Summary: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Top Publications

  1. Gamage D, Hendrickson T. GPI transamidase and GPI anchored proteins: oncogenes and biomarkers for cancer. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;48:446-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that functions for only one of GPI-T's subunits have been robustly assigned, the separation between healthy and malignant GPI-T activity is poorly defined. ..
  2. Wen M, Arora R, Wang H, Liu L, Kimata J, Zhou P. GPI-anchored single chain Fv--an effective way to capture transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 envelope spike. Retrovirology. 2010;7:79 pubmed publisher
    ..The GPI-anchored scFv (X5), because of its breadth and potency, should have a great potential to be developed into anti-viral agent for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. ..
  3. Catino M, Paladino S, Tivodar S, Pocard T, Zurzolo C. N- and O-glycans are not directly involved in the oligomerization and apical sorting of GPI proteins. Traffic. 2008;9:2141-50 pubmed publisher
  4. Watanabe K, Nagaoka T, Strizzi L, Mancino M, Gonzales M, Bianco C, et al. Characterization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor signal sequence of human Cryptic with a hydrophilic extension. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:2671-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the presence of endogenous GPI-signal sequence with a hydrophilic extension, which can generate both GPI-anchored and soluble forms of the protein. ..
  5. Castillon G, Watanabe R, Taylor M, Schwabe T, Riezman H. Concentration of GPI-anchored proteins upon ER exit in yeast. Traffic. 2009;10:186-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we have found that GPI-anchored protein ER exit is controlled by the p24 family member Emp24p, whereas ER export of most transmembrane proteins requires the Cornichon homologue Erv14p...
  6. Goswami D, Gowrishankar K, Bilgrami S, Ghosh S, Raghupathy R, Chadda R, et al. Nanoclusters of GPI-anchored proteins are formed by cortical actin-driven activity. Cell. 2008;135:1085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a unique mechanism of complexation of cell-surface molecules regulated by cortical actin activity. ..
  7. Giorgi M, de Lederkremer R. Trans-sialidase and mucins of Trypanosoma cruzi: an important interplay for the parasite. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:1389-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focus on the characteristics of the interplay between the trans-sialidase and the mucins of T. cruzi and summarizes the known carbohydrate structures of the mucins. ..
  8. Raggi M, Djafarzadeh R, Muenchmeier N, Hofstetter M, Jahn B, Rieth N, et al. Peritumoral administration of GPI-anchored TIMP-1 inhibits colon carcinoma growth in Rag-2 gamma chain-deficient mice. Biol Chem. 2009;390:893-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of SW480 tumors implanted in Rag (-/-) common gamma chain (-/-) C57BL/6 mice with peritumorally applied TIMP-1-GPI, control rhTIMP-1 protein, or vehicle shows that TIMP-1-GPI leads to a significant reduction in tumor growth. ..
  9. Bate C, Tayebi M, Williams A. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is a major determinant of prion binding and replication. Biochem J. 2010;428:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the nature of the GPI anchor attached to PrPSc affected the binding of PrPSc to neurons, its localization to lipid rafts and its ability to convert endogenous PrPC. ..

More Information


  1. Nett I, Mehlert A, Lamont D, Ferguson M. Application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the structural determination of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. Glycobiology. 2010;20:576-85 pubmed publisher
  2. Bonnon C, Wendeler M, Paccaud J, Hauri H. Selective export of human GPI-anchored proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the 24p-23p complex acts as a cargo receptor for GPI-anchored proteins by facilitating their export from the ER in a Sec24-isoform-selective manner involving lipid rafts as early sorting platforms...
  3. Rivier A, Castillon G, Michon L, Fukasawa M, Romanova Michaelides M, Jaensch N, et al. Exit of GPI-anchored proteins from the ER differs in yeast and mammalian cells. Traffic. 2010;11:1017-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GPI-APs use different mechanisms to concentrate in COPII vesicles in the two organisms, and the difference might explain their propensity to segregate from other secretory proteins upon ER exit. ..
  4. Debierre Grockiego F, Schwarz R. Immunological reactions in response to apicomplexan glycosylphosphatidylinositols. Glycobiology. 2010;20:801-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the biosynthesis of the apicomplexan GPIs and their role in the activation of the host immune system. ..
  5. Fragoso C, Schumann Burkard G, Oberle M, Renggli C, Hilzinger K, Roditi I. PSSA-2, a membrane-spanning phosphoprotein of Trypanosoma brucei, is required for efficient maturation of infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7074 pubmed publisher
  6. Metzner C, Salmons B, Gunzburg W, Dangerfield J. Rafts, anchors and viruses--a role for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins in the modification of enveloped viruses and viral vectors. Virology. 2008;382:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we will look at the link between lipid rafts, GPI-anchored proteins and retroviral particles and how these relationships can be exploited for the modification of enveloped viruses. ..
  7. Rolli E, Ragni E, Calderon J, Porello S, Fascio U, Popolo L. Immobilization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Gas1 protein into the chitin ring and septum is required for proper morphogenesis in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4856-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that Crh1p and Crh2p are required for tethering Gas1p to the chitin ring and bud scar. These results reveal a new mechanism of protein immobilization at specific sites of the cell envelope. ..
  8. Arrighi R, Debierre Grockiego F, Schwarz R, Faye I. The immunogenic properties of protozoan glycosylphosphatidylinositols in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum GPI plays a critical role in the malaria parasite manipulation of the mosquito vector to facilitate its transmission. ..
  9. Urbaniak M, Crossman A, Ferguson M. Probing Trypanosoma brucei glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis using novel precursor-analogues. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2008;72:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of alternative groups, such as sterols, in place of the natural diacylglycerol lipid may enable the production of more drug-like, substrate-based inhibitors. ..
  10. Bate C, Williams A. Neurodegeneration induced by clustering of sialylated glycosylphosphatidylinositols of prion proteins. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7935-44 pubmed publisher
  11. Andrew A, Kao S, Strebel K. C-terminal hydrophobic region in human bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2)/tetherin protein functions as second transmembrane motif. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39967-81 pubmed publisher
  12. Castillon G, Aguilera Romero A, Manzano López J, Epstein S, Kajiwara K, Funato K, et al. The yeast p24 complex regulates GPI-anchored protein transport and quality control by monitoring anchor remodeling. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2924-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore the p24 complex, by sensing the status of the GPI anchor, regulates GPI-anchored protein intracellular transport and coordinates this with correct anchor remodeling. ..
  13. Fujita M, Kinoshita T. Structural remodeling of GPI anchors during biosynthesis and after attachment to proteins. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the structural remodeling of GPI anchors and genes required for the processes in mammals, yeast, and trypanosomes. ..
  14. Trifilo M, Sanchez Alavez M, Solforosi L, Bernard Trifilo J, Kunz S, McGavern D, et al. Scrapie-induced defects in learning and memory of transgenic mice expressing anchorless prion protein are associated with alterations in the gamma aminobutyric acid-ergic pathway. J Virol. 2008;82:9890-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the clinical defects of learning and memory loss in vivo in GPI(-/-) PrP tg mice infected with scrapie agent may likely involve the GABAergic pathway. ..
  15. Kim J, Surewicz K, Gambetti P, Surewicz W. The role of glycophosphatidylinositol anchor in the amplification of the scrapie isoform of prion protein in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3671-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed a new light on prion protein conversion process and have important implications for the efforts to generate synthetic prions for structural and biophysical studies. ..
  16. Freeze H. Understanding human glycosylation disorders: biochemistry leads the charge. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6936-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent discoveries suggest novel perspectives for textbook biochemistry and novel research opportunities. Basic science and patients are the immediate beneficiaries of this bidirectional collaboration. ..
  17. Tsai Y, Liu X, Seeberger P. Chemical biology of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:11438-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are complex glycolipids that are covalently linked to the C-terminus of proteins as a posttranslational modification...
  18. Nakayasu E, Yashunsky D, Nohara L, Torrecilhas A, Nikolaev A, Almeida I. GPIomics: global analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecules of Trypanosoma cruzi. Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:261 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that our approach could be used for the high throughput GPIomic analysis of other lower and higher eukaryotes. ..
  19. Debierre Grockiego F, Molitor N, Schwarz R, Lüder C. Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols up-regulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule expression on primary murine macrophages. Innate Immun. 2009;15:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This facilitates parasite-mediated evasion of T-cell responses. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are involved in the pathogenicity of protozoan parasites and we investigated if GPIs are ..
  20. Fujita M, Watanabe R, Jaensch N, Romanova Michaelides M, Satoh T, Kato M, et al. Sorting of GPI-anchored proteins into ER exit sites by p24 proteins is dependent on remodeled GPI. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:61-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that p24 complexes act as cargo receptors for correctly remodeled GPI-APs to be sorted into COPII vesicles. ..
  21. Paladino S, Lebreton S, Tivodar S, Campana V, Tempre R, Zurzolo C. Different GPI-attachment signals affect the oligomerisation of GPI-anchored proteins and their apical sorting. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:4001-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Djafarzadeh R, Milani V, Rieth N, von Luettichau I, Skrablin P, Hofstetter M, et al. TIMP-1-GPI in combination with hyperthermic treatment of melanoma increases sensitivity to FAS-mediated apoptosis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:361-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The targeted delivery of TIMP-1-GPI to tumor environments in the context of regional hyperthermic therapy could be optimized through the use of thermosensitive liposomes. ..
  23. Debierre Grockiego F, Niehus S, Coddeville B, Elass E, Poirier F, Weingart R, et al. Binding of Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols to galectin-3 is required for their recognition by macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32744-50 pubmed publisher
    ..that the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? by macrophages in response to Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) requires the expression of both Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, but not of their co-receptor ..
  24. Urbaniak M, Yashunsky D, Crossman A, Nikolaev A, Ferguson M. Probing enzymes late in the trypanosomal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthetic pathway with synthetic glycosylphosphatidylinositol analogues. ACS Chem Biol. 2008;3:625-34 pubmed publisher
  25. Pierleoni A, Martelli P, Casadio R. PredGPI: a GPI-anchor predictor. BMC Bioinformatics. 2008;9:392 pubmed publisher
    ..PredGPI reaches a lower rate of false positive predictions with respect to other available methods and it is therefore a costless, rapid and accurate method for screening whole proteomes. ..
  26. Rao W, Isaac R, Keen J. An analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans lipid raft proteome using geLC-MS/MS. J Proteomics. 2011;74:242-53 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans becoming a useful model for the study of lipid rafts. ..
  27. Baron G, Hughson A, Raymond G, Offerdahl D, Barton K, Raymond L, et al. Effect of glycans and the glycophosphatidylinositol anchor on strain dependent conformations of scrapie prion protein: improved purifications and infrared spectra. Biochemistry. 2011;50:4479-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our IR data provide evidence that similar core structures also comprise wild-type PrP(res). ..
  28. Zhu J, Krishnegowda G, Li G, Gowda D. Proinflammatory responses by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) of Plasmodium falciparum are mainly mediated through the recognition of TLR2/TLR1. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:205-11 pubmed publisher
    The glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) of Plasmodium falciparum have been shown to activate macrophages and produce inflammatory responses...
  29. Stöhr J, Watts J, Legname G, Oehler A, Lemus A, Nguyen H, et al. Spontaneous generation of anchorless prions in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:21223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, disease from ill Tg(PrP,?GPI) mice transmitted to mice expressing wild-type PrP(C), indicating the spontaneous generation of prions. ..
  30. Murakami H, Wang Y, Hasuwa H, Maeda Y, Kinoshita T, Murakami Y. Enhanced response of T lymphocytes from Pgap3 knockout mouse: Insight into roles of fatty acid remodeling of GPI anchored proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GPI-APs localized in lipid rafts may modulate signaling through the TCR...
  31. Abdelwahab N, Urbaniak M, Ferguson M, Crossman A. Synthesis of potential metal-binding group compounds to examine the zinc dependency of the GPI de-N-acetylase metalloenzyme in Trypanosoma brucei. Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:708-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-ureido thioglucoside was also synthesised and added to the ZBG library because a previous N-ureido analogue, synthesised by us, had inhibitory activity against the aforementioned de-N-acetylase, presumably via the N-ureido motif. ..
  32. Bhagatji P, Leventis R, Comeau J, Refaei M, Silvius J. Steric and not structure-specific factors dictate the endocytic mechanism of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:615-28 pubmed publisher
  33. Davies A, Kadurin I, Alvarez Laviada A, Douglas L, Nieto Rostro M, Bauer C, et al. The alpha2delta subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels form GPI-anchored proteins, a posttranslational modification essential for function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1654-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study redefines our understanding of alpha(2)delta subunits, both in terms of their role in calcium-channel function and other roles in synaptogenesis. ..
  34. Miura D, Dobrovolsky V, Kasahara Y, Katsuura Y, Heflich R. Development of an in vivo gene mutation assay using the endogenous Pig-A gene: I. Flow cytometric detection of CD59-negative peripheral red blood cells and CD48-negative spleen T-cells from the rat. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008;49:614-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Although RBCs may be useful for a minimally invasive assay, T-cells are a promising tissue for both detecting GPI-deficient cells and confirming that Pig-A gene mutation is the cause of the phenotype. ..
  35. Priola S, McNally K. The role of the prion protein membrane anchor in prion infection. Prion. 2009;3:134-8 pubmed
    ..In combination with previously published data, our results suggest that GPI anchored PrP is important in the amplification and spread of prion infectivity from cell to cell. ..
  36. Chung W, Leung K, Carrington M, Field M. Ubiquitylation is required for degradation of transmembrane surface proteins in trypanosomes. Traffic. 2008;9:1681-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, ubiquitylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for internalization of surface proteins, but aspects of the machinery differ substantially between the major eukaryotic lineages. ..
  37. Barr D, Ostermeyer Fay A, Matundan R, Brown D. Clathrin-independent endocytosis of ErbB2 in geldanamycin-treated human breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3155-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization of this novel clathrin-, caveolae- and Rho-family-independent endocytic pathway might reveal new strategies for the downregulation of ErbB2 in breast cancer. ..
  38. Izquierdo L, Nakanishi M, Mehlert A, Machray G, Barton G, Ferguson M. Identification of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor-modifying beta1-3 N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase in Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:478-91 pubmed publisher
    ..However, changes in the lectin binding of other glycoproteins suggest that TbGT8 influences the processing of the poly N-acetyllactosamine-containing asparagine-linked glycans of this life cycle stage. ..
  39. Fujita M, Maeda Y, Ra M, Yamaguchi Y, Taguchi R, Kinoshita T. GPI glycan remodeling by PGAP5 regulates transport of GPI-anchored proteins from the ER to the Golgi. Cell. 2009;139:352-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that GPI glycan acts as an ER-exit signal and suggest that glycan remodeling mediated by PGAP5 regulates GPI-AP transport in the early secretory pathway...
  40. Niehus S, Elass E, Coddeville B, Guerardel Y, Schwarz R, Debierre Grockiego F. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Toxoplasma gondii induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 production and degradation of galectin-3. Immunobiology. 2012;217:61-4 pubmed publisher
    Toxoplasma gondii glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) bind to galectin-3 to induce TNF-? production in macrophages via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Here we show that T...
  41. Kinoshita T, Fujita M, Maeda Y. Biosynthesis, remodelling and functions of mammalian GPI-anchored proteins: recent progress. J Biochem. 2008;144:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It is thought that association with membrane rafts is important for GPI-APs in signal transduction and other functions. Here, we review recent progress in studies on biosynthesis, remodelling and functions of mammalian GPI-APs. ..
  42. Eggeling C, Ringemann C, Medda R, Schwarzmann G, Sandhoff K, Polyakova S, et al. Direct observation of the nanoscale dynamics of membrane lipids in a living cell. Nature. 2009;457:1159-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The non-invasive optical recording of molecular time traces and fluctuation data in tunable nanoscale domains is a powerful new approach to study the dynamics of biomolecules in living cells. ..
  43. Nisbet R, Harrison C, Lawson V, Masters C, Cappai R, Hill A. Residues surrounding the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment site of PrP modulate prion infection: insight from the resistance of rabbits to prion disease. J Virol. 2010;84:6678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these residues did inhibit PrP(Sc) formation, suggesting that these rabbit-specific residues interfere with a C-terminal PrP(Sc) interaction site. ..
  44. Almeida A, Layton M, Karadimitris A. Inherited glycosylphosphatidyl inositol deficiency: a treatable CDG. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:874-80 pubmed publisher
  45. Gastebois A, Fontaine T, Latge J, Mouyna I. beta(1-3)Glucanosyltransferase Gel4p is essential for Aspergillus fumigatus. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1294-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Like the other Gelps, it encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. In contrast to the other beta(1-3)glucanosyltransferases analyzed to date, it is essential for this fungal species. ..
  46. Chen Y, Veracini L, Benistant C, Jacobson K. The transmembrane protein CBP plays a role in transiently anchoring small clusters of Thy-1, a GPI-anchored protein, to the cytoskeleton. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3966-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we speculate on the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of transient anchorage. ..
  47. Jia Z, Zhao R, Tian Y, Huang Z, Tian Z, Shen Z, et al. A novel splice variant of FR4 predominantly expressed in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:718-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether FR4v plays a redundant or unique functional role in Tregs should be investigated further in the future. ..
  48. Watanabe K, Bianco C, Strizzi L, Hamada S, Mancino M, Bailly V, et al. Growth factor induction of Cripto-1 shedding by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D and enhancement of endothelial cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31643-55 pubmed
    ..These findings describe a novel molecular mechanism of CR-1 shedding, which may contribute to endothelial cell migration and possibly tumor angiogenesis. ..
  49. Suzuki K, Fujiwara T, Sanematsu F, Iino R, Edidin M, Kusumi A. GPI-anchored receptor clusters transiently recruit Lyn and G alpha for temporary cluster immobilization and Lyn activation: single-molecule tracking study 1. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:717-30 pubmed
  50. Proellocks N, Kovacevic S, Ferguson D, Kats L, Morahan B, Black C, et al. Plasmodium falciparum Pf34, a novel GPI-anchored rhoptry protein found in detergent-resistant microdomains. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1233-41 pubmed
    ..Pf34 is exposed to the human immune system during infection and is recognised by human immune sera collected from residents of malaria endemic areas of Vietnam and Papua New Guinea. ..
  51. Ropert C, Franklin B, Gazzinelli R. Role of TLRs/MyD88 in host resistance and pathogenesis during protozoan infection: lessons from malaria. Semin Immunopathol. 2008;30:41-51 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that MyD88 may represent an Achilles' heel during Plasmodium infection. ..
  52. Paladino S, Sarnataro D, Tivodar S, Zurzolo C. Oligomerization is a specific requirement for apical sorting of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins but not for non-raft-associated apical proteins. Traffic. 2007;8:251-8 pubmed
    ..We also show that oligomerization is a specific requirement for apical sorting of GPI-APs and is not used by transmembrane, non-raft-associated apical proteins. ..
  53. Maeda Y, Tashima Y, Houjou T, Fujita M, Yoko o T, Jigami Y, et al. Fatty acid remodeling of GPI-anchored proteins is required for their raft association. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the remodeling requires the preceding PGAP1-mediated deacylation from inositol of GPI-APs in the endoplasmic reticulum...
  54. Mehlert A, Ferguson M. Structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of the Trypanosoma brucei transferrin receptor. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;151:220-3 pubmed
  55. Ghugtyal V, Vionnet C, Roubaty C, Conzelmann A. CWH43 is required for the introduction of ceramides into GPI anchors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:1493-502 pubmed
    After glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are added to GPI proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fatty acid in sn-2 of the diacylglycerol moiety can be replaced by a C26:0 fatty acid by a deacylation-reacylation cycle catalysed by ..
  56. Fujita M, Jigami Y. Lipid remodeling of GPI-anchored proteins and its function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:410-20 pubmed
    ..In this review, we describe the pathways for lipid remodeling of GPI-anchored proteins in yeast and mammalian cells, and discuss how lipid remodeling affects the association of GPI-anchored proteins with microdomains in cellular events. ..
  57. Maeda Y, Ashida H, Kinoshita T. CHO glycosylation mutants: GPI anchor. Methods Enzymol. 2006;416:182-205 pubmed
    ..In this chapter, we overview GPI-AP biosynthesis, establishment and characterization of GPI-AP-defective mutant cell lines, expression cloning using those mutant cells, and characteristics of GPI-AP-defective mutant cell lines. ..
  58. Debierre Grockiego F, Campos M, Azzouz N, Schmidt J, Bieker U, Resende M, et al. Activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by glycosylphosphatidylinositols derived from Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2007;179:1129-37 pubmed
    ..gondii infection through their activation by the GPIs and could work together with other MyD88-dependent receptors, like other TLRs or even IL-18R or IL-1R, to obtain an effective host response against T. gondii infection. ..
  59. Jaeken J, Matthijs G. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: a rapidly expanding disease family. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2007;8:261-78 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of CDG and on advances expected in their future study and clinical management. ..