibitor interactions and suggest clues for further development of CK1?/? inhibitors. ..
  2. Meng Q, Maywood E, Bechtold D, Lu W, Li J, Gibbs J, et al. Entrainment of disrupted circadian behavior through inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, selective pharmacological targeting of the endogenous circadian regulator CK1delta offers an avenue for therapeutic modulation of perturbed circadian behavior. ..
  3. Stöter M, Bamberger A, Aslan B, Kurth M, Speidel D, Löning T, et al. Inhibition of casein kinase I delta alters mitotic spindle formation and induces apoptosis in trophoblast cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:7964-75 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that CKIdelta plays an important role in the mitotic progression and in the survival of cells of trophoblast origin. Therefore, IC261 could provide a new tool in treating choriocarcinomas. ..
  4. Brockschmidt C, Hirner H, Huber N, Eismann T, Hillenbrand A, Giamas G, et al. Anti-apoptotic and growth-stimulatory functions of CK1 delta and epsilon in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas are inhibited by IC261 in vitro and in vivo. Gut. 2008;57:799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting CK1 isoforms by IC261 influences both pancreatic tumour cell growth and apoptosis sensitivity in vitro and the growth of induced tumours in vivo, thus providing a promising new strategy for the treatment of pancreatic tumours. ..
  5. von Blume J, Knippschild U, Dequiedt F, Giamas G, Beck A, Auer A, et al. Phosphorylation at Ser244 by CK1 determines nuclear localization and substrate targeting of PKD2. EMBO J. 2007;26:4619-33 pubmed
  6. Etchegaray J, Machida K, Noton E, Constance C, Dallmann R, Di Napoli M, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta regulates the pace of the mammalian circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3853-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal important functional differences between CK1delta and CK1epsilon: CK1delta plays an unexpectedly important role in maintaining the 24-h circadian cycle length. ..
  7. Katis V, Lipp J, Imre R, Bogdanova A, Okaz E, Habermann B, et al. Rec8 phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 and Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase regulates cohesin cleavage by separase during meiosis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:397-409 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PP2A protects centromeric cohesion by opposing CK1delta/epsilon- and DDK-dependent phosphorylation of Rec8. ..
  8. Sprouse J, Reynolds L, Swanson T, Engwall M. Inhibition of casein kinase I epsilon/delta produces phase shifts in the circadian rhythms of Cynomolgus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;204:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, these changes in rhythm occurred in the presence of light, revealing the drug as a powerful zeitgeber in a non-human primate and, by extension, in man. ..
  9. Fan J, Preuss F, Muskus M, Bjes E, Price J. Drosophila and vertebrate casein kinase Idelta exhibits evolutionary conservation of circadian function. Genetics. 2009;181:139-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate a high degree of evolutionary conservation of fly and vertebrate CKIdelta and of the functions affected by their period-shortening mutations. ..

More Information


  1. Giamas G, Hirner H, Shoshiashvili L, Grothey A, Gessert S, Kuhl M, et al. Phosphorylation of CK1delta: identification of Ser370 as the major phosphorylation site targeted by PKA in vitro and in vivo. Biochem J. 2007;406:389-98 pubmed
    ..In summary, we conclude that PKA phosphorylates CK1delta, predominantly at Ser370 in vitro and in vivo, and that site-specific phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA plays an important role in modulating CK1delta-dependent processes. ..
  2. Lee H, Chen R, Lee Y, Yoo S, Lee C. Essential roles of CKIdelta and CKIepsilon in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that an essential role of CKIdelta/epsilon is conserved between Drosophila and mammals, but CKIdelta/epsilon and DBT may have divergent non-catalytic functions in the clockwork as well. ..
  3. Arey R, McClung C. An inhibitor of casein kinase 1 ?/? partially normalizes the manic-like behaviors of the Clock?19 mouse. Behav Pharmacol. 2012;23:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This drug had no significant effects on the behavior of wild-type mice at the doses tested. These results suggest that CK1?/? inhibitors could be viable drugs for the treatment of bipolar disorder. ..
  4. Wolff S, Xiao Z, Wittau M, Süssner N, Stöter M, Knippschild U. Interaction of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1 delta) with the light chain LC2 of microtubule associated protein 1A (MAP1A). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1745:196-206 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, LC2 has been identified as a new substrate of CK1delta. We therefore propose a model in which CK1delta could modulate microtubule dynamics by changing the phosphorylation status of the light chain LC2 of MAP1A. ..
  5. Teran E, Branscomb A, Seeling J. Dpr Acts as a molecular switch, inhibiting Wnt signaling when unphosphorylated, but promoting Wnt signaling when phosphorylated by casein kinase Idelta/epsilon. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5522 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that XDpr1a is phosphorylated by casein kinase Idelta/epsilon (CKIdelta/epsilon), an activator of Wnt signaling, in the presence of XDsh...
  6. Thal D, Del Tredici K, Ludolph A, Hoozemans J, Rozemuller A, Braak H, et al. Stages of granulovacuolar degeneration: their relation to Alzheimer's disease and chronic stress response. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:577-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the association of the GVD stages with those of AD-related pathology but not with other neurodegenerative disorders points to a possible role of GVD and the response to chronic stress in the pathogenesis of AD. ..
  7. Isojima Y, Nakajima M, Ukai H, Fujishima H, Yamada R, Masumoto K, et al. CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is a temperature-insensitive, period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15744-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CKIepsilon/delta-dependent phosphorylation is likely a temperature-insensitive period-determining process in the mammalian circadian clock. ..
  8. Greer Y, Rubin J. Casein kinase 1 delta functions at the centrosome to mediate Wnt-3a-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:993-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong evidence that the centrosomal localization of CK1? is required for Wnt-3a-dependent neuritogenesis. ..
  9. Etchegaray J, Yu E, Indic P, Dallmann R, Weaver D. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) regulates period length of the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10303 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that CK1delta plays a more prominent role than CK1epsilon in the maintenance of 24-hour rhythms in the master circadian oscillator. ..
  10. Tsai I, Woolf M, Neklason D, Branford W, Yost H, Burt R, et al. Disease-associated casein kinase I delta mutation may promote adenomatous polyps formation via a Wnt/beta-catenin independent mechanism. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1005-12 pubmed
    ..This novel human CKIdelta mutation may alter the physiological role and enhance the transforming ability of CKIdelta through a Wnt/beta-catenin independent mechanism and thereby influence colonic adenoma development...
  11. Wolff S, Stöter M, Giamas G, Piesche M, Henne Bruns D, Banting G, et al. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) interacts with the SNARE associated protein snapin. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6477-84 pubmed
    ..The identification of snapin as a new substrate of CK1delta points towards a possible function for CK1delta in modulating snapin specific functions. ..
  12. Chergui K, Svenningsson P, Greengard P. Physiological role for casein kinase 1 in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6601-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence for a role of CK1 in the regulation of synaptic transmission in the brain. ..
  13. Winter M, Milne D, Dias S, Kulikov R, Knippschild U, Blattner C, et al. Protein kinase CK1delta phosphorylates key sites in the acidic domain of murine double-minute clone 2 protein (MDM2) that regulate p53 turnover. Biochemistry. 2004;43:16356-64 pubmed
    ..These data establish the identity of a key signaling molecule that promotes the phosphorylation of a major regulatory region in MDM2 under normal growth conditions. ..
  14. Xu Y, Padiath Q, Shapiro R, Jones C, Wu S, Saigoh N, et al. Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Nature. 2005;434:640-4 pubmed
    ..These results show that CKIdelta is a central component in the mammalian clock, and suggest that mammalian and fly clocks might have different regulatory mechanisms despite the highly conserved nature of their individual components. ..
  15. Hanger D, Byers H, Wray S, Leung K, Saxton M, Seereeram A, et al. Novel phosphorylation sites in tau from Alzheimer brain support a role for casein kinase 1 in disease pathogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23645-54 pubmed
  16. Peifer C, Abadleh M, Bischof J, Hauser D, Schattel V, Hirner H, et al. 3,4-Diaryl-isoxazoles and -imidazoles as potent dual inhibitors of p38alpha mitogen activated protein kinase and casein kinase 1delta. J Med Chem. 2009;52:7618-30 pubmed publisher
    ..447 microM) possessing differentiated specificity. Selected compounds were profiled over 76 kinases and evaluation of their cellular efficacy showed 18 (CKP138) to be a highly potent and dual-specific inhibitor of CK1delta and p38alpha. ..
  17. Barros S, Martins J, Marcos J, Cavaco Paulo A. Characterization of potential elastase inhibitor-peptides regulated by a molecular switch for wound dressings applications. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2012;50:107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Degradation studies reveal that both the inhibitor-peptides and CKI are degraded by elastase. These results envisage the safe utilisation of these inhibitor-peptides together with CKI in the formulation of wound dressings. ..
  18. Lee J, Hirota T, Peters E, Garcia M, Gonzalez R, Cho C, et al. A small molecule modulates circadian rhythms through phosphorylation of the period protein. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2011;50:10608-11 pubmed publisher
  19. Hirner H, Günes C, Bischof J, Wolff S, Grothey A, Kühl M, et al. Impaired CK1 delta activity attenuates SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29709 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that inactivating mutations in CK1? impair SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo. ..
  20. Plisson F, Conte M, Khalil Z, Huang X, Piggott A, Capon R. Kinase inhibitor scaffolds against neurodegenerative diseases from a Southern Australian ascidian, Didemnum sp. ChemMedChem. 2012;7:983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Docking studies using published X-ray crystal structures of CDK5 revealed both scaffolds target the ATP binding pocket. ..
  21. Kivimäe S, Yang X, Cheyette B. All Dact (Dapper/Frodo) scaffold proteins dimerize and exhibit conserved interactions with Vangl, Dvl, and serine/threonine kinases. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:33 pubmed publisher
    ..This strongly suggests that a principal role for all Dact family members is in the PCP pathway or a molecularly related signaling cascade in vertebrates. ..
  22. Brennan K, Bates E, Shapiro R, Zyuzin J, Hallows W, Huang Y, et al. Casein kinase i? mutations in familial migraine and advanced sleep phase. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5:183ra56, 1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These genetic, cellular, physiological, and behavioral analyses suggest that decreases in CKI? activity can contribute to the pathogenesis of migraine. ..
  23. Giamas G, Castellano L, Feng Q, Knippschild U, Jacob J, Thomas R, et al. CK1delta modulates the transcriptional activity of ERalpha via AIB1 in an estrogen-dependent manner and regulates ERalpha-AIB1 interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:3110-23 pubmed publisher
  24. Li L, Zhao D, Wei H, Yao L, Dang Y, Amjad A, et al. REG? deficiency promotes premature aging via the casein kinase 1 pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a unique model that mimics acquired aging in mammals and indicates that modulating the activity of the REG?-proteasome may be an approach for intervention in aging-associated disorders. ..
  25. Richards J, Greenlee M, Jeffers L, Cheng K, Guo L, Eaton D, et al. Inhibition of ?ENaC expression and ENaC activity following blockade of the circadian clock-regulatory kinases CK1?/?. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F918-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study shows for the first time that CK1?/? inhibition and impaired Per1 nuclear entry results in decreased ?ENaC expression and ENaC activity, providing further support for direct control of ENaC by the circadian clock. ..
  26. Verkaar F, van der Doelen A, Smits J, Blankesteijn W, Zaman G. Inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by p38 MAP kinase inhibitors is explained by cross-reactivity with casein kinase I?/?. Chem Biol. 2011;18:485-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that this cross-reactivity accounts for the inhibition of ?-catenin signaling by TAK-715 and AMG-548 and argue against a role of p38 in Wnt/?-catenin signaling. ..
  27. Li D, Herrera S, Bubula N, Nikitina E, Palmer A, Hanck D, et al. Casein kinase 1 enables nucleus accumbens amphetamine-induced locomotion by regulating AMPA receptor phosphorylation. J Neurochem. 2011;118:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, Csnk1 may be a critical target for intervention in the treatment of drug use disorders...
  28. Monecke S, Brewer J, Krug S, Bittman E. Duper: a mutation that shortens hamster circadian period. J Biol Rhythms. 2011;26:283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that duper represents a new mutation that substantially reduces ?(DD) and has significant effects on physiology and metabolism...
  29. Li S, Chen X, Yu L, Saltiel A, Lin J. Circadian metabolic regulation through crosstalk between casein kinase 1? and transcriptional coactivator PGC-1?. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:2084-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results elucidate a novel mechanism through which circadian pacemaker transduces timing signals to the metabolic regulatory network that controls hepatic energy metabolism. ..
  30. Bibian M, Rahaim R, Choi J, Noguchi Y, Schürer S, Chen W, et al. Development of highly selective casein kinase 1?/1? (CK1?/?) inhibitors with potent antiproliferative properties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:4374-80 pubmed publisher
  31. Cordenonsi M, Montagner M, Adorno M, Zacchigna L, Martello G, Mamidi A, et al. Integration of TGF-beta and Ras/MAPK signaling through p53 phosphorylation. Science. 2007;315:840-3 pubmed
    ..This mechanism confines mesoderm specification in Xenopus embryos and promotes TGF-beta cytostasis in human cells. These data indicate a mechanism to allow extracellular cues to specify the TGF-beta gene-expression program. ..
  32. Bischof J, Leban J, Zaja M, Grothey A, Radunsky B, Othersen O, et al. 2-Benzamido-N-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives as potent inhibitors of CK1?/?. Amino Acids. 2012;43:1577-91 pubmed
    ..In summary, our optimizations lead to the development of new highly selective CK1? and ? specific inhibitors with biological activity. ..
  33. Grozav A, Chikamori K, Kozuki T, Grabowski D, Bukowski R, Willard B, et al. Casein kinase I delta/epsilon phosphorylates topoisomerase IIalpha at serine-1106 and modulates DNA cleavage activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide strong support for an essential role of CKIdelta/epsilon in phosphorylating Ser-1106 in human topo IIalpha and in regulating enzyme function. ..
  34. Ianes C, Xu P, Werz N, Meng Z, Henne Bruns D, Bischof J, et al. CK1δ activity is modulated by CDK2/E- and CDK5/p35-mediated phosphorylation. Amino Acids. 2016;48:579-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend our knowledge about CK1δ regulation and may be of use for future development of CK1-related therapeutic strategies in the treatment of neurological diseases or cancer. ..
  35. Umemura Y, Yoshida J, Wada M, Tsuchiya Y, Minami Y, Watanabe H, et al. An in vitro ES cell-based clock recapitulation assay model identifies CK2? as an endogenous clock regulator. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67241 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay was successfully applied for the phenotype analysis of homozygous mutant ES cells, demonstrating that an ES cell-based in vitro assay is available for circadian genetic screening. ..
  36. Sugiyama Y, Hatano N, Sueyoshi N, Suetake I, Tajima S, Kinoshita E, et al. The DNA-binding activity of mouse DNA methyltransferase 1 is regulated by phosphorylation with casein kinase 1delta/epsilon. Biochem J. 2010;427:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CK1delta/epsilon binds to and phosphorylates the N-terminal domain of Dnmt1 and regulates Dnmt1 function by reducing the DNA-binding activity. ..
  37. Venerando A, Marin O, Cozza G, Bustos V, Sarno S, Pinna L. Isoform specific phosphorylation of p53 by protein kinase CK1. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:1105-18 pubmed publisher
  38. Cheong J, Nguyen T, Wang H, Tan P, Voorhoeve P, Lee S, et al. IC261 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human cancer cells via CK1?/? and Wnt/?-catenin independent inhibition of mitotic spindle formation. Oncogene. 2011;30:2558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity accounts for many of the diverse biological effects of IC261 and, most importantly, for its selective cancer cell killing. ..
  39. Kalousi A, Mylonis I, Politou A, Chachami G, Paraskeva E, Simos G. Casein kinase 1 regulates human hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2976-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that modification of HIF-1alpha by CK1 represents a novel mechanism that controls the activity of HIF-1 during hypoxia by regulating the interaction between its two subunits. ..
  40. Perreau Lenz S, Vengeliene V, Noori H, Merlo Pich E, Corsi M, Corti C, et al. Inhibition of the casein-kinase-1-?/?/ prevents relapse-like alcohol drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that CK1 inhibitors may be candidates for drug treatment development for alcoholism. ..
  41. Quintavalle M, Sambucini S, Di Pietro C, De Francesco R, Neddermann P. The alpha isoform of protein kinase CKI is responsible for hepatitis C virus NS5A hyperphosphorylation. J Virol. 2006;80:11305-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, we showed that down-regulation of CKI-alpha attenuates HCV RNA replication. ..
  42. Zeringo N, Murphy L, McCloskey E, Rohal L, Bellizzi J. A monoclinic crystal form of casein kinase 1??. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:1077-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of CK1? crystal structures reveals few conformational differences within the C-terminal lobe, but more significant movements of the ?-sheet region of the N-terminal lobe were observed. ..
  43. Chan K, Alonso Nuñez M, Grallert A, Tanaka K, Connolly Y, Smith D, et al. Dialogue between centrosomal entrance and exit scaffold pathways regulates mitotic commitment. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2795-2812 pubmed publisher
    ..Such integration of signals emanating from neighboring scaffolds shows how centrosomes/SPBs can integrate inputs from multiple pathways to control cell fate. ..
  44. Morgenstern Y, Das Adhikari U, Ayyash M, Elyada E, Tóth B, Moor A, et al. Casein kinase 1-epsilon or 1-delta required for Wnt-mediated intestinal stem cell maintenance. EMBO J. 2017;36:3046-3061 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study underscores a unique regulation mode of the Wnt pathway in ISCs, possibly providing new means of stem cell enrichment for regenerative medicine. ..
  45. Matsunaga S, Ikeda M, Kishi T, Fukuo Y, Aleksic B, Yoshimura R, et al. An evaluation of polymorphisms in casein kinase 1 delta and epsilon genes in major psychiatric disorders. Neurosci Lett. 2012;529:66-9 pubmed publisher
    ..21) and BD (P=0.53). These results do not support that genetic variation in CSNK1D and CSNK1E is a susceptibility factor for major psychiatric disorders in the Japanese population. ..
  46. Wang Z, Inuzuka H, Zhong J, Fukushima H, Wan L, Liu P, et al. DNA damage-induced activation of ATM promotes ?-TRCP-mediated Mdm2 ubiquitination and destruction. Oncotarget. 2012;3:1026-35 pubmed
    ..Given the pivotal role of Mdm2 in the negative regulation of p53, this work will also provide a rationale for developing CKI? or ATM agonists as anti-cancer agents. ..
  47. Sprouse J, Reynolds L, Kleiman R, Tate B, Swanson T, Pickard G. Chronic treatment with a selective inhibitor of casein kinase I delta/epsilon yields cumulative phase delays in circadian rhythms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;210:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, these changes in circadian behavior occurred in the presence of a fixed L:D cycle, confirming the drug to be a robust modulator of circadian phase in the presence of the natural zeitgeber. ..
  48. Höttecke N, Liebeck M, Baumann K, Schubenel R, Winkler E, Steiner H, et al. Inhibition of gamma-secretase by the CK1 inhibitor IC261 does not depend on CK1delta. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:2958-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings exclude a direct influence of CK1delta on gamma-secretase, because any change in the substitution pattern of IC261 diminished CK1 inhibition, whereas gamma-secretase inhibition is still exerted by several analogues. ..
  49. Ding L, Wang Z, Yan J, Yang X, Liu A, Qiu W, et al. Human four-and-a-half LIM family members suppress tumor cell growth through a TGF-beta-like signaling pathway. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By establishing a link between FHL proteins and Smad proteins, this study identifies what we believe to be a novel TGF-beta-like signaling pathway and indicates that FHL proteins may be useful molecular targets for cancer therapy. ..
  50. Ebisawa T. [Functional polymorphisms in clock genes and circadian rhythm sleep disorders]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2007;27:91-4 pubmed
    ..Careful attention should be paid to analyze the complex system composed of feedback loops, such as the biological clock. ..
  51. Zhou M, Rebholz H, Brocia C, Warner Schmidt J, Fienberg A, Nairn A, et al. Forebrain overexpression of CK1delta leads to down-regulation of dopamine receptors and altered locomotor activity reminiscent of ADHD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4401-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Sopko R, Silva E, Clayton L, Gardano L, Barrios Rodiles M, Wrana J, et al. Phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor fat is regulated by its ligand Dachsous and the kinase discs overgrown. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Ds regulates Dco-dependent phosphorylation of Fat and Fat-associated proteins to control Fat signaling in growth and PCP. ..
  53. Constance C, Fan J, Preuss F, Green C, Price J. The circadian clock-containing photoreceptor cells in Xenopus laevis express several isoforms of casein kinase I. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;136:199-211 pubmed