liver glycogen


Summary: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Baker D, Greenhaff P, MacInnes A, Timmons J. The experimental type 2 diabetes therapy glycogen phosphorylase inhibition can impair aerobic muscle function during prolonged contraction. Diabetes. 2006;55:1855-61 pubmed
  2. Coate K, Kraft G, Irimia J, Smith M, Farmer B, Neal D, et al. Portal vein glucose entry triggers a coordinated cellular response that potentiates hepatic glucose uptake and storage in normal but not high-fat/high-fructose-fed dogs. Diabetes. 2013;62:392-400 pubmed publisher
  3. Edgerton D, Cardin S, Pan C, Neal D, Farmer B, Converse M, et al. Effects of insulin deficiency or excess on hepatic gluconeogenic flux during glycogenolytic inhibition in the conscious dog. Diabetes. 2002;51:3151-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in the absence of appreciable glycogen breakdown, an acute gluconeogenic effect of hypoinsulinemia becomes manifest, whereas inhibition of the process by a physiologic rise in insulin was not evident. ..
  4. Bischof M, Bernroider E, Krssak M, Krebs M, Stingl H, Nowotny P, et al. Hepatic glycogen metabolism in type 1 diabetes after long-term near normoglycemia. Diabetes. 2002;51:49-54 pubmed
    ..05. In conclusion, combined long- and short-term intensified insulin substitution normalizes rates of hepatic glycogen synthesis but not the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glycogen synthesis in type 1 diabetes. ..
  5. Stapleton D, NELSON C, Parsawar K, McClain D, Gilbert Wilson R, Barker E, et al. Analysis of hepatic glycogen-associated proteins. Proteomics. 2010;10:2320-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Sullivan M, Vilaplana F, Cave R, Stapleton D, Gray Weale A, Gilbert R. Nature of alpha and beta particles in glycogen using molecular size distributions. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:1094-100 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Liver glycogen has a third level: supramolecular clusters of beta particles which form larger clusters of alpha particles...
  7. Kelsall I, Rosenzweig D, Cohen P. Disruption of the allosteric phosphorylase a regulation of the hepatic glycogen-targeted protein phosphatase 1 improves glucose tolerance in vivo. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1123-34 pubmed publisher
  8. Torbenson M, Chen Y, Brunt E, Cummings O, Gottfried M, Jakate S, et al. Glycogenic hepatopathy: an underrecognized hepatic complication of diabetes mellitus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:508-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that glycogenic hepatopathy can cause hepatomegaly and significant transaminase elevations in individuals with type I diabetes mellitus. The pathology is distinct from steatohepatitis...
  9. Winnick J, An Z, Moore M, Ramnanan C, Farmer B, Shiota M, et al. A physiological increase in the hepatic glycogen level does not affect the response of net hepatic glucose uptake to insulin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..6 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) in both groups despite a significantly greater liver glycogen level in the fructose-infused group...

More Information


  1. Ferrer J, Favre C, Gomis R, Fernández Novell J, Garcia Rocha M, de la Iglesia N, et al. Control of glycogen deposition. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:127-32 pubmed
    ..The translocation of GS, which constitutes an additional mechanism of control, causes the orderly deposition of hepatic glycogen and probably represents a functional advantage in the metabolism of the polysaccharide. ..
  2. Sharma S, Nasir A, Prabhu K, Murthy P, Dev G. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:201-6 pubmed
    ..The histopathological studies of liver, pancreas and aorta in alcoholic extract treated diabetic groups revealed almost normal appearance...
  3. Leite A, Araújo T, Carvalho B, Silva N, Lima V, Maia M. Parkinsonia aculeata aqueous extract fraction: biochemical studies in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:547-52 pubmed
    ..aculeate may have new clinical significant choice in diabetes mellitus illness, and could explain the basis for its traditional use to manage diabetes-related complications by rural community of northeast of Brazil. ..
  4. Ae Park S, Choi M, Cho S, Seo J, Jung U, Kim M, et al. Genistein and daidzein modulate hepatic glucose and lipid regulating enzyme activities in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Life Sci. 2006;79:1207-13 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that genistein and daidzein exert anti-diabetic effect in type 2 diabetic conditions by enhancing the glucose and lipid metabolism. ..
  5. Moore M, Satake S, Lautz M, Soleimanpour S, Neal D, Smith M, et al. Nonesterified fatty acids and hepatic glucose metabolism in the conscious dog. Diabetes. 2004;53:32-40 pubmed
    ..In the presence of hyperglycemia and relative insulin deficiency, elevated NEFAs reduce NHGU by stimulating hepatic glucose release and suppressing hepatic glucose uptake. ..
  6. Awad S, Constantin Teodosiu D, Constantin D, Rowlands B, Fearon K, Macdonald I, et al. Cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of preoperative feeding: a randomized study investigating muscle and liver glycogen content, mitochondrial function, gene and protein expression. Ann Surg. 2010;252:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no drink-related complications. ONS ingestion led to increased intraoperative liver glycogen reserves (44%, P < 0...
  7. Winnick J, An Z, Ramnanan C, Smith M, Irimia J, Neal D, et al. Hepatic glycogen supercompensation activates AMP-activated protein kinase, impairs insulin signaling, and reduces glycogen deposition in the liver. Diabetes. 2011;60:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..During the first 4 h of the study, liver glycogen deposition was stimulated by intraportal fructose infusion in the presence of hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemia...
  8. Couturier K, Qin B, Batandier C, Awada M, Hininger Favier I, Canini F, et al. Cinnamon increases liver glycogen in an animal model of insulin resistance. Metabolism. 2011;60:1590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the liver, cinnamon added to the HF/HFr diet led to highly significant increases of liver glycogen. There were no significant changes in animals consuming the control diet plus cinnamon...
  9. Moore M, Smith M, Connolly C. Pregnancy augments hepatic glucose storage in response to a mixed meal. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced hepatic glycogen storage following a meal probably facilitates the maintenance of an adequate glucose supply to maternal and fetal tissues during the post-absorptive period. ..
  10. Ramnanan C, Edgerton D, Rivera N, Irimia Dominguez J, Farmer B, Neal D, et al. Molecular characterization of insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production in vivo. Diabetes. 2010;59:1302-11 pubmed publisher
  11. Agius L. Glucokinase and molecular aspects of liver glycogen metabolism. Biochem J. 2008;414:1-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Defects in both the activation of glucokinase and in the dephosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase are potential contributing factors to the dysregulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes. ..
  12. Azzout Marniche D, Gaudichon C, Blouet C, Bos C, Mathe V, Huneau J, et al. Liver glyconeogenesis: a pathway to cope with postprandial amino acid excess in high-protein fed rats?. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1400-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the main glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) isoform expressed in the small intestine is the ubiquitous isoform of G6Pase (G6PC3) rather than the G6PC1 isoform expressed in gluconeogenic organs. ..
  13. Bonjorn V, Latour M, Bélanger P, Lavoie J. Influence of prior exercise and liver glycogen content on the sensitivity of the liver to glucagon. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;92:188-94 pubmed
    ..Among these groups, two were normally fed and, therefore, had a normal level of liver glycogen (NG)...
  14. Ulusoy E, Eren B. Histological changes of liver glycogen storage in mice (Mus musculus) caused by high-protein diets. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:925-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there exist very few studies about the effects of high protein nutrition on liver glycogen storage. For this study 40 Swiss albino mice consisting of two groups were used...
  15. Krssak M, Brehm A, Bernroider E, Anderwald C, Nowotny P, Dalla Man C, et al. Alterations in postprandial hepatic glycogen metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2004;53:3048-56 pubmed
  16. Gosby A, Maloney C, Phuyal J, Denyer G, Bryson J, Caterson I. Maternal protein restriction increases hepatic glycogen storage in young rats. Pediatr Res. 2003;54:413-8 pubmed
    ..The enhanced capacity to store glycogen despite reductions in insulin secretion suggests increased insulin sensitivity possibly acting with an alternative non-insulin-dependent glycogen storage mechanism. ..
  17. Furukawa S, Murakami K, Nishikawa M, Nakayama O, Hino M. FR258900, a novel glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor isolated from Fungus No. 138354. II. Anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic animal models. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2005;58:503-6 pubmed
    ..These improvements in glucose disposal were accompanied by increased liver glycogen contents, suggesting that the glucose lowering effects of FR258900 were attributed to suppressed hepatic ..
  18. Nuttall F, Ngo A, Gannon M. Regulation of hepatic glucose production and the role of gluconeogenesis in humans: is the rate of gluconeogenesis constant?. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008;24:438-58 pubmed publisher
    ..One interesting speculation is that gluconeogenic substrates substitute for each other depending on availability. Thus, the overall rate is either unaffected or only modestly changed. This requires further confirmation. ..
  19. Allick G, Sprangers F, Weverling G, Ackermans M, Meijer A, Romijn J, et al. Free fatty acids increase hepatic glycogen content in obese males. Metabolism. 2004;53:886-93 pubmed
  20. Luengo C, Azzout Marniche D, Fromentin C, Piedcoq J, Lemosquet S, Tome D, et al. [13C] GC-C-IRMS analysis of methylboronic acid derivatives of glucose from liver glycogen after the ingestion of [13C] labeled tracers in rats. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009;877:3638-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequestration of dietary glucose in liver glycogen 4 h after the meal was 35% of the ingested dose whereas the transfer of carbon skeletons from amino acids was ..
  21. Van Den Brand M, Elving L, Drenth J, van Krieken J. Glycogenic hepatopathy: a rare cause of elevated serum transaminases in diabetes mellitus. Neth J Med. 2009;67:394-6 pubmed
    ..GH can be regarded as an adult variant of Mauriac's syndrome. Despite severe laboratory abnormalities, it does not cause liver cirrhosis. Treatment consists of improving glycaemic control. ..
  22. Xu K, Morgan K, Todd Gehris A, Elston T, Gomez S. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1002272 pubmed publisher
  23. von Wilamowitz Moellendorff A, Hunter R, García Rocha M, Kang L, López Soldado I, Lantier L, et al. Glucose-6-phosphate-mediated activation of liver glycogen synthase plays a key role in hepatic glycogen synthesis. Diabetes. 2013;62:4070-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Liver glycogen synthase (GYS2), a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, is controlled by a complex interplay between the ..
  24. Aiston S, Andersen B, Agius L. Glucose 6-phosphate regulates hepatic glycogenolysis through inactivation of phosphorylase. Diabetes. 2003;52:1333-9 pubmed
    ..Dysregulation of G6P in diabetes by changes in activity of glucokinase or glucose 6-phosphatase may be a contributing factor to impaired suppression of glycogenolysis by hyperglycemia. ..
  25. Stalmans W, Bollen M, Toth B, Gergely P. Short-term hormonal control of protein phosphatases involved in hepatic glycogen metabolism. Adv Enzyme Regul. 1990;30:305-27 pubmed
    The prominent protein phosphatases involved in liver glycogen metabolism are the AMD (ATP, Mg-dependent, type-1) and PCS (polycation-stimulated, type-2A) phosphatases...
  26. Nilsson G. Long-term anoxia in crucian carp: changes in the levels of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain, catecholamines in chromaffin tissue, and liver glycogen. J Exp Biol. 1990;150:295-320 pubmed
    ..Anoxia was found to deplete the liver glycogen store severely, and the few fish that died after 15-17 days of anoxia contained no detectable liver glycogen.
  27. Edgerton D, Cardin S, Emshwiller M, Neal D, Chandramouli V, Schumann W, et al. Small increases in insulin inhibit hepatic glucose production solely caused by an effect on glycogen metabolism. Diabetes. 2001;50:1872-82 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that liver glycogenolysis is acutely sensitive to small changes in plasma insulin, whereas gluconeogenic flux is not. ..
  28. Mvumbi L, Stalmans W. High-affinity binding of glycogen-synthase phosphatase to glycogen particles in the liver. Role of glycogen in the inhibition of synthase phosphatase by phosphorylase a. Biochem J. 1987;246:367-74 pubmed
    ..25 mg/ml, and virtually complete at 1 mg/ml. These findings explain long-standing observations that in fasted animals the liver contains appreciable amounts of both synthase and phosphorylase in the active form. ..
  29. Garcia Rocha M, Roca A, de la Iglesia N, Baba O, Fernández Novell J, Ferrer J, et al. Intracellular distribution of glycogen synthase and glycogen in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Biochem J. 2001;357:17-24 pubmed
    Changes in the intracellular distribution of liver glycogen synthase (GS) might constitute a new regulatory mechanism for the activity of this enzyme at cellular level...
  30. Aiston S, Hampson L, Gomez Foix A, Guinovart J, Agius L. Hepatic glycogen synthesis is highly sensitive to phosphorylase activity: evidence from metabolic control analysis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23858-66 pubmed
    ..The high control coefficient of phosphorylase on glycogen synthesis affirms that phosphorylase is a strong candidate target for controlling hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes in both the absorptive and postabsorptive states. ..
  31. Hashimoto T, Cook W, Qi C, Yeldandi A, Reddy J, Rao M. Defect in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-inducible fatty acid oxidation determines the severity of hepatic steatosis in response to fasting. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28918-28 pubmed
    ..These observations point to the critical importance of PPARalpha in the transcriptional regulatory responses to fasting and in determining the severity of hepatic steatosis. ..
  32. Andersen B, Rassov A, Westergaard N, Lundgren K. Inhibition of glycogenolysis in primary rat hepatocytes by 1, 4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol. Biochem J. 1999;342 Pt 3:545-50 pubmed
  33. Doherty M, Moorhead G, Morrice N, Cohen P, Cohen P. Amino acid sequence and expression of the hepatic glycogen-binding (GL)-subunit of protein phosphatase-1. FEBS Lett. 1995;375:294-8 pubmed
    ..The cDNA was expressed in E. coli, and the expressed protein transformed the properties of PP1 to those characteristic of the hepatic glycogen-associated enzyme. These experiments establish that the cloned protein is GL. ..
  34. Niewoehner C, Nuttall F. Glycogen concentration and regulation of synthase activity in rat liver in vivo. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;318:271-8 pubmed
    The proportion of liver glycogen synthase in the active (R+I) forms is lower in the fed than in the fasted state. This has been attributed to inhibition of synthase phosphatase by the accumulated hepatic glycogen...
  35. Berman H, O Doherty R, Anderson P, Newgard C. Overexpression of protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in rat hepatocytes causes profound activation of glycogen synthesis independent of normal hormone- and substrate-mediated regulatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26421-5 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with a model in which PTG overexpression "locks" the hepatocyte in a glycogenic mode, presumably via its ability to promote interaction of enzymes of glycogen metabolism with PP-1. ..
  36. Armstrong C, Doherty M, Cohen P. Identification of the separate domains in the hepatic glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase 1 that interact with phosphorylase a, glycogen and protein phosphatase 1. Biochem J. 1998;336 ( Pt 3):699-704 pubmed
    Deletion and mutational analyses of the rat liver glycogen-targeting subunit (GL) of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) have identified three separate domains that are responsible for binding of PP1, glycogen and phosphorylase a...
  37. Mu J, Skurat A, Roach P. Glycogenin-2, a novel self-glucosylating protein involved in liver glycogen biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27589-97 pubmed
    ..H4IIEC3 cells also expressed the muscle form of glycogenin (glycogenin-1), which was attached to a chromatographically separable glycogen fraction. ..
  38. Changani K, Bell J, Iles R. 13C-Glycogen deposition during pregnancy in the rat following routine meal feeding. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1380:198-208 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, meal feeding regimes in the pregnant rat alter carbohydrate control of the liver producing increased glycogen synthesis initially via direct incorporation of glucose into the macromolecule. ..
  39. Velho G, Petersen K, Perseghin G, Hwang J, Rothman D, Pueyo M, et al. Impaired hepatic glycogen synthesis in glucokinase-deficient (MODY-2) subjects. J Clin Invest. 1996;98:1755-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in addition to the altered beta cell function, abnormalities in liver glycogen metabolism play an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia in patients with glucokinase-deficient ..
  40. Mu J, Roach P. Characterization of human glycogenin-2, a self-glucosylating initiator of liver glycogen metabolism. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34850-6 pubmed
    ..This result is important since it indicates that the level of glycogenin-2 can determine glycogen accumulation and hence has the potential to control glycogen synthesis. ..
  41. Gomez Lechon M, Jover R, Donato T, Ponsoda X, Rodriguez C, Stenzel K, et al. Long-term expression of differentiated functions in hepatocytes cultured in three-dimensional collagen matrix. J Cell Physiol. 1998;177:553-62 pubmed
  42. Gustafson L, Neeft M, Reijngoud D, Kuipers F, Sauerwein H, Romijn J, et al. Fatty acid and amino acid modulation of glucose cycling in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochem J. 2001;358:665-71 pubmed
    ..Variation in glucose 6-phosphate does not always result in activity changes of GSa. Activation of glucose 6-phosphatase flux by fatty acids may contribute to the increased hepatic glucose production as seen in Type 2 diabetes. ..
  43. Sakaguchi S, Ibata H, Yokota K. Participation of calcium ion on depletion mechanism of liver glycogen by purified glucocorticoid antagonizing factor released in blood during endotoxemia. Microbiol Immunol. 1990;34:985-94 pubmed
    ..whether or not the factor (GAF and Ca2+) may play a possible role of mediator in depletion mechanism of liver glycogen in endotoxemia...
  44. Salganik S, Weinstein D, Shupe T, Salganik M, Pintilie D, Petersen B. A detailed characterization of the adult mouse model of glycogen storage disease Ia. Lab Invest. 2009;89:1032-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, our detailed characterization of the adult KO mouse provides a crucial baseline for accurately gauging the efficacy of experimental therapies in this important model. ..
  45. Cambri L, Ghezzi A, Ribeiro C, Dalia R, de Mello M. Recovery of rat growth and lipid profiles in adult rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet. Nutr Res. 2010;30:156-62 pubmed publisher protein, and albumin concentrations, which were reduced by fetal malnutrition, and a restoration of the liver glycogen and lipids contents, which were increased by fetal malnutrition...
  46. Lekatz L, Ward M, Borowicz P, Taylor J, Redmer D, Grazul Bilska A, et al. Cotyledonary responses to maternal selenium and dietary restriction may influence alterations in fetal weight and fetal liver glycogen in sheep. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010;117:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..selenium (Se) and nutrient restriction during mid and late gestation on placental characteristics and fetal liver glycogen, ewes received either adequate Se (ASe) or high Se (HSe) prior to breeding...
  47. Carré N, Caüzac M, Girard J, Burnol A. Dual effect of the adapter growth factor receptor-bound protein 14 (grb14) on insulin action in primary hepatocytes. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It inhibits insulin receptor catalytic activity, and acts also at a more distal step, i.e. sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c maturation, which effect is predominant under short-term inhibition of Grb14 expression. ..
  48. Dong Q, Giorgianni F, Beranova Giorgianni S, Deng X, O Meally R, Bridges D, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3-mediated phosphorylation of serine 73 targets sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) for proteasomal degradation. Biosci Rep. 2015;36:e00284 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation of serine 73 in the rat SREBP-1c and its concomitant destabilization represents a novel mechanism involved in the inhibition of de novo lipid synthesis in the liver. ..
  49. Martínez Jaimes M, Garcia Lorenzana M, Muñoz Ortega M, Quintanar Stephano A, Ávila Blanco M, García Agueda C, et al. Modulation of innate immune response by the vagus nerve in experimental hepatic amebiasis in rats. Exp Parasitol. 2016;169:90-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Stomachs weight and liver glycogen were higher in V. Collagen increased in VA, whereas vascular and neutrophilic areas were decreased...
  50. Wang T, Xu D, Fan Q, Rong W, Zheng J, Gao C, et al. 1,2-Dichloroethane impairs glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of NIH Swiss mice. Toxicology. 2017;380:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..from microarray analysis indicated that the decreases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) and liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) expression, mediated by the activation of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt1), might be ..
  51. Rosa J, Rosa J. Insulin-like and non-insulin-like action of vanadate in hepatocytes cultured in vitro. Coll Antropol. 2004;28:309-15 pubmed
    ..Our results clearly demonstrated that non-insulin-like effects of vanadate could have a beneficial influence on the therapy of diabetes type 2 causing a decrease of glucose production from the liver. ..
  52. She P, Burgess S, Shiota M, Flakoll P, Donahue E, Malloy C, et al. Mechanisms by which liver-specific PEPCK knockout mice preserve euglycemia during starvation. Diabetes. 2003;52:1649-54 pubmed
  53. Choi S, Park S. A steroidal glycoside from Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. improves insulin resistance but does not alter insulin secretion in 90% pancreatectomized rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:2036-43 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, SG-100 has an antihyperglycemic effect by promoting peripheral insulin sensitivity without changing insulin secretion...