proteolipids

Summary

Summary: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Lind G, Ahlquist T, Kolberg M, Berg M, Eknaes M, Alonso M, et al. Hypermethylated MAL gene - a silent marker of early colon tumorigenesis. J Transl Med. 2008;6:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoter hypermethylation of MAL was present in the vast majority of benign and malignant colorectal tumors, and only rarely in normal mucosa, which makes it suitable as a diagnostic marker for early colorectal tumorigenesis. ..
  2. Vehring S, Pakkiri L, Schröer A, Alder Baerens N, Herrmann A, Menon A, et al. Flip-flop of fluorescently labeled phospholipids in proteoliposomes reconstituted with Saccharomyces cerevisiae microsomal proteins. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1625-34 pubmed
    ..Our work defines yeast as a promising model system for future attempts to identify the ER phospholipid flippase and to test and purify candidate flippases...
  3. Chen R, Runswick M, Carroll J, Fearnley I, Walker J. Association of two proteolipids of unknown function with ATP synthase from bovine heart mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3145-8 pubmed
    ..Both proteins are conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates, but not in fungi, and prokaryotic F-ATPases do not contain orthologues of either of them. Therefore, their roles are likely to be peripheral to the synthesis of ATP. ..
  4. Ramnarayanan S, Cheng C, Bastaki M, Tuma P. Exogenous MAL reroutes selected hepatic apical proteins into the direct pathway in WIF-B cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:2707-15 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MAL rerouted selected hepatic apical proteins into the direct pathway. ..
  5. Fanayan S, Shehata M, Agterof A, McGuckin M, Alonso M, Byrne J. Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a novel partner for MAL2 in breast carcinoma cells. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify MUC1 as a novel MAL2 partner, and suggest a role for MAL2 in regulating MUC1 expression and/or localisation. ..
  6. Chen S, Pan C, Nandigama K, Mansfield B, Ambudkar S, Chou J. The glucose-6-phosphate transporter is a phosphate-linked antiporter deficient in glycogen storage disease type Ib and Ic. FASEB J. 2008;22:2206-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that G6PT has a dual role as a G6P and a P(i) transporter and that GSD-Ib and GSD-Ic are deficient in the same G6PT gene. ..
  7. HORNE H, Lee P, Murphy S, Alonso M, Olson J, Marks J. Inactivation of the MAL gene in breast cancer is a common event that predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate MAL as a commonly altered gene in breast cancer with implications for response to chemotherapy. ..
  8. Chen Y, Zheng B, Robbins D, Lewin D, Mikhitarian K, Graham A, et al. Accurate discrimination of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis using multimarker expression data and samples obtained by minimally invasive fine needle aspiration. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1511-7 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that molecular marker expression data can be used to augment cytological analysis. ..
  9. Schwartz M, Merz A. Capture and release of partially zipped trans-SNARE complexes on intact organelles. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:535-49 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kamsteeg E, Duffield A, Konings I, Spencer J, Pagel P, Deen P, et al. MAL decreases the internalization of the aquaporin-2 water channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16696-701 pubmed
    ..Thus, the involvement of MAL in the cell surface retention of apical membrane proteins could play an important role in regulated absorption and secretion in transporting epithelia. ..
  2. Perez J, Acevedo R, Callicó A, Fernández Y, Cedré B, Año G, et al. A proteoliposome based formulation administered by the nasal route produces vibriocidal antibodies against El Tor Ogawa Vibrio cholerae O1 in BALB/c mice. Vaccine. 2009;27:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..70+/-0.23) after two weeks from last dose. These results show for the first time that PL can be obtained from V. cholerae O1 and when administer by intranasal route has the potential to protect against this pathogen. ..
  3. Buser A, Erne B, Werner H, Nave K, Schaeren Wiemers N. The septin cytoskeleton in myelinating glia. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;40:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that septins are intriguing candidates for membrane compartmentalization in myelin internodes. ..
  4. Carmosino M, Rizzo F, Procino G, Basco D, Valenti G, Forbush B, et al. MAL/VIP17, a new player in the regulation of NKCC2 in the kidney. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3985-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the involvement of MAL/VIP17 in the activation and surface expression of NKCC2 could play an important role in the regulated absorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney. ..
  5. Venter H, Velamakanni S, Balakrishnan L, van Veen H. On the energy-dependence of Hoechst 33342 transport by the ABC transporter LmrA. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;75:866-74 pubmed
    ..Our studies in proteoliposomes demonstrate that LmrA can catalyze Hoechst 33342 transport independent of auxiliary proteins, in an ATP-dependent fashion and a transmembrane chemical proton gradient (interior acidic)-dependent fashion. ..
  6. Perez O, Lastre M, Cabrera O, Del Campo J, Bracho G, Cuello M, et al. New vaccines require potent adjuvants like AFPL1 and AFCo1. Scand J Immunol. 2007;66:271-7 pubmed
    ..Both are very promising adjuvants...
  7. Lee M, Kim E, Jang H, Park M, Woo H, Han J, et al. Effects of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the chicken NK-lysin gene on antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12087-92 pubmed publisher
  8. Shehata M, Bieche I, Boutros R, Weidenhofer J, Fanayan S, Spalding L, et al. Nonredundant functions for tumor protein D52-like proteins support specific targeting of TPD52. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5050-60 pubmed publisher
    ..274; 95% confidence interval, 1.228-4.210; P = 0.009; n = 328). D52 overexpression in cancer reflects specific targeting and may contribute to a more proliferative, aggressive tumor phenotype in breast cancer. ..
  9. Acevedo R, Callicó A, Del Campo J, GONZALEZ E, Cedré B, González L, et al. Intranasal administration of proteoliposome-derived cochleates from Vibrio cholerae O1 induce mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. Methods. 2009;49:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show for the first time that AFCo2 can be obtained from V. cholerae O1 proteoliposomes and have the potential to protect against the pathogen when administered intranasally. ..
  10. Grønborg M, Pavlos N, Brunk I, Chua J, Münster Wandowski A, Riedel D, et al. Quantitative comparison of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic vesicles unveils selectivity for few proteins including MAL2, a novel synaptic vesicle protein. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2-12 pubmed publisher
  11. Bello Morales R, de Marco M, Aranda J, Matesanz F, Alcina A, Lopez Guerrero J. Characterization of the MAL2-positive compartment in oligodendrocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3453-65 pubmed publisher
  12. Sahu S, Gummadi S. Flippase activity in proteoliposomes reconstituted with Spinacea oleracea endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins: evidence of biogenic membrane flippase in plants. Biochemistry. 2008;47:10481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the existence of biogenic membrane flippases in plants and that the mechanism of membrane biogenesis is similar to that found in animals...
  13. Rodriguez L, Tirado Y, Reyes F, Puig A, Kadir R, Borrero R, et al. Proteoliposomes from Mycobacterium smegmatis induce immune cross-reactivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:6236-41 pubmed publisher
    ..PL-Ms are capable of eliciting cross-reactive humoral and cellular responses against Mtb antigens and thus may be a potential vaccine strategy against tuberculosis. ..
  14. Piao W, Song C, Chen H, Wahl L, Fitzgerald K, O Neill L, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is critical for signal transduction and blocked in endotoxin tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3109-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of Mal is required for adapter signaling, regulates Mal interactions with TLR4 and receptor signaling, and is inhibited in endotoxin tolerance. ..
  15. Madrid R, Aranda J, Rodriguez Fraticelli A, Ventimiglia L, Andrés Delgado L, Shehata M, et al. The formin INF2 regulates basolateral-to-apical transcytosis and lumen formation in association with Cdc42 and MAL2. Dev Cell. 2010;18:814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a functional mechanism whereby Cdc42, INF2, and MAL2 are sequentially ordered in a pathway dedicated to the regulation of transcytosis and lumen formation. ..
  16. Tassi R, Bignotti E, Falchetti M, Calza S, Ravaggi A, Rossi E, et al. Mammaglobin B expression in human endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18:1090-6 pubmed
    ..MGB-2 is highly expressed in EEC, particularly in well- and moderately differentiated tumors, and may represent a novel molecular marker for EEC. ..
  17. Zhang L, Jie C, Obie C, Abidi F, Schwartz C, Stevenson R, et al. X chromosome cDNA microarray screening identifies a functional PLP2 promoter polymorphism enriched in patients with X-linked mental retardation. Genome Res. 2007;17:641-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that our XCA screening is an efficient strategy to identify genes that show significant changes in transcript abundance as candidate genes for XLMR. ..
  18. Overmeer R, Henken F, Bierkens M, Wilting S, Timmerman I, Meijer C, et al. Repression of MAL tumour suppressor activity by promoter methylation during cervical carcinogenesis. J Pathol. 2009;219:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, MAL promoter methylation and/or mRNA expression analysis on cervical scrapings may provide a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection of CIN3, SCC, and AdCA...
  19. Stroupe C, Hickey C, Mima J, Burfeind A, Wickner W. Minimal membrane docking requirements revealed by reconstitution of Rab GTPase-dependent membrane fusion from purified components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We use this reconstituted system to show that SNAREs and Sec17p/Sec18p, and Ypt7p and the HOPS complex, are required for stable intermembrane interactions and that the three vacuolar Q-SNAREs are sufficient for these interactions. ..
  20. Sonoda Y, Warita M, Suzuki T, Ozawa H, Fukuda Y, Funakoshi Tago M, et al. Proteolipid protein 2 is associated with melanoma metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:371-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PLP2 aids metastasis. Furthermore, we showed that PLP2 binds specifically to PI3K, thus activating Akt. ..
  21. Tassi R, Bignotti E, Rossi E, Falchetti M, Donzelli C, Calza S, et al. Overexpression of mammaglobin B in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:578-85 pubmed
    ..Additional studies to evaluate the clinical utility of Mammaglobin B as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic target in ovarian cancer are warranted. ..
  22. Magal L, Yaffe Y, Shepshelovich J, Aranda J, de Marco M, Gaus K, et al. Clustering and lateral concentration of raft lipids by the MAL protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3751-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data place MAL as a key component in the organization of membrane domains that could potentially serve as membrane sorting platforms. ..
  23. Sjödin A, Ljuslinder I, Henriksson R, Hedman H. Mammaglobin and lipophilin B expression in breast tumors and their lack of effect on breast cancer cell proliferation. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:1493-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the overexpression of mammaglobin observed in certain breast tumors is an epiphenomenon not causally involved in breast carcinogenesis. ..
  24. Lee P, Teaberry V, Bland A, Huang Z, Whitaker R, Baba T, et al. Elevated MAL expression is accompanied by promoter hypomethylation and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:1378-89 pubmed publisher
    ..04). MAL methylation status may therefore serve as a marker of platinum sensitivity while MAL protein may be a target for development of novel therapies aimed at enhancing sensitivity to platinum-based drugs in ovarian cancer. ..
  25. Campo J, Zayas C, Romeu B, Acevedo R, GONZALEZ E, Bracho G, et al. Mucosal immunization using proteoliposome and cochleate structures from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B induce mucosal and systemic responses. Methods. 2009;49:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of AFCo1 as a potent Th1 inducing adjuvant particularly suitable for mucosal immunization. ..
  26. Lind G, Ahlquist T, Lothe R. DNA hypermethylation of MAL: a promising diagnostic biomarker for colorectal tumors. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1631-2; author reply 1632 pubmed
  27. Buffart T, Overmeer R, Steenbergen R, Tijssen M, van Grieken N, Snijders P, et al. MAL promoter hypermethylation as a novel prognostic marker in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..03) and with downregulation of expression (P=0.01). These results indicate that MAL has a putative tumour-suppressor gene function in gastric cancer, and detection of promoter hypermethylation may be useful as a prognostic marker. ..
  28. Cao W, Zhang Z, Xu Q, Sun Q, Yan M, Zhang J, et al. Epigenetic silencing of MAL, a putative tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelium cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:296 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the epigenetic inactivation of MAL, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelial cell carcinoma and may be served as a biomarker in HNSCC. ..
  29. Ohya T, Miaczynska M, Coskun U, Lommer B, Runge A, Drechsel D, et al. Reconstitution of Rab- and SNARE-dependent membrane fusion by synthetic endosomes. Nature. 2009;459:1091-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In reconstituting a fusion mechanism dependent on both a Rab GTPase and SNAREs, our work shows that the two machineries act coordinately to increase the specificity and efficiency of the membrane tethering and fusion process. ..
  30. Beder L, Gunduz M, Hotomi M, Fujihara K, Shimada J, Tamura S, et al. T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein gene as a candidate metastasis suppressor for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:873-80 pubmed
    ..LOH and hypermethylation appeared to be important mechanisms for inactivation of MAL function. ..
  31. Nozawa A, Nanamiya H, Miyata T, Linka N, Endo Y, Weber A, et al. A cell-free translation and proteoliposome reconstitution system for functional analysis of plant solute transporters. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1815-20 pubmed
    ..We also determined the substrate specificities of three putative rice PPT homologs with this system. The cell-free proteoliposome reconstitution system provides a valuable tool for functional analysis of transporter proteins. ..
  32. Carter D, Dillon D, Reynolds L, Retter M, Fanger G, Molesh D, et al. Serum antibodies to lipophilin B detected in late stage breast cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:749-54 pubmed
    ..A polymorphism identified in Lipophilin B did not appear to influence human sera reactivity. The data indicate that humoral immune responses to lipophilin B may serve as a diagnostic indicator, particularly for breast cancer. ..
  33. Rush J, Waechter C. Functional reconstitution into proteoliposomes and partial purification of a rat liver ER transport system for a water-soluble analogue of mannosylphosphoryldolichol. Biochemistry. 2004;43:7643-52 pubmed
    ..Solubilization and functional reconstitution are shown to provide an experimental approach to the partial purification of the protein(s) mediating the transport process. ..
  34. Saravanan K, Schaeren Wiemers N, Klein D, Sandhoff R, Schwarz A, Yaghootfam A, et al. Specific downregulation and mistargeting of the lipid raft-associated protein MAL in a glycolipid storage disorder. Neurobiol Dis. 2004;16:396-406 pubmed
    ..The specific reduction and mistargeting of MAL protein as a reaction to sulfatide overload may contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms in metachromatic leukodystrophy. ..
  35. Lee S, Shin H, Jang S, Shim J, Song I, Son K, et al. PLP2/A4 interacts with CCR1 and stimulates migration of CCR1-expressing HOS cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:768-72 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of PLP2/A4 stimulated a twofold increase in the agonist-induced migration of HOS/CCR1 cells, implicating a functional role for PLP2/A4 in the chemotactic processes via CCR1. ..
  36. Llorente A, de Marco M, Alonso M. Caveolin-1 and MAL are located on prostasomes secreted by the prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5343-51 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that MAL family proteins are associated with caveolin-1 in a multivesicular compartment that may be involved in prostasomal secretion in PC-3 cells. ..
  37. Sjödin A, Guo D, Sørhaug S, Bjermer L, Henriksson R, Hedman H. Dysregulated secretoglobin expression in human lung cancers. Lung Cancer. 2003;41:49-56 pubmed
    ..These findings could have important biological and diagnostic implications. ..
  38. Brint E, Xu D, Liu H, Dunne A, McKenzie A, O Neill L, et al. ST2 is an inhibitor of interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and maintains endotoxin tolerance. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:373-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results provide a molecular explanation for the function of ST2 in T(H)2 responses, as inhibition of TLRs promotes a T(H)2 response, and also identify ST2 as a key regulator of endotoxin tolerance. ..
  39. von Ballmoos C, Dimroth P. A continuous fluorescent method for measuring Na+ transport. Anal Biochem. 2004;335:334-7 pubmed
  40. Rohan S, Tu J, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou X, et al. Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:6937-45 pubmed
    ..To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes...
  41. Mimori K, Shiraishi T, Mashino K, Sonoda H, Yamashita K, Yoshinaga K, et al. MAL gene expression in esophageal cancer suppresses motility, invasion and tumorigenicity and enhances apoptosis through the Fas pathway. Oncogene. 2003;22:3463-71 pubmed
  42. Marazuela M, Martin Belmonte F, García López M, Aranda J, de Marco M, Alonso M. Expression and distribution of MAL2, an essential element of the machinery for basolateral-to-apical transcytosis, in human thyroid epithelial cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1011-6 pubmed
  43. Xiao F, Mirwald A, Papaioannou M, Baniahmad A, Klug J. Secretoglobin 2A1 is under selective androgen control mediated by a peculiar binding site for Sp family transcription factors. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:2964-78 pubmed
    ..Therefore we propose that SCGB 2A1 represents a new class of androgen target genes that are purely under indirect AR control mediated by DNA-bound Sp factors. ..
  44. Schaeren Wiemers N, Bonnet A, Erb M, Erne B, Bartsch U, Kern F, et al. The raft-associated protein MAL is required for maintenance of proper axon--glia interactions in the central nervous system. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:731-42 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a critical role for MAL in the maintenance of central nervous system paranodes, likely by controlling the trafficking and/or sorting of NF155 and other membrane components in oligodendrocytes. ..
  45. Sjödin A, Guo D, Lund Johansen M, Krossnes B, Lilleng P, Henriksson R, et al. Secretoglobins in the human pituitary: high expression of lipophilin B and its down-regulation in pituitary adenomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:381-6 pubmed
    ..No secretoglobin mRNA was detected in the HP75 cells. The present report demonstrates, for the first time, lipophilin B expression in the pituitary and its apparent down-regulation in pituitary adenomas. ..
  46. Brasch F, Johnen G, Winn Brasch A, Guttentag S, Schmiedl A, Kapp N, et al. Surfactant protein B in type II pneumocytes and intra-alveolar surfactant forms of human lungs. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:449-58 pubmed
    ..In human lungs, mature SP-B is involved in the structural organization of lamellar bodies and tubular myelin by the formation of core particles. ..
  47. Ouellette R, Richard D, Maicas E. RT-PCR for mammaglobin genes, MGB1 and MGB2, identifies breast cancer micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:637-43 pubmed
    ..05) alone. The increased detection rate relative to histologic examination suggests that using RT-PCR for the mammaglobin genes might identify patients at higher risk compared with patients with negative RT-PCR results. ..
  48. Hatta M, Nagai H, Okino K, Onda M, Yoneyama K, Ohta Y, et al. Down-regulation of members of glycolipid-enriched membrane raft gene family, MAL and BENE, in cervical squamous cell cancers. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30:53-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that down-regulation of MAL and BENE genes, which are essential components of the cellular polarized sorting system, play an important role in human cervical squamous cell cancer development. ..
  49. Perez O, Bracho G, Lastre M, Zayas C, Gonzalez D, Gil D, et al. Proteliposome-derived Cochleate as an immunomodulator for nasal vaccine. Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 2:S2-52-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that PL-derived Cochleate can be used as a promising immunomodulator and delivery system for the development of mucosal, particularly nasal vaccines. ..
  50. Kazemi Noureini S, Colonna Romano S, Ziaee A, Malboobi M, Yazdanbod M, Setayeshgar P, et al. Differential gene expression between squamous cell carcinoma of esophageus and its normal epithelium; altered pattern of mal, akr1c2, and rab11a expression. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1716-21 pubmed
    ..Differential display technique in spite of many disadvantages is still a valuable technique in gene function exploration studies to find new candidates for improved ones like gene chips. ..
  51. Bello Morales R, Fedetz M, Alcina A, Tabarés E, Lopez Guerrero J. High susceptibility of a human oligodendroglial cell line to herpes simplex type 1 infection. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:190-8 pubmed
    ..From these findings the authors conclude that human oligodendrocyte-like cells are highly susceptible to HSV-1 infection. The implications of this for central nervous system viral infection are discussed. ..
  52. Hsi E, Sup S, Alemany C, Tso E, Skacel M, Elson P, et al. MAL is expressed in a subset of Hodgkin lymphoma and identifies a population of patients with poor prognosis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;125:776-82 pubmed
    ..Stage showed borderline significance in OS (P = .08). MAL expression seems to identify a subset of cHL with an adverse outcome and provides additional evidence for a link between cHL and MLBL. ..
  53. O Brien N, O Donovan N, Ryan B, Hill A, McDermott E, O Higgins N, et al. Mammaglobin a in breast cancer: existence of multiple molecular forms. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:623-7 pubmed
    ..As expression of MGA is almost breast specific, it is a promising marker for breast cancer. Its most immediate use is likely to be in detecting micrometastases from breast cancer. ..