Summary: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.

Top Publications

  1. Takabe W, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Shibata N, Toi S, Kobayashi M, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine enhances cytokine production of endothelial cells via induction of L-type amino acid transporter 1 and cell surface antigen 4F2. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1640-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that an increase in uptake of neutral amino acids induced by LysoPC results in enhancement of inflammatory responses of endothelial cells. ..
  2. Yamakawa T, Ohnaka K, Tanaka S, Utsunomiya H, Kamei J, Kadonosono K. Cyclooxygenase-2 induction by lysophosphatidylcholine in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells: involvement of the p38MAPK pathway. Biomed Res. 2008;29:1-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in rat VSMCs lysoPC regulates COX-2 expression and PG production and also modulates cell proliferation through p38MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. ..
  3. Schmitz G, Ruebsaamen K. Metabolism and atherogenic disease association of lysophosphatidylcholine. Atherosclerosis. 2010;208:10-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhao Z, Xiao Y, Elson P, Tan H, Plummer S, Berk M, et al. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels: potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:2696-701 pubmed
    ..All analyses were then independently validated in the VS. Plasma levels of several lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), including 18:1- and 18:2-LPC, were significantly decreased in CRC patients compared with controls ..
  5. Fuchs B, Muller K, Paasch U, Schiller J. Lysophospholipids: potential markers of diseases and infertility?. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2012;12:74-86 pubmed
    ..Special emphasis will be on the role of LPL in reproduction failures related to poor semen quality and, in that context, the potential role of LPC as a disease-indicative molecule...
  6. Vásquez V, Sotomayor M, Cordero Morales J, Schulten K, Perozo E. A structural mechanism for MscS gating in lipid bilayers. Science. 2008;321:1210-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our open MscS model is compatible with single-channel conductance measurements and supports the notion that helix tilting is associated with efficient pore widening in mechanosensitive channels. ..
  7. Ojala P, Hirvonen T, Hermansson M, Somerharju P, Parkkinen J. Acyl chain-dependent effect of lysophosphatidylcholine on human neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:1501-9 pubmed
    ..Elevation of LPC level may increase inflammation through activation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase, particularly when the simultaneous increase of free fatty acids diminishes the ability of albumin to scavenge LPCs. ..
  8. Miron V, Ludwin S, Darlington P, Jarjour A, Soliven B, Kennedy T, et al. Fingolimod (FTY720) enhances remyelination following demyelination of organotypic cerebellar slices. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2682-94 pubmed publisher
  9. Al Shawaf E, Tumova S, Naylor J, Majeed Y, Li J, Beech D. GVI phospholipase A2 role in the stimulatory effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate on TRPC5 cationic channels. Cell Calcium. 2011;50:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest roles of LPC and GVI PLA2 in S1P-evoked TRPC5 activity. ..

More Information


  1. Ma L, Uchida H, Nagai J, Inoue M, Aoki J, Ueda H. Evidence for de novo synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid in the spinal cord through phospholipase A2 and autotaxin in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence that PLA2- and ATX-mediated de novo LPA production in the early phase is involved in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. ..
  2. Riederer M, Ojala P, Hrzenjak A, Graier W, Malli R, Tritscher M, et al. Acyl chain-dependent effect of lysophosphatidylcholine on endothelial prostacyclin production. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2957-66 pubmed publisher
  3. Sheikh A, Nagai A, Ryu J, McLarnon J, Kim S, Masuda J. Lysophosphatidylcholine induces glial cell activation: role of rho kinase. Glia. 2009;57:898-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results indicate that LPC induced considerable neuroinflammatory reactivity in glia mediated by rho kinase-dependent pathways with inhibition of these pathways conferring significant extents of neuroprotection. ..
  4. Vickers K, Castro Chavez F, Morrisett J. Lyso-phosphatidylcholine induces osteogenic gene expression and phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211:122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that localized concentrations of LPC in human atherosclerotic plaques may be a contributing factor to the generation of calcifying vascular cells. ..
  5. Ma L, Uchida H, Nagai J, Inoue M, Chun J, Aoki J, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid-3 receptor-mediated feed-forward production of lysophosphatidic acid: an initiator of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2009;5:64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that feed-forward LPA production is involved in LPA-induced neuropathic pain. ..
  6. Messner M, Albert C, McHowat J, Ford D. Identification of lysophosphatidylcholine-chlorohydrin in human atherosclerotic lesions. Lipids. 2008;43:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that 18:0 lysoPtdCho-ClOH is elevated in atherosclerotic tissue and may have unique pro-atherogenic properties compared to lysoPtdCho...
  7. Zhang R, Bai N, So J, Laher I, Macleod K, Rodrigues B. The ischemic metabolite lysophosphatidylcholine increases rat coronary arterial tone by endothelium-dependent mechanisms. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:112-20 pubmed publisher
  8. Inoue M, Ma L, Aoki J, Ueda H. Simultaneous stimulation of spinal NK1 and NMDA receptors produces LPC which undergoes ATX-mediated conversion to LPA, an initiator of neuropathic pain. J Neurochem. 2008;107:1556-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that simultaneous intense stimulation of neurokinin 1 and NMDA receptors in the spinal dorsal horn triggers lysophosphatidic acid production from lysophosphatidylcholine through extracellular autotaxin. ..
  9. Goncalves I, Edsfeldt A, Ko N, Grufman H, Berg K, Bjorkbacka H, et al. Evidence supporting a key role of Lp-PLA2-generated lysophosphatidylcholine in human atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support Lp-PLA2 inhibition as a possible strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. ..
  10. Magalhaes K, Almeida P, Atella G, Maya Monteiro C, Castro Faria Neto H, Pelajo Machado M, et al. Schistosomal?derived lysophosphatidylcholine are involved in eosinophil activation and recruitment through Toll?like receptor-2-dependent mechanisms. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results suggest that TLR2?dependent inflammatory reaction, cytokine production, and eosinophil recruitment and activation may contribute to the pathogenesis and lethality in the chronic phase of infection...
  11. Olofsson K, Andersson L, Nilsson J, Bjorkbacka H. Nanomolar concentrations of lysophosphatidylcholine recruit monocytes and induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;370:348-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate two peaks of LPC-induced pro-inflammatory activity, one in the nM and one in the muM range, and indicate that the latter may involve a stress response to lipid cytotoxicity. ..
  12. KABAROWSKI J. G2A and LPC: regulatory functions in immunity. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2009;89:73-81 pubmed publisher
  13. Mesquita R, Carneiro A, Bafica A, Gazos Lopes F, Takiya C, Souto Padron T, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enhanced by vector saliva through immunosuppressant mechanisms mediated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi transmission and that some of its biological effects are attributed to LPC. This is a demonstration that a vector-derived lysophospholipid may act as an enhancing factor of Chagas disease. ..
  14. Mi S, Miller R, Tang W, Lee X, Hu B, Wu W, et al. Promotion of central nervous system remyelination by induced differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:304-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that LINGO-1 antagonism promotes OPC differentiation and remyelination, and suggest LINGO-1 functions as an inhibitor of OPC differentiation to retard central nervous system remyelination. ..
  15. Matsumoto T, Kobayashi T, Kamata K. Role of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in atherosclerosis. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14:3209-20 pubmed
    ..In this review, we focus in some detail on the entirety of the signal-transduction system for LPC, its pathophysiological implications, and the vascular abnormalities associated with it. ..
  16. Xing F, Liu J, Mo Y, Liu Z, Qin Q, Wang J, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine up-regulates human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transactivity by c-Jun N-terminal kinase signalling pathway. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:1136-48 pubmed publisher
  17. Sato H, Kato R, Isogai Y, Saka G, Ohtsuki M, Taketomi Y, et al. Analyses of group III secreted phospholipase A2 transgenic mice reveal potential participation of this enzyme in plasma lipoprotein modification, macrophage foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33483-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results collectively suggest a potential functional link between PLA2G3 and atherosclerosis, as has recently been proposed for PLA2G5 and PLA2G10. ..
  18. Vereyken E, Fluitsma D, Bolijn M, Dijkstra C, Teunissen C. An in vitro model for de- and remyelination using lysophosphatidyl choline in rodent whole brain spheroid cultures. Glia. 2009;57:1326-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This model for demyelination with potential for remyelination offers possibilities for testing novel therapies and studying mechanisms of remyelination. ..
  19. Safeukui I, Buffet P, Deplaine G, Perrot S, Brousse V, Ndour A, et al. Quantitative assessment of sensing and sequestration of spherocytic erythrocytes by the human spleen. Blood. 2012;120:424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have significant implications for understanding the clinical heterogeneity of RBC membrane disorders...
  20. Hasegawa H, Lei J, Matsumoto T, Onishi S, Suemori K, Yasukawa M. Lysophosphatidylcholine enhances the suppressive function of human naturally occurring regulatory T cells through TGF-? production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:526-31 pubmed publisher
    ..LPC is a bioactive lysolipid highly abundant in the circulation. Therefore, LPC may contribute to the maintenance and function of human nTregs in vivo. ..
  21. Chang D, Deng H, Matthews P, Krasovsky J, Ragupathi G, Spisek R, et al. Inflammation-associated lysophospholipids as ligands for CD1d-restricted T cells in human cancer. Blood. 2008;112:1308-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify a distinct population of human CD1d-restricted T cells specific for inflammation-associated lysolipids and suggest a novel mechanism for inflammation mediated immune regulation in human cancer. ..
  22. Huang L, Kim M, Sok D. Regulation of lipoxygenase activity by polyunsaturated lysophosphatidylcholines or their oxygenation derivatives. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7808-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) have been known to play a role as lipid mediators in various cellular responses...
  23. Stocker A, Kremer K, Koldej R, Miller D, Anson D, Parsons D. Single-dose lentiviral gene transfer for lifetime airway gene expression. J Gene Med. 2009;11:861-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings validate the potential of this methodology for developing a gene transfer treatment for CF airway disease. ..
  24. Shin L, Cho W, Cook J, Stemmler T, Jena B. Membrane lipids influence protein complex assembly-disassembly. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:5596-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Garay L, Tüngler V, Deniselle M, Lima A, Roig P, De Nicola A. Progesterone attenuates demyelination and microglial reaction in the lysolecithin-injured spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2011;192:588-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, use of a focal demyelination model suggests that progesterone exerts promyelinating and anti-inflammatory effects at the spinal cord level. ..
  26. Boittin F, Gribi F, Serir K, Beny J. Ca2+-independent PLA2 controls endothelial store-operated Ca2+ entry and vascular tone in intact aorta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H2466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that ACh-induced endothelium relaxation also depends on iPLA2 activation, suggesting that the iPLA2-dependent control of endothelial store-operated Ca2+ entry is a key physiological mechanism regulating arterial tone. ..
  27. Riederer M, Lechleitner M, Hrzenjak A, Koefeler H, Desoye G, Heinemann A, et al. Endothelial lipase (EL) and EL-generated lysophosphatidylcholines promote IL-8 expression in endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, due to its capacity to modulate the availability of the pro-inflammatory and pro-adhesive chemokine IL-8, EL should be considered an important player in the development of atherosclerosis. ..
  28. Brkić L, Riederer M, Graier W, Malli R, Frank S. Acyl chain-dependent effect of lysophosphatidylcholine on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2012;224:348-54 pubmed publisher
  29. Lehmann R, Franken H, Dammeier S, Rosenbaum L, Kantartzis K, Peter A, et al. Circulating lysophosphatidylcholines are markers of a metabolically benign nonalcoholic fatty liver. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:2331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..From a plasma metabolomic pattern, particularly lyso-PCs are able to separate metabolically benign from malignant NAFL in humans and may highlight important pathways in the pathogenesis of fatty liver-induced insulin resistance. ..
  30. Wei Y, Li S, Wang J, Shu C, Liu J, Xiong S, et al. Polystyrene spheres-assisted matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of plasma lysophosphatidylcholines. Anal Chem. 2013;85:4729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of PS spheres, a uniform matrix-analyte cocrystal was constructed for the quantitative analysis of plasma lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs)...
  31. Yea K, Kim J, Yoon J, Kwon T, Kim J, Lee B, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine activates adipocyte glucose uptake and lowers blood glucose levels in murine models of diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, LPC improved blood glucose levels in mouse models of type 1 and 2 diabetes. These results suggest that an understanding of the mode of action of LPC may provide a new perspective of glucose homeostasis...
  32. Blakemore W, Franklin R. Remyelination in experimental models of toxin-induced demyelination. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2008;318:193-212 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss the role of toxin models alongside viral and immune-mediated models of demyelination. ..
  33. Lau L, Keough M, Haylock Jacobs S, Cua R, Döring A, Sloka S, et al. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in demyelinated lesions impair remyelination. Ann Neurol. 2012;72:419-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify CSPGs as a nonpermissive substrate for OPCs and oligodendrocytes, and as a prominent impediment to remyelination. The data suggest the requirement for the neutralization of CSPGs for repair after demyelination. ..
  34. Cho W, Park T, Park Y, Huh J, Lim C, Koh Y, et al. Clinical significance of enzymatic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) assay data in patients with sepsis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:1805-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The day 1 serum LPC concentration was decreased in patients with sepsis, especially when bacteremia was present. However, the serum LPC level did not correlate with disease severity and did not predict mortality from sepsis. ..
  35. Inoue M, Xie W, Matsushita Y, Chun J, Aoki J, Ueda H. Lysophosphatidylcholine induces neuropathic pain through an action of autotaxin to generate lysophosphatidic acid. Neuroscience. 2008;152:296-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that intrathecally-injected LPC is converted to LPA by ATX, and this LPA activates the LPA(1) receptor to initiate neuropathic pain. ..
  36. Xie Z, Gong M, Su W, Turk J, Guo Z. Group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta) participates in angiotensin II-induced transcriptional up-regulation of regulator of g-protein signaling-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25278-89 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that iPLA2beta participates in Ang II-induced transcriptional up-regulation of RGS2 in VSMC. ..
  37. Wang L, Radu C, Yang L, Bentolila L, Riedinger M, Witte O. Lysophosphatidylcholine-induced surface redistribution regulates signaling of the murine G protein-coupled receptor G2A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2234-47 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that intracellular sequestration and surface expression regulated by LPC, rather than direct agonistic activity control the signaling responses of murine G2A toward LPC. ..
  38. Stiasny K, Heinz F. Effect of membrane curvature-modifying lipids on membrane fusion by tick-borne encephalitis virus. J Virol. 2004;78:8536-42 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize, however, the importance of the composition of the target membrane in its interactions with the fusion peptide that are crucial for the initiation of fusion. ..
  39. Matsubara M, Yao K, Hasegawa K. Benidipine, a dihydropyridine-calcium channel blocker, inhibits lysophosphatidylcholine-induced endothelial injury via stimulation of nitric oxide release. Pharmacol Res. 2006;53:35-43 pubmed
    ..The direct enhancement of endothelial NO release by benidipine may be in part responsible for amelioration of endothelial dysfunction. ..
  40. Perrin Cocon L, Agaugué S, Coutant F, Saint Mezard P, Guironnet Paquet A, Nicolas J, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine is a natural adjuvant that initiates cellular immune responses. Vaccine. 2006;24:1254-63 pubmed
    ..Importantly, LPC also induced cytotoxic T cell responses, opening perspectives for vaccine development. Therefore, LPC is a natural adjuvant for the immune system, inducing humoral and cellular immune responses. ..
  41. Yan J, Jung J, Lee J, Lee J, Huh S, Kim H, et al. Therapeutic effects of lysophosphatidylcholine in experimental sepsis. Nat Med. 2004;10:161-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that LPC can effectively prevent and treat sepsis and microbial infections. ..
  42. Vuong T, Braam B, Willekes Koolschijn N, Boer P, Koomans H, Joles J. Hypoalbuminaemia enhances the renal vasoconstrictor effect of lysophosphatidylcholine. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:1485-92 pubmed
    ..However, exposure of NAR to LPC results in much more vasoconstriction and accumulation of LPC than in normoalbuminaemia. Addition of albumin prevents and restores LPC-induced vasoconstriction. ..
  43. Duan R, Bergman T, Xu N, Wu J, Cheng Y, Duan J, et al. Identification of human intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase as a novel ecto-enzyme related to the nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38528-36 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we identified the amino acid and cDNA sequences of human intestinal alk-SMase, and found that it is a novel ecto-enzyme related to the NPP family with specific features essential for its SMase activity. ..
  44. Pietiläinen K, Sysi Aho M, Rissanen A, Seppanen Laakso T, Yki Jarvinen H, Kaprio J, et al. Acquired obesity is associated with changes in the serum lipidomic profile independent of genetic effects--a monozygotic twin study. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e218 pubmed
    ..Obesity, independent of genetic influences, was primarily related to increases in lysophosphatidylcholines, lipids found in proinflammatory and proatherogenic conditions and to decreases in ether phospholipids, ..
  45. Wu J, Cheng Y, Nilsson A, Duan R. Identification of one exon deletion of intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase in colon cancer HT-29 cells and a differentiation-related expression of the wild-type enzyme in Caco-2 cells. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:1327-33 pubmed
    ..The results provide a molecular mechanism related to previous findings of reduced alk-SMase activity in human colon cancers. ..
  46. van Meeteren L, Stortelers C, Moolenaar W. Upregulation of cytokine expression in fibroblasts exposed to loxosceles sphingomyelinase D: what is the trigger?. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1266-7; author reply 1267-8 pubmed
  47. Chen A, Innis S, Davidson A, James S. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine excretion is increased in children with cystic fibrosis and is associated with plasma homocysteine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and S-adenosylmethionine. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:686-91 pubmed
  48. Soga T, Ohishi T, Matsui T, Saito T, Matsumoto M, Takasaki J, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;326:744-51 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that GPR119, which is a novel endogenous receptor for LPC, is involved in insulin secretion from beta-cells, and is a potential target for anti-diabetic drug development. ..
  49. Qiao J, Huang F, Naikawadi R, Kim K, Said T, Lum H. Lysophosphatidylcholine impairs endothelial barrier function through the G protein-coupled receptor GPR4. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L91-101 pubmed
  50. Anbazhagan V, Swamy M. Thermodynamics of phosphorylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine binding to the major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:2933-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that although the binding of these two ligands is driven by enthalpic forces, smaller negative entropy of binding associated with Lyso-PC results in its significantly stronger binding. ..
  51. Lin P, Welch E, Gao X, Malik A, Ye R. Lysophosphatidylcholine modulates neutrophil oxidant production through elevation of cyclic AMP. J Immunol. 2005;174:2981-9 pubmed
    ..A similar mechanism of inhibition may be used for the control of neutrophil-mediated tissue injury. ..
  52. van Meeteren L, Frederiks F, Giepmans B, Pedrosa M, Billington S, Jost B, et al. Spider and bacterial sphingomyelinases D target cellular lysophosphatidic acid receptors by hydrolyzing lysophosphatidylcholine. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10833-6 pubmed
    ..Degradation of circulating LPC to LPA with consequent activation of LPA receptors may have a previously unappreciated role in the pathophysiology of secreted SMases D. ..
  53. Kamanna V, Bassa B, Ganji S, Roh D. Bioactive lysophospholipids and mesangial cell intracellular signaling pathways: role in the pathobiology of kidney disease. Histol Histopathol. 2005;20:603-13 pubmed publisher