linseed oil

Summary

Summary: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Sargi S, Dalálio M, Visentainer J, Bezerra R, Perini J, Stevanato F, et al. Production of TNF-?, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:303-9 pubmed
    ..A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H?O?, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection...
  2. Cleveland B, Francis D, Turchini G. Echium oil provides no benefit over linseed oil for (n-3) long-chain PUFA biosynthesis in rainbow trout. J Nutr. 2012;142:1449-55 pubmed publisher
    ..rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed 1 of 4 diets (3 replicate tanks/treatment) containing either FO, linseed oil (LO), echium oil, or mixed vegetable oil (72% LO, 23% sunflower oil, and 6% canola oil) as the dietary lipid ..
  3. Yang S, Tseng J, Chang Y, Chen Y. Flaxseed oil attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver of hyperlipidemic hamsters. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Those beneficial effects could explain the attenuation of FX on nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit. ..
  4. Bernard L, Leroux C, Faulconnier Y, Durand D, Shingfield K, Chilliard Y. Effect of sunflower-seed oil or linseed oil on milk fatty acid secretion and lipogenic gene expression in goats fed hay-based diets. J Dairy Res. 2009;76:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..on grass hay-based diets containing none (H) or 55 g/kg diet dry matter of sunflower-seed oil (HSO) or linseed oil (HLO). Inclusion of oils in the diet had no effect on milk yield but enhanced (P<0.05) milk fat secretion...
  5. Haug A, Nyquist N, Mosti T, Andersen M, Høstmark A. Increased EPA levels in serum phospholipids of humans after four weeks daily ingestion of one portion chicken fed linseed and rapeseed oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:104 pubmed publisher
    ..or the meat was from chickens given a feed where the soybean oil had been replaced by 2% rapeseed oil plus 2% linseed oil (RLO)...
  6. Gibson R, Neumann M, Lien E, Boyd K, Tu W. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;88:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%). ..
  7. Karapanagiotidis I, Bell M, Little D, Yakupitiyage A. Replacement of dietary fish oils by alpha-linolenic acid-rich oils lowers omega 3 content in tilapia flesh. Lipids. 2007;42:547-59 pubmed
    ..Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were supplemented with 3% of either linseed oil (LO), a mixture of linseed oil with refined palm olein oil (PO) (LO-PO 2:1) and a mixture of refined palm olein ..
  8. Kitessa S, Young P, Nattrass G, Gardner G, Pearce K, Pethick D. When balanced for precursor fatty acid supply echium oil is not superior to linseed oil in enriching lamb tissues with long-chain n-3 PUFA. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil...
  9. de Quelen F, Boudry G, Mourot J. Linseed oil in the maternal diet increases long chain-PUFA status of the foetus and the newborn during the suckling period in pigs. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:533-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Linseed oil, being rich in 18 : 3n-3, represents an alternative source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kelley D, Vemuri M, Adkins Y, Gill S, Fedor D, Mackey B. Flaxseed oil prevents trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid-induced insulin resistance in mice. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:701-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that some adverse effects of CLA may be due to n-3 PUFA deficiency and that these can be corrected by a concomitant increase in the intake of alpha-linolenic acid, 18 : 3n-3. ..
  2. Jouany J, Lassalas B, Doreau M, Glasser F. Dynamic features of the rumen metabolism of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and linseed oil measured in vitro. Lipids. 2007;42:351-60 pubmed
    ..products from three lipid sources: pure linoleic acid (c9,c12-18:2), pure linolenic acid (c9,c12,c15-18:3) and linseed oil (mainly c9,c12,c15-18:3 in triacylglycerols)...
  3. Jacobs A, van Baal J, Smits M, Taweel H, Hendriks W, van Vuuren A, et al. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:874-87 pubmed publisher
    ..7% rapeseed oil as a source of C18:1 cis-9; 2.7% soybean oil as a source of C18:2 cis-9,12; 2.7% linseed oil as a source of C18:3 cis-9,12,15; or 2.7% of a 1:1:1 mixture of the 3 oils...
  4. Bou R, Guardiola F, Barroeta A, Codony R. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1129-40 pubmed
    ..25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1...
  5. Cooper S, Sinclair L, Wilkinson R, Hallett K, Enser M, Wood J. Manipulation of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of muscle and adipose tissue in lambs. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:1461-70 pubmed
    ..concentrate-based diets formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g/kg DM), but containing either linseed oil (high in 18:3n-3); fish oil (high in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3); protected linseed and soybean (PLS; high in 18:2n-6 ..
  6. Demirel G, Wachira A, Sinclair L, Wilkinson R, Wood J, Enser M. Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:551-65 pubmed
    ..Different combinations of dietary fatty acids and better protection against rumen biohydrogenation are required to improve muscle PUFA : saturated fatty acids ratios. ..
  7. van den Berg J, van den Berg K, Boon J. Identification of non-cross-linked compounds in methanolic extracts of cured and aged linseed oil-based paint films using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2002;950:195-211 pubmed
    ..Relatively more C16 and C18 monoacylglycerols are found in young paints, whereas older paints contain higher amounts of monoacylglycerols of diacids. ..
  8. Xu J, Yang W, Deng Q, Huang Q, Yang J, Huang F. Flaxseed oil and ?-lipoic acid combination reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:148 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplement of FO and LA combination may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by improving plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation. ..
  9. Bernard L, Bonnet M, Leroux C, Shingfield K, Chilliard Y. Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:6083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of diet DM), or linseed oil (MLO; 6.2% of diet DM). Compared with the control, milk yield was greater in goats fed MSO (3.37 and 3...
  10. Ide T. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the activity and gene expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Biofactors. 2000;13:9-14 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that both substrate specificities and alterations in the activities of the enzymes in beta-oxidation pathway play a significant role in the regulation of the serum lipid concentrations in rats fed alpha-18:3. ..
  11. Shingfield K, Lee M, Humphries D, Scollan N, Toivonen V, Beever D, et al. Effect of linseed oil and fish oil alone or as an equal mixture on ruminal fatty acid metabolism in growing steers fed maize silage-based diets. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:3728-41 pubmed publisher
    ..were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods to examine the potential of fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO) in the diet to increase ruminal outflow of trans-11 18:1 and total n-3 PUFA in growing cattle...
  12. Poureslami R, Raes K, Huyghebaert G, De Smet S. Effects of diet, age and gender on the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of broiler anatomical compartments. Br Poult Sci. 2010;51:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Four dietary fat sources (palm fat, P; soybean oil, S; linseed oil, L; fish oil, F) were added to a wheat-soybean meal based diet at 30 g/kg in addition to 50 g/kg palm fat...
  13. Turchini G, Francis D. Fatty acid metabolism (desaturation, elongation and beta-oxidation) in rainbow trout fed fish oil- or linseed oil-based diets. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:69-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of individual dietary FA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a FO-based diet (rich in 20 : 5n-3) or a linseed oil-based diet (LO; rich in 18 : 3n-3)...
  14. Bell J, Henderson R, Tocher D, Sargent J. Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet. Lipids. 2004;39:223-32 pubmed
    Five groups of salmon, of initial mean weight 127 +/- 3 g, were fed increasing levels of dietary linseed oil (LO) in a regression design...
  15. Martin C, Rouel J, Jouany J, Doreau M, Chilliard Y. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:2642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..grass hay (6%), and concentrate (35%) and the same diet with crude linseed (CLS), extruded linseed (ELS), or linseed oil (LSO) at the same FA level (5.7% of dietary DM). Each experimental period lasted 4 wk...
  16. Realini C, Duran Montgé P, Lizardo R, Gispert M, Oliver M, Esteve Garcia E. Effect of source of dietary fat on pig performance, carcass characteristics and carcass fat content, distribution and fatty acid composition. Meat Sci. 2010;85:606-12 pubmed publisher
    ..used to compare the effect of including 10% tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), a fat blend (FB), or an oil blend (OB) in finishing diets vs...
  17. Menoyo D, Lopez Bote C, Obach A, Bautista J. Effect of dietary fish oil substitution with linseed oil on the performance, tissue fatty acid profile, metabolism, and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:2853-62 pubmed
    ..of this experiment was to test the effect of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) by linseed oil (LO) in Atlantic salmon feeding on performance, liver and muscle fatty acid composition, selected lipogenic and ..
  18. Clausen P, Knudsen H, Larsen K, Kofoed Sørensen V, Wolkoff P, Wilkins C. Use of thermal desorption gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry for the comparison of identified and unidentified odor active compounds emitted from building products containing linseed oil. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1210:203-11 pubmed publisher
    The emission of odor active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a floor oil based on linseed oil, the linseed oil itself and a low-odor linseed oil was investigated by thermal desorption gas chromatography combined with olfactometry ..
  19. Barceló Coblijn G, Murphy E, Othman R, Moghadasian M, Kashour T, Friel J. Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:801-9 pubmed
    ..The amounts of ALA required to obtain these effects are amounts that are easily achieved in the general population by dietary modification. ..
  20. Wachira A, Sinclair L, Wilkinson R, Enser M, Wood J, Fisher A. Effects of dietary fat source and breed on the carcass composition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid content of sheep meat and adipose tissue. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:697-709 pubmed
    ..Feeding linseed or fish oil lowered the n-6 : n-3 ratio in sheep meat, but neither diet nor breed had much effect on the polyunsaturated fatty acid: saturated fatty acid ratio. ..
  21. Pires J, Pescara J, Brickner A, Silva Del Rio N, Cunha A, Grummer R. Effects of abomasal infusion of linseed oil on responses to glucose and insulin in holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1378-90 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to study the effects of abomasal infusion of linseed oil, a source rich in n-3 C18:3, on whole-body response to insulin (experiment 1) and on insulin antilipolytic effects during feed restriction (experiment 2)...
  22. Vijaimohan K, Jainu M, Sabitha K, Subramaniyam S, Anandhan C, Shyamala Devi C. Beneficial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. Life Sci. 2006;79:448-54 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study demonstrate that FO may be developed as a useful therapy for hyperlipidemia through reducing hepatic lipids, thereby proving its hypolipidemic activity. ..
  23. Loor J, Ueda K, Ferlay A, Chilliard Y, Doreau M. Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in response to dietary forage:concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:2472-85 pubmed
    ..flows of hydrogenation intermediates in response to changes in dietary forage:concentrate ratio (F:C) and linseed oil were evaluated using 4 lactating Holstein cows fed a low (65:35 forage to concentrate) or high (35:65) ..
  24. Eder K, Slomma N, Becker K, Brandsch C. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on concentrations of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver phospholipids of rats fed diets containing either an oil rich in conjugated linoleic acids, sunflower oil or high-oleic acid sunflower oil. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2005;89:45-54 pubmed
    ..Basal diets with those oils were fed for 4 weeks. In the fifth week, the same diets supplemented with 50 g of linseed oil/kg as a source of alpha-linolenic acid were fed...
  25. Martínez Marín A, Gómez Cortés P, Gómez Castro G, Juarez M, Perez Alba L, Perez Hernandez M, et al. Effects of feeding increasing dietary levels of high oleic or regular sunflower or linseed oil on fatty acid profile of goat milk. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:1942-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The study consisted of 3 experiments, one per oil tested (linseed oil, LO; high oleic sunflower oil, HOSFO; and regular sunflower oil, RSFO)...
  26. Singh S, Nair V, Gupta Y. Linseed oil: an investigation of its antiarthritic activity in experimental models. Phytother Res. 2012;26:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that dietary incorporation of LUFO may be beneficial in the prevention and management of rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory disorders. ..
  27. Ashby R, Foglia T, Solaiman D, Liu C, Nunez A, Eggink G. Viscoelastic properties of linseed oil-based medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) films: effects of epoxidation and curing. Int J Biol Macromol. 2000;27:355-61 pubmed
    Medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA) polymers derived from linseed oil (PHA-L) have a relatively small molar mass and contain a high concentration of unsaturated side-chains...
  28. Salobir J, Zontar T, Levart A, Rezar V. The comparison of black currant juice and vitamin E for the prevention of oxidative stress. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010;80:5-11 pubmed publisher
    ..isocaloric daily rations composed of an equal amount of basal diet that was supplemented with starch (CONT), linseed oil (OIL), linseed oil and black currant juice (OIL+BCJ), or linseed oil and vitamin E (OIL+VIT E)...
  29. Narciso Gaytán C, Shin D, Sams A, Keeton J, Miller R, Smith S, et al. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched sous vide chicken meat. Poult Sci. 2011;90:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E enhanced the lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat. ..
  30. Chen J, Saggar J, Ward W, Thompson L. Effects of flaxseed lignan and oil on bone health of breast-tumor-bearing mice treated with or without tamoxifen. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:757-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, FS components did not significantly attenuate the positive effects on bone induced by TAM in this model system, indicating no apparent adverse effects on bone health. ..
  31. Moret S, Grob K, Conte L. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-solvent evaporation-high-performance liquid chromatography-capillary gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection for the analysis of mineral oil polyaromatic hydrocarbons in fatty foods. J Chromatogr A. 1996;750:361-8 pubmed
    ..The method is designed for the injection of a large amount of food extract (e.g. up to 200 mg of fat) and is applied to the analysis of mineral oil material in a linseed oil.
  32. Tripathi R, Agrawal S. Interactive effect of supplemental ultraviolet B and elevated ozone on seed yield and oil quality of two cultivars of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) carried out in open top chambers. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:1016-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the individual effect of O? was more damaging than the effect of sUV-B or sUV-B + O?, and cultivar T-397 performed better than Padmini. ..
  33. Cleland L, James M, Gibson R, Hawkes J, Betts W. Effect of dietary oils on the production of n-3 and n-6 metabolites of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase in five rat strains. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1043:253-8 pubmed
  34. Mourvaki E, Cardinali R, Dal Bosco A, Corazzi L, Castellini C. Effects of flaxseed dietary supplementation on sperm quality and on lipid composition of sperm subfractions and prostatic granules in rabbit. Theriogenology. 2010;73:629-37 pubmed publisher
  35. Giroux H, Acteau G, Sabik H, Britten M. Influence of dissolved gases and heat treatments on the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched dairy beverage. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:5710-6 pubmed publisher
    ..dissolved gas composition and heat treatment on the oxidative degradation of a dairy beverage enriched with 2% linseed oil was studied...
  36. Dannenberger D, Nuernberg K, Nuernberg G, Priepke A. Different dietary protein and PUFA interventions alter the fatty acid concentrations, but not the meat quality, of porcine muscle. Nutrients. 2012;4:1237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of a reduced protein diet in combination with different vegetable oils (sunflower seed oil or linseed oil) on carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profile in porcine muscle...
  37. Abdel Moneim A. Flaxseed oil as a neuroprotective agent on lead acetate-induced monoamineric alterations and neurotoxicity in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;148:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicated that dietary flaxseed oil provide protection against lead-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxic effects. ..
  38. Kew S, Banerjee T, Minihane A, Finnegan Y, Muggli R, Albers R, et al. Lack of effect of foods enriched with plant- or marine-derived n-3 fatty acids on human immune function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1287-95 pubmed
    ..An intake of <or= 9.5 g ALA/d or <or= 1.7 g EPA+DHA/d does not alter the functional activity of neutrophils, monocytes, or lymphocytes, but it changes the fatty acid composition of mononuclear cells. ..
  39. Justo M, Alfaro A, Aguilar E, Wrobel K, Wrobel K, Guzmán G, et al. [Integral bread development with soybean, chia, linseed, and folic acid as a functional food for women]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2007;57:78-84 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that; due to their high levels of protein, insaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6), dietary fiber and folic acid, these breads have a high nutritional value, so they could have special benefits for woman. ..
  40. Vyas T, Shahiwala A, Amiji M. Improved oral bioavailability and brain transport of Saquinavir upon administration in novel nanoemulsion formulations. Int J Pharm. 2008;347:93-101 pubmed
    ..The results of this study show that oil-in-water nanoemulsions made with PUFA-rich oils may be very promising for HIV/AIDS therapy, in particular, for reducing the viral load in important anatomical reservoir sites. ..
  41. Harper C, Edwards M, Jacobson T. Flaxseed oil supplementation does not affect plasma lipoprotein concentration or particle size in human subjects. J Nutr. 2006;136:2844-8 pubmed
    ..058) and LDL2 (P = 0.083) subfractions tended to be greater in the ALA group. In conclusion, ALA does not decrease CVD risk by altering lipoprotein particle size or plasma lipoprotein concentrations. ..
  42. Sabally K, Karboune S, St Louis R, Kermasha S. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with flaxseed oil for the synthesis of phenolic lipids. J Biotechnol. 2006;127:167-76 pubmed
    ..9 and 59.5%, respectively, as compared to the original flaxseed oil, 53.1%. The radical scavenging ability of phenolic lipids was significant; however, it was about half than that of alpha-tocopherol. ..
  43. Kiat amnuay S, Mekayarajjananonth T, Powers J, Chambers M, Lemon J. Interactions of pigments and opacifiers on color stability of MDX4-4210/type A maxillofacial elastomers subjected to artificial aging. J Prosthet Dent. 2006;95:249-57 pubmed
    ..Dry pigment Ti white remained the most color stable over time, followed by the pigments mixed with kaolin powder calcined, Georgia kaolin, Artskin white, and Ti white artists' oil color. ..
  44. Harper C, Edwards M, DeFilippis A, DeFilipis A, Jacobson T. Flaxseed oil increases the plasma concentrations of cardioprotective (n-3) fatty acids in humans. J Nutr. 2006;136:83-7 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the efficacy of the conversion of ALA to EPA and DPA in a minority population with chronic disease. ALA may be an alternative to fish oil; however, additional clinical trials with ALA are warranted. ..
  45. Zhang X, Wang H, Yin P, Fan H, Sun L, Liu Y. Flaxseed oil ameliorates alcoholic liver disease via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota in mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary FO ameliorates alcoholic liver disease via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota, thus can potentially serve as an inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD. ..
  46. Sobotka W, Flis M, Antoszkiewicz Z, Lipinski K, Zduńczyk Z. Effect of oat by-product antioxidants and vitamin E on the oxidative stability of pork from pigs fed diets supplemented with linseed oil. Arch Anim Nutr. 2012;66:27-38 pubmed
    ..by-product with the effect of vitamin E on the oxidative stability of pork from pigs fed a diet enriched with linseed oil. Thirty-four crossbreed barrows were fed individually from 39 to 109 kg body weight (BW) on one of four diets: ..
  47. Pan A, Yu D, Demark Wahnefried W, Franco O, Lin X. Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:288-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to determine the efficiency of flaxseed on lipid profiles in men and premenopausal women and to explore its potential benefits on other cardiometabolic risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular disease. ..
  48. Cho Y, Kwon E, Kim H, Park Y, Lee K, Park T, et al. Low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil improves plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in apo E(-/-) mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil is highly effective for improving hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in apo E(-/-) mice. ..
  49. Duda M, O Shea K, Tintinu A, Xu W, Khairallah R, Barrows B, et al. Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA derived from fish, but not from vegetable sources, increased plasma adiponectin, suppressed inflammation, and prevented cardiac remodelling and dysfunction under pressure overload conditions. ..
  50. Morise A, Mourot J, Boué C, Combe N, Amsler G, Gripois D, et al. Gender-related response of lipid metabolism to dietary fatty acids in the hamster. Br J Nutr. 2006;95:709-20 pubmed
    ..fed diets rich in either saturated fatty acids ( "butter" diet) or in alpha-linolenic acid ( "linseed oil" diet)...
  51. Sato K, Fukao K, Seki Y, Akiba Y. Expression of the chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene is influenced by aging, nutrition, and agonist administration. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1342-7 pubmed
    ..were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed for 7 d a diet containing 8% safflower oil (18:2-rich) or linseed oil (18:3-rich) compared with chickens fed a diet containing olive oil (18:1-rich)...
  52. Cartoni G, Russo M, Spinelli F, Talarico F. Characterisation of fatty acids in drying oils used in paintings on canvas by GC and GC-MS analysis. Ann Chim. 2001;91:719-26 pubmed
    ..project, aimed at the characterisation of binding media, a preliminary study was made of the ageing process of linseed oil. In this regard, linseed oil was spread on a glass or canvas support and then dried in the open air...
  53. Petrović M, Gačić M, Karačić V, Gottstein Z, Mazija H, Medic H. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet. Food Chem. 2012;135:1563-8 pubmed publisher
    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio...