Summary: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Kim W, Hsiao J, Bhatia S, Glaros E, Don A, Tsuruoka S, et al. ABCA8 stimulates sphingomyelin production in oligodendrocytes. Biochem J. 2013;452:401-10 pubmed publisher
  2. Peter Slotte J. Molecular properties of various structurally defined sphingomyelins -- correlation of structure with function. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:206-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Sphingomyelins are important phospholipids in plasma membranes of most cells...
  3. Banerji S, Ngo M, Lane C, Robinson C, Minogue S, Ridgway N. Oxysterol binding protein-dependent activation of sphingomyelin synthesis in the golgi apparatus requires phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II?. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:4141-50 pubmed publisher
  4. Ekholm O, Jaikishan S, Lönnfors M, Nyholm T, Slotte J. Membrane bilayer properties of sphingomyelins with amide-linked 2- or 3-hydroxylated fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:727-32 pubmed publisher
    The bilayer properties and interactions with cholesterol of N-acyl hydroxylated sphingomyelins (SM) were examined, and results were compared to nonhydroxylated chain-matched SM...
  5. De Colibus L, Sonnen A, Morris K, Siebert C, Abrusci P, Plitzko J, et al. Structures of lysenin reveal a shared evolutionary origin for pore-forming proteins and its mode of sphingomyelin recognition. Structure. 2012;20:1498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid interaction studies and assays using viable target cells confirm the functional reliance of lysenin on this form of SM recognition. ..
  6. Zhang Y, Cheng Y, Hansen G, Niels Christiansen L, Koentgen F, Ohlsson L, et al. Crucial role of alkaline sphingomyelinase in sphingomyelin digestion: a study on enzyme knockout mice. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:771-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides definite proof for crucial roles of alk-SMase in SM digestion and points to possible roles in regulating mucosal growth and alkaline phosphatase function. ..
  7. Zobel Thropp P, Kerins A, Binford G. Sphingomyelinase D in sicariid spider venom is a potent insecticidal toxin. Toxicon. 2012;60:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, SMase D and crude venom have comparable and high potency in immobilization assays on crickets. These data indicate that SMase D is a potent insecticidal toxin, the role for which it presumably evolved. ..
  8. Contreras F, Ernst A, Haberkant P, Björkholm P, Lindahl E, Gönen B, et al. Molecular recognition of a single sphingolipid species by a protein's transmembrane domain. Nature. 2012;481:525-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discovery of an unprecedented specificity of interaction of a TMD with an individual sphingolipid species adds to our understanding of why biological membranes are assembled from such a large variety of different lipids. ..
  9. Slotte J. Biological functions of sphingomyelins. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:424-37 pubmed publisher
    ..SM is an independent risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, and new studies have shed light on possible mechanism behind its role in atherogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Tam C, Idone V, Devlin C, Fernandes M, FLANNERY A, He X, et al. Exocytosis of acid sphingomyelinase by wounded cells promotes endocytosis and plasma membrane repair. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:1027-38 pubmed publisher
  2. Ibarguren M, Alonso A, Tenchov B, Goni F. Quantitation of cholesterol incorporation into extruded lipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:1735-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A quantitative analysis of the vesicles is thus required before any experimental study is undertaken. ..
  3. Tandy S, Chung R, Kamili A, Wat E, Weir J, Meikle P, et al. Hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine supplementation reduces hepatic lipid levels in mice fed a high-fat diet. Atherosclerosis. 2010;213:142-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Trovò L, Van Veldhoven P, Martin M, Dotti C. Sphingomyelin upregulation in mature neurons contributes to TrkB activity by Rac1 endocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1308-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results reveal developmental upregulation of SM as an important mechanism for sustaining TrkB activity in the mature nervous system, in addition to the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). ..
  5. Mielke M, Haughey N, Bandaru V, Weinberg D, Darby E, Zaidi N, et al. Plasma sphingomyelins are associated with cognitive progression in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;27:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we sought to determine whether plasma ceramides, dihydroceramides (DHCer), sphingomyelins (SM), or dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM) levels and ratios of SM/ceramide or DHSM/DHCer were predictive of ..
  6. Li Z, Zhang H, Liu J, Liang C, Li Y, Li Y, et al. Reducing plasma membrane sphingomyelin increases insulin sensitivity. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We have concluded that Sptlc2 heterozygous deficiency- or Sms2 deficiency-mediated reduction of SM in the plasma membranes leads to an improvement in tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity. ..
  7. Epstein S, Kirkpatrick C, Castillon G, Muñiz M, Riezman I, David F, et al. Activation of the unfolded protein response pathway causes ceramide accumulation in yeast and INS-1E insulinoma cells. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our study reveals a novel connection between UPR induction and ceramide synthesis that seems to be conserved between yeast and mammalian cells...
  8. Niwa Y, Matsui C, Sukumwang N, Iinuma H, Ikeda Y, Koyano T, et al. Inhibition of lysenin-induced hemolysis by all-E-lutein derived from the plant Dalbergia latifolia. Planta Med. 2012;78:957-61 pubmed publisher
    ..025-2.5 ng/mL without any toxicity. The inhibition by all-E-lutein is likely to occur during the receptor binding and/or pore-forming protein oligomerization...
  9. Sorci Thomas M, Owen J, Fulp B, Bhat S, Zhu X, Parks J, et al. Nascent high density lipoproteins formed by ABCA1 resemble lipid rafts and are structurally organized by three apoA-I monomers. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1890-909 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these new data offer fresh insights into the biogenesis and structural constraints involved in forming nascent HDL from ABCA1...
  10. Duran J, Campelo F, van Galen J, Sachsenheimer T, Sot J, Egorov M, et al. Sphingomyelin organization is required for vesicle biogenesis at the Golgi complex. EMBO J. 2012;31:4535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the importance of a regulated production and organization of sphingomyelin in the biogenesis of transport carriers at the Golgi membranes...
  11. Chughtai K, Jiang L, Greenwood T, Glunde K, Heeren R. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:333-44 pubmed publisher
  12. Monette J, Gómez L, Moreau R, Dunn K, Butler J, Finlay L, et al. (R)-?-Lipoic acid treatment restores ceramide balance in aging rat cardiac mitochondria. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, LA treatment lowers ceramide levels to that seen in young rat heart mitochondria and restores Complex IV activity which otherwise declines with age. ..
  13. Yunoki K, Renaguli M, Kinoshita M, Matsuyama H, Mawatari S, Fujino T, et al. Dietary sphingolipids ameliorate disorders of lipid metabolism in Zucker fatty rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7030-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that dietary SL, even of different origins and chemical compositions, may prevent fatty liver and hypercholesterolemia through improvement of adiponectin signaling and consequent increases in insulin sensitivity. ..
  14. NORMAN E, Cutler R, FLANNERY R, Wang Y, Mattson M. Plasma membrane sphingomyelin hydrolysis increases hippocampal neuron excitability by sphingosine-1-phosphate mediated mechanisms. J Neurochem. 2010;114:430-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, direct intracellular application of S1P to CA1 neurons increased action potential firing. Our findings suggest roles for sphingomyelin metabolism and S1P in the positive regulation of the excitability of hippocampal neurons. ..
  15. Wille A, Chaves Moreira D, Trevisan Silva D, Magnoni M, Boia Ferreira M, Gremski L, et al. Modulation of membrane phospholipids, the cytosolic calcium influx and cell proliferation following treatment of B16-F10 cells with recombinant phospholipase-D from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom. Toxicon. 2013;67:17-30 pubmed publisher
  16. Gault C, Obeid L, Hannun Y. An overview of sphingolipid metabolism: from synthesis to breakdown. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;688:1-23 pubmed
    ..With this thought in mind, this chapter will pay tribute to the complex sphingolipids, but focus on the regulation of simple sphingolipid metabolism. ..
  17. Elwell C, Jiang S, Kim J, Lee A, Wittmann T, Hanada K, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts GBF1 and CERT to acquire host sphingomyelin for distinct roles during intracellular development. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002198 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which an intracellular pathogen redirects SM biosynthesis to its replicative niche. ..
  18. Vouk K, Hevir N, Ribic Pucelj M, Haarpaintner G, Scherb H, Osredkar J, et al. Discovery of phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins as biomarkers for ovarian endometriosis. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2955-65 pubmed publisher
    ..3. Our results suggest that endometriosis is associated with elevated levels of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines, which might contribute to the suppression of apoptosis and affect lipid-associated ..
  19. Gomes M, Guimarães G, Frezard F, Kalapothakis E, Minozzo J, Chaim O, et al. Determination of sphingomyelinase-D activity of Loxosceles venoms in sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes containing horseradish peroxidase. Toxicon. 2011;57:574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom, Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom and Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus, Lachesis muta and Micrurus frontalis snake venoms did not show measurable SMase-D activity. ..
  20. Blaas N, Schüürmann C, Bartke N, Stahl B, Humpf H. Structural profiling and quantification of sphingomyelin in human breast milk by HPLC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:6018-24 pubmed publisher
    ..0 ± 3.1%). Interestingly, the fatty acid composition of SM species in this study differs from the total fatty acids in human breast milk, and the fatty acids are not consistently distributed among the different sphingoid bases. ..
  21. Stock R, Brewer J, Wagner K, Ramos Cerrillo B, Duelund L, Jernshøj K, et al. Sphingomyelinase D activity in model membranes: structural effects of in situ generation of ceramide-1-phosphate. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36003 pubmed publisher
  22. Menuz V, Howell K, Gentina S, Epstein S, Riezman I, Fornallaz Mulhauser M, et al. Protection of C. elegans from anoxia by HYL-2 ceramide synthase. Science. 2009;324:381-4 pubmed publisher
    ..HYL-1 and HYL-2 have complementary specificities for fatty acyl chains. These data indicate that specific ceramides produced by HYL-2 confer resistance to anoxia. ..
  23. Zech T, Ejsing C, Gaus K, de Wet B, Shevchenko A, Simons K, et al. Accumulation of raft lipids in T-cell plasma membrane domains engaged in TCR signalling. EMBO J. 2009;28:466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results correlate the accumulation of specific molecular lipid species with the specific plasma membrane condensation at sites of TCR activation and with early TCR activation responses. ..
  24. Prenner E, Honsek G, Hönig D, Möbius D, Lohner K. Imaging of the domain organization in sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine monolayers. Chem Phys Lipids. 2007;145:106-18 pubmed
  25. Silva L, Futerman A, Prieto M. Lipid raft composition modulates sphingomyelinase activity and ceramide-induced membrane physical alterations. Biophys J. 2009;96:3210-22 pubmed publisher
  26. Walker B, Manhanke N, Stine K. Comparison of the interaction of tomatine with mixed monolayers containing phospholipid, egg sphingomyelin, and sterols. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:2244-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals further evidence for formation of suspected islands of tomatine + cholesterol complexes upon interaction with mixed monolayers of lipid and sterol. ..
  27. Hanada K, Kumagai K, Tomishige N, Kawano M. CERT and intracellular trafficking of ceramide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:644-53 pubmed
  28. Galvan C, Camoletto P, Cristofani F, Van Veldhoven P, Ledesma M. Anomalous surface distribution of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins in neurons lacking acid sphingomyelinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:509-22 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that deficiencies in such processes could be key pathological events in NPA disease. ..
  29. Rog T, Pasenkiewicz Gierula M. Cholesterol-sphingomyelin interactions: a molecular dynamics simulation study. Biophys J. 2006;91:3756-67 pubmed
    ..Chol affects both the core and interface of the SSM bilayer. With increasing Chol content, the order of SSM chains and hydration of SSM headgroups increase, whereas polar interactions between lipids decrease. ..
  30. Frazier M, Wright J, Pokorny A, Almeida P. Investigation of domain formation in sphingomyelin/cholesterol/POPC mixtures by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and Monte Carlo simulations. Biophys J. 2007;92:2422-33 pubmed
    ..have not been observed by fluorescence microscopy in BSM/Chol/POPC mixtures, though they have for some other sphingomyelins (SM)...
  31. Tafesse F, Huitema K, Hermansson M, van der Poel S, van den Dikkenberg J, Uphoff A, et al. Both sphingomyelin synthases SMS1 and SMS2 are required for sphingomyelin homeostasis and growth in human HeLa cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17537-47 pubmed
    ..Although SMS-depleted cells displayed a reduced SM content, external addition of SM did not restore growth. These results indicate that the biological role of SM synthases goes beyond formation of SM. ..
  32. Thomas M, Mitchell T, Harman D, Deeley J, Murphy R, Blanksby S. Elucidation of double bond position in unsaturated lipids by ozone electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2007;79:5013-22 pubmed
    ..OzESI-MS), of a broad range of common unsaturated lipids including acidic and neutral glycerophospholipids, sphingomyelins, and triacylglycerols...
  33. Sutterwala S, Hsu F, Sevova E, Schwartz K, Zhang K, Key P, et al. Developmentally regulated sphingolipid synthesis in African trypanosomes. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:281-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals novel diversity and regulation in sphingolipid metabolism in this important group of human parasites. ..
  34. Koivusalo M, Jansen M, Somerharju P, Ikonen E. Endocytic trafficking of sphingomyelin depends on its acyl chain length. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:5113-23 pubmed
    To study the principles of endocytic lipid trafficking, we introduced pyrene sphingomyelins (PyrSMs) with varying acyl chain lengths and domain partitioning properties into human fibroblasts or HeLa cells...
  35. Bakrac B, Gutierrez Aguirre I, Podlesek Z, Sonnen A, Gilbert R, Macek P, et al. Molecular determinants of sphingomyelin specificity of a eukaryotic pore-forming toxin. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the characteristic features of SM chemistry lie in this subinterfacial region, the recognition mechanism may be generic for all SM-specific proteins. ..
  36. Lei X, Zhang S, Bohrer A, Bao S, Song H, Ramanadham S. The group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 participates in ER stress-induced INS-1 insulinoma cell apoptosis by promoting ceramide generation via hydrolysis of sphingomyelins by neutral sphingomyelinase. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10170-85 pubmed
    ..of ceramides, but both message and protein levels of neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), which hydrolyzes sphingomyelins to generate ceramides, were temporally increased in the INS-1 cells...
  37. Massey J, Pownall H. Structures of biologically active oxysterols determine their differential effects on phospholipid membranes. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10747-58 pubmed
    ..g., monocyte/macrophages, should include their biophysical effects on membranes, such as the regulation of the formation and composition of sterol-rich membrane domains. ..
  38. Robertson D, Gu L, Rowe R, Beatty W. Inclusion biogenesis and reactivation of persistent Chlamydia trachomatis requires host cell sphingolipid biosynthesis. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000664 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis infection. ..
  39. Tafesse F, Ternes P, Holthuis J. The multigenic sphingomyelin synthase family. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:29421-5 pubmed
  40. Mielke M, Bandaru V, Haughey N, Rabins P, Lyketsos C, Carlson M. Serum sphingomyelins and ceramides are early predictors of memory impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the direct connection between sphingomyelins (SM), ceramides, and apoptosis, these lipids may be indicators of neurodegeneration and AD progression...
  41. Hereć M, Gagos M, Kulma M, Kwiatkowska K, Sobota A, Gruszecki W. Secondary structure and orientation of the pore-forming toxin lysenin in a sphingomyelin-containing membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Spectral analysis of the amide I band showed that the alpha-helical component was oriented with at 41 degrees to the normal to the membrane, indicating that this protein segment could be anchored in the hydrophobic core of the membrane. ..
  42. O Connell R, Yuan C, Johnston L, Rinco O, Probodh I, Treistman S. Gating and conductance changes in BK(Ca) channels in bilayers are reciprocal. J Membr Biol. 2006;213:143-53 pubmed
    ..We conclude that both the inner and outer domains of the channel where these two channel functions are localized respond to deformation and that a fixed amount of distortion results in reciprocal changes in protein function. ..
  43. Babalola J, Wendeler M, Breiden B, Arenz C, Schwarzmann G, Locatelli Hoops S, et al. Development of an assay for the intermembrane transfer of cholesterol by Niemann-Pick C2 protein. Biol Chem. 2007;388:617-26 pubmed
    ..This assay system promises to be a valuable tool for further quantitative and mechanistic studies of protein-mediated lipid transfer. ..
  44. Matsuda S, Kodama T, Okada N, Okayama K, Honda T, Iida T. Association of Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin with lipid rafts is essential for cytotoxicity but not hemolytic activity. Infect Immun. 2010;78:603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that TDH may target a certain group of rafts that are sensitive to SMase at a certain concentration, which does not affect other types of rafts...
  45. Subra C, Laulagnier K, Perret B, Record M. Exosome lipidomics unravels lipid sorting at the level of multivesicular bodies. Biochimie. 2007;89:205-12 pubmed
    ..However, this pathway seems also to be used by pathogens such as HIV. This review will consider several aspects of lipidomics studies which might help to understand the fate and role of these fascinating vesicles. ..
  46. Pietiläinen K, Sysi Aho M, Rissanen A, Seppanen Laakso T, Yki Jarvinen H, Kaprio J, et al. Acquired obesity is associated with changes in the serum lipidomic profile independent of genetic effects--a monozygotic twin study. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e218 pubmed
    ..Our results show that obesity, already in its early stages and independent of genetic influences, is associated with deleterious alterations in the lipid metabolism known to facilitate atherogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance. ..
  47. Willmann J, Mahlstedt K, Leibfritz D, Spraul M, Thiele H. Characterization of sphingomyelins in lipid extracts using a HPLC-MS-Offline-NMR method. Anal Chem. 2007;79:4188-91 pubmed
    b>Sphingomyelins were characterized using a combination of a novel isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method with electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection and optional online MS/MS...
  48. Imokawa G. A possible mechanism underlying the ceramide deficiency in atopic dermatitis: expression of a deacylase enzyme that cleaves the N-acyl linkage of sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide. J Dermatol Sci. 2009;55:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that the biogenesis of SM-GCer deacylase may be critical to the pathogenesis of AD. ..
  49. Albi E, Lazzarini R, Viola Magni M. Phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin metabolism crosstalk inside the nucleus. Biochem J. 2008;410:381-9 pubmed
    ..Chromatin lipid metabolism is activated in vivo during cell proliferation, indicating that it could play a role in cell function. The possible mechanism of crosstalk is discussed here, with consideration to recent advances in the field. ..
  50. Vacaru A, Tafesse F, Ternes P, Kondylis V, Hermansson M, Brouwers J, et al. Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein SMSr controls ceramide homeostasis in the ER. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1013-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish SMSr as a key regulator of ceramide homeostasis that seems to operate as a sensor rather than a converter of ceramides in the ER. ..
  51. Saito S, Matsui H, Kawano M, Kumagai K, Tomishige N, Hanada K, et al. Protein phosphatase 2Cepsilon is an endoplasmic reticulum integral membrane protein that dephosphorylates the ceramide transport protein CERT to enhance its association with organelle membranes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CERT is a physiological substrate of PP2Cepsilon and that dephosphorylation of CERT by PP2Cepsilon may play an important role in the regulation of ceramide trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. ..
  52. Gupta V, Patel H, Kostolansky S, Ballivian R, Eichberg J, Blanke S. Sphingomyelin functions as a novel receptor for Helicobacter pylori VacA. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000073 pubmed publisher
  53. Yeboah J, McNamara C, Jiang X, Tabas I, Herrington D, Burke G, et al. Association of plasma sphingomyelin levels and incident coronary heart disease events in an adult population: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:628-33 pubmed publisher
    ..A high plasma sphingomyelin level is not associated with an increased risk of incident CHD in population-based adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. ..
  54. Lucic D, Huang Z, Gu D, Subbaiah P, Mazzone T. Cellular sphingolipids regulate macrophage apolipoprotein E secretion. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11196-204 pubmed
    ..The dependence for this effect on the C-terminal domain of apoE suggests a model in which the SM content of intracellular membranes modulates the secretion of nascent apoE via the interaction with amphipathic lipid-binding domains. ..
  55. Ishitsuka R, Kobayashi T. Cholesterol and lipid/protein ratio control the oligomerization of a sphingomyelin-specific toxin, lysenin. Biochemistry. 2007;46:1495-502 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that both cholesterol and the SM/lysenin ratio control the amount of lysenin monomer via altering the state of protein oligomerization, thus affecting hemolysis...
  56. Chandran S, Machamer C. Acute perturbations in Golgi organization impact de novo sphingomyelin synthesis. Traffic. 2008;9:1894-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The organization of the mammalian Golgi ribbon together with CERT may promote specific ER-Golgi interactions for efficient delivery of ceramide for SM synthesis. ..
  57. Samad F, Hester K, Yang G, Hannun Y, Bielawski J. Altered adipose and plasma sphingolipid metabolism in obesity: a potential mechanism for cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Diabetes. 2006;55:2579-87 pubmed
  58. Milhas D, Clarke C, Hannun Y. Sphingomyelin metabolism at the plasma membrane: implications for bioactive sphingolipids. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1887-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We will outline what biological functions are associated with SM metabolism/production at the PM, and discuss what we believe are major challenges that need to be addressed in future studies. ..
  59. Tomishige N, Kumagai K, Kusuda J, Nishijima M, Hanada K. Casein kinase I{gamma}2 down-regulates trafficking of ceramide in the synthesis of sphingomyelin. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CKIgamma2 hyperphosphorylates the serine-repeat motif of CERT, thereby inactivating CERT and down-regulating the synthesis of sphingomyelin. ..
  60. Rossi G, Magni M, Albi E. Sphingomyelin-cholesterol and double stranded RNA relationship in the intranuclear complex. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;459:27-32 pubmed
    ..The presence of the lamin B as a protein of the intranuclear complex suggests that it could correspond to the transcription sites associated to the inner nuclear membrane. ..
  61. Yuan C, O Connell R, Jacob R, Mason R, Treistman S. Regulation of the gating of BKCa channel by lipid bilayer thickness. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7276-86 pubmed
    ..We suggest a simple mechanical model that combines forces of lateral stress within the lipid bilayer with local hydrophobic mismatch between lipids and the protein to account for the biphasic modulation of BK(Ca) gating. ..
  62. Smith E, Schuchman E. The unexpected role of acid sphingomyelinase in cell death and the pathophysiology of common diseases. FASEB J. 2008;22:3419-31 pubmed publisher
  63. Chocian G, Chabowski A, Zendzian Piotrowska M, Harasim E, Łukaszuk B, Gorski J. High fat diet induces ceramide and sphingomyelin formation in rat's liver nuclei. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;340:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the conclusion that HFD has a major impact on sphingolipid metabolism not only in the liver, but also in hepatic nuclei. ..
  64. Liu J, Zhang H, Li Z, Hailemariam T, Chakraborty M, Jiang K, et al. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 is one of the determinants for plasma and liver sphingomyelin levels in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:850-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, SMS2 KO mouse plasma promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages, whereas SMS2LTg mouse plasma prevented it. We therefore believe that regulation of liver SMS2 activity could become a promising treatment for atherosclerosis. ..
  65. Kwiatkowska K, Hordejuk R, Szymczyk P, Kulma M, Abdel Shakor A, Płucienniczak A, et al. Lysenin-His, a sphingomyelin-recognizing toxin, requires tryptophan 20 for cation-selective channel assembly but not for membrane binding. Mol Membr Biol. 2007;24:121-34 pubmed
    ..Their activity disturbs the ion balance of the cell, leading eventually to cell lysis...
  66. Ding T, Li Z, Hailemariam T, Mukherjee S, Maxfield F, Wu M, et al. SMS overexpression and knockdown: impact on cellular sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol metabolism, and cell apoptosis. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:376-85 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SMS1 and SMS2 are key factors in the control of SM and DAG levels within the cell and thus influence apoptosis. ..
  67. Valsecchi M, Mauri L, Casellato R, Prioni S, Loberto N, Prinetti A, et al. Ceramide and sphingomyelin species of fibroblasts and neurons in culture. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:417-24 pubmed
    ..In these cells, SM was highly enriched in DRMs and Cer was mainly associated with DSF, and the species found in DRMs were markedly different from those found in DSF. ..
  68. Saslowsky D, Lencer W. Conversion of apical plasma membrane sphingomyelin to ceramide attenuates the intoxication of host cells by cholera toxin. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:67-80 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that the cause for toxin resistance occurs at steps required for retro-translocation of the CT A1-chain to the cytosol. ..