Summary: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.

Top Publications

  1. Numata M, Chu H, Dakhama A, Voelker D. Pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylglycerol inhibits respiratory syncytial virus-induced inflammation and infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:320-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an important approach to prevention and treatment of RSV infections using exogenous administration of a specific surfactant phospholipid. ..
  2. Sato A, Ikegami M. SP-B and SP-C containing new synthetic surfactant for treatment of extremely immature lamb lung. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39392 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the new synthetic surfactant CHF5633 was effective in treating extremely immature newborn lambs with surfactant deficiency during the 5 h study period. ..
  3. Zhang J, Guan Z, Murphy A, Wiley S, Perkins G, Worby C, et al. Mitochondrial phosphatase PTPMT1 is essential for cardiolipin biosynthesis. Cell Metab. 2011;13:690-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies PTPMT1 as the mammalian PGP phosphatase and points to its role as a regulator of cardiolipin biosynthesis. ..
  4. Perino J, Crouzier D, Spehner D, Debouzy J, Garin D, Crance J, et al. Lung surfactant DPPG phospholipid inhibits vaccinia virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2011;89:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The knowledge acquired during this study of virus-DPPG interactions may be used to develop novel chemotherapeutic strategies for smallpox. ..
  5. Mishra N, Bayer A. Correlation of cell membrane lipid profiles with daptomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1082-5 pubmed publisher
    ..01), and reduced carotenoid content (P < 0.05 for 5/9 strains). There were no significant changes in LPG flipping, cardiolipin content, or fatty acid composition among strain pairs. ..
  6. Tan B, Bogdanov M, Zhao J, Dowhan W, Raetz C, Guan Z. Discovery of a cardiolipin synthase utilizing phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol as substrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike eukaryotic Cls (that use PG and CDP-diacylglycerol as substrates) or ClsA, the combined YmdB-ClsC used PE as the phosphatidyl donor to PG to form CL, which demonstrates a third and unique mode for CL synthesis. ..
  7. Numata M, Kandasamy P, Nagashima Y, Posey J, Hartshorn K, WOODLAND D, et al. Phosphatidylglycerol suppresses influenza A virus infection. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify supplementary POPG as a potentially important new approach for treatment of IAV infections. ..
  8. Hachmann A, Sevim E, Gaballa A, Popham D, Antelmann H, Helmann J. Reduction in membrane phosphatidylglycerol content leads to daptomycin resistance in Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:4326-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a resistance mechanism by which reduced levels of phosphatidylglycerol decrease the net negative charge of the membrane, thereby weakening interaction with the positively charged Ca(2+)-DAP complex. ..
  9. Byrne C, Khemtémourian L, Pelekanou V, Kampa M, Leclercq G, Sagan S, et al. ER?17p, a peptide reproducing the hinge region of the estrogen receptor ? associates to biological membranes: A biophysical approach. Steroids. 2012;77:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the 295-311 region of ER? being in proximity to the cystein-447, the palmitoylation site of the ER? raises the question of its involvement in the interaction/stabilization of the protein with the membrane. ..

More Information


  1. Osman C, Haag M, Wieland F, Brugger B, Langer T. A mitochondrial phosphatase required for cardiolipin biosynthesis: the PGP phosphatase Gep4. EMBO J. 2010;29:1976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experiments provide the framework for the further dissection of mechanisms that are required for accumulation and maintenance of CL levels in mitochondria. ..
  2. Wang F, Wang X, Yuan C, Ma J. Generating a prion with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein. Science. 2010;327:1132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as postulated by the prion hypothesis, the infectivity in mammalian prion disease results from an altered conformation of PrP. ..
  3. Pozo Navas B, Lohner K, Deutsch G, Sevcsik E, Riske K, Dimova R, et al. Composition dependence of vesicle morphology and mixing properties in a bacterial model membrane system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1716:40-8 pubmed
    ..This is in accordance with a recent theoretical prediction. ..
  4. Roy H, Ibba M. RNA-dependent lipid remodeling by bacterial multiple peptide resistance factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings reveal how the MprF proteins provide a potent virulence mechanism by which pathogens can readily acquire resistance to chemically diverse antibiotics. ..
  5. Piboonpocanun S, Chiba H, Mitsuzawa H, Martin W, Murphy R, Harbeck R, et al. Surfactant protein A binds Mycoplasma pneumoniae with high affinity and attenuates its growth by recognition of disaturated phosphatidylglycerols. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9-17 pubmed
    ..The major lipid ligands for the protein identified by mass spectrometry are a group of disaturated phosphatidylglycerols. The addition of SP-A to cultures of M...
  6. Kraus D, Herbert S, Kristian S, Khosravi A, Nizet V, G tz F, et al. The GraRS regulatory system controls Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to antimicrobial host defenses. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:85 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus in a mouse infection model. Our results indicate that S. aureus can regulate its surface properties in order to overcome innate host defenses...
  7. Bollag W, Xie D, Zheng X, Zhong X. A potential role for the phospholipase D2-aquaporin-3 signaling module in early keratinocyte differentiation: production of a phosphatidylglycerol signaling lipid. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2823-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results support the idea that AQP3 supplies PLD2 with glycerol for synthesizing PG, a lipid signal that promotes early keratinocyte differentiation. ..
  8. Simockova M, Holic R, Tahotna D, Patton Vogt J, Griac P. Yeast Pgc1p (YPL206c) controls the amount of phosphatidylglycerol via a phospholipase C-type degradation mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate an existence of a novel regulatory mechanism in the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway in which Pgc1p is required for the removal of excess PG via a phospholipase C-type degradation mechanism. ..
  9. Marius P, Zagnoni M, Sandison M, East J, Morgan H, Lee A. Binding of anionic lipids to at least three nonannular sites on the potassium channel KcsA is required for channel opening. Biophys J. 2008;94:1689-98 pubmed
    ..The conductance of the open channel increases with increasing concentration of anionic lipid, an effect possibly due to effects of anionic lipid on the concentration of K(+) close to the membrane surface. ..
  10. López C, Alice A, Heras H, Rivas E, Sanchez Rivas C. Role of anionic phospholipids in the adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to high salinity. Microbiology. 2006;152:605-16 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results support the involvement of the anionic phospholipids in the growth of B. subtilis in media containing elevated NaCl concentrations. ..
  11. Klein S, Lorenzo C, Hoffmann S, Walther J, Storbeck S, Piekarski T, et al. Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to various conditions includes tRNA-dependent formation of alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:551-65 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa using lacZ reporter gene fusion under various pH conditions indicated a 4.4-fold acid-activated transcription. A phenotype microarray analysis was used to identify further conditions for A-PG function...
  12. Clifton L, Green R, Hughes A, Frazier R. Interfacial structure of wild-type and mutant forms of puroindoline-b bound to DPPG monolayers. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:15907-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the domain structure was unaffected by the W44R mutant, suggesting no change in compression of the lipid region and hence little or no penetration of protein into the lipid layer. ..
  13. Nishi H, Komatsuzawa H, Fujiwara T, McCallum N, Sugai M. Reduced content of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol in the cytoplasmic membrane affects susceptibility to moenomycin, as well as vancomycin, gentamicin, and antimicrobial peptides, in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4800-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the membrane charge of S. aureus appears to influence the efficacies of moenomycin, vancomycin, and other cationic antimicrobial agents. ..
  14. Lindström F, Williamson P, Gröbner G. Molecular insight into the electrostatic membrane surface potential by 14n/31p MAS NMR spectroscopy: nociceptin-lipid association. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:6610-6 pubmed
  15. Abraham T, Lewis R, Hodges R, McElhaney R. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies of the binding of a rationally designed analogue of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin s to phospholipid bilayer membranes. Biochemistry. 2005;44:2103-12 pubmed
    ..2 to +35.0 kcal/mol), indicating that GS14dK4 binding to phospholipids bilayers is primarily entropy driven. ..
  16. Pabst G, Danner S, Karmakar S, Deutsch G, Raghunathan V. On the propensity of phosphatidylglycerols to form interdigitated phases. Biophys J. 2007;93:513-25 pubmed
    We have determined the phase behavior of disaturated phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) of chain lengths n(CH2) = 14-18 at high pH and ionic strength using calorimetry, dilatometry, as well as x-ray diffraction...
  17. Samant S, Hsu F, Neyfakh A, Lee H. The Bacillus anthracis protein MprF is required for synthesis of lysylphosphatidylglycerols and for resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..using isotopic labeling demonstrated that the BAS1375 deletion mutant is unable to synthesize lysinylated phosphatidylglycerols, and this defect is rescued by genetic complementation...
  18. Andrushchenko V, Vogel H, Prenner E. Interactions of tryptophan-rich cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides with model membranes studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:2447-58 pubmed
    ..Slow equilibration of the lipid-peptide systems due to peptide redistribution was observed in some cases. Generally good agreement between the present DSC data and peptide antimicrobial activity data was obtained. ..
  19. Gastiasoro Cuesta E, Alvarez Díaz F, Rey Santano C, Arnaiz Renedo A, Loureiro González B, Valls i Soler A. Acute and sustained effects of lucinactant versus poractant-alpha on pulmonary gas exchange and mechanics in premature lambs with respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics. 2006;117:295-303 pubmed
    ..Cardiovascular profiles remained stable in both groups. Among preterm lambs with severe RDS, lucinactant produced improvements in gas exchange and lung mechanics similar to those observed with a porcine-derived surfactant. ..
  20. Toraya S, Nagao T, Norisada K, Tuzi S, Saito H, Izumi S, et al. Morphological behavior of lipid bilayers induced by melittin near the phase transition temperature. Biophys J. 2005;89:3214-22 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, additional large amplitude motion induced by melittin at a temperature near the Tc breaks down the magnetic alignment. ..
  21. Mansour H, Damodaran S, Zografi G. Characterization of the in situ structural and interfacial properties of the cationic hydrophobic heteropolypeptide, KL4, in lung surfactant bilayer and monolayer models at the air-water interface: implications for pulmonary surfactant delivery. Mol Pharm. 2008;5:681-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In POPG/KL 4 monolayers, KL 4 exhibits an increase in aperiodic secondary structures (loss of beta-sheet) to maximize favorable electrostatic interactions, consistent with the observed negative deviations from ideal monolayer mixing. ..
  22. Gomez Gil L, Schürch D, Goormaghtigh E, Perez Gil J. Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C counteracts the deleterious effects of cholesterol on the activity of surfactant films under physiologically relevant compression-expansion dynamics. Biophys J. 2009;97:2736-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that cooperation between the two proteins is required for lipid-protein films containing cholesterol to achieve optimal performance under physiologically relevant compression-expansion dynamics. ..
  23. Raja M, Spelbrink R, de Kruijff B, Killian J. Phosphatidic acid plays a special role in stabilizing and folding of the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5715-22 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that PA creates some specificity over PG, and that it most likely stabilizes the tetramer via both electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions...
  24. Morrow M, Temple S, Stewart J, Keough K. Comparison of DPPC and DPPG environments in pulmonary surfactant models. Biophys J. 2007;93:164-75 pubmed
  25. Deol S, Domene C, Bond P, Sansom M. Anionic phospholipid interactions with the potassium channel KcsA: simulation studies. Biophys J. 2006;90:822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study suggests that simulations can help identify and characterize sites for specific lipid interactions on a membrane protein surface...
  26. Buchoux S, Lai Kee Him J, Garnier M, Tsan P, Besson F, Brisson A, et al. Surfactin-triggered small vesicle formation of negatively charged membranes: a novel membrane-lysis mechanism. Biophys J. 2008;95:3840-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This might provide the basis for a novel mode of action of negatively charged lipopeptides. ..
  27. Shanmukh S, Biswas N, Waring A, Walther F, Wang Z, Chang Y, et al. Structure and properties of phospholipid-peptide monolayers containing monomeric SP-B(1-25) II. Peptide conformation by infrared spectroscopy. Biophys Chem. 2005;113:233-44 pubmed
    ..and, to a lesser extent, 5 wt.%) peptide may be relevant for the formation of the intermediate order 'dendritic' surface phase observed in similar surface films by epi-fluorescence. ..
  28. Arseneault M, Lafleur M. Isothermal titration calorimetric study of calcium association to lipid bilayers: influence of the vesicle preparation and composition. Chem Phys Lipids. 2006;142:84-93 pubmed
    ..It was found that the intrinsic binding constant of Ca2+ to membranes containing 30 and 50 mol% of POPG was about 11 mM-1, in a MES buffer containing 10 mM NaCl, at pH 5.6. ..
  29. Mukhopadhyay K, Whitmire W, Xiong Y, Molden J, Jones T, Peschel A, et al. In vitro susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein-1 (tPMP-1) is influenced by cell membrane phospholipid composition and asymmetry. Microbiology. 2007;153:1187-97 pubmed
    ..These findings offer new insights into mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide susceptibility and resistance in S. aureus. ..
  30. Sohlenkamp C, Galindo Lagunas K, Guan Z, Vinuesa P, Robinson S, Thomas Oates J, et al. The lipid lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol is present in membranes of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 and confers increased resistance to polymyxin B under acidic growth conditions. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007;20:1421-30 pubmed
    ..When grown in the low-pH medium, lpiA-deficient rhizobial mutants are over four times more susceptible to the cationic peptide polymyxin B than the wild type...
  31. Pukala T, Boland M, Gehman J, Kuhn Nentwig L, Separovic F, Bowie J. Solution structure and interaction of cupiennin 1a, a spider venom peptide, with phospholipid bilayers. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3576-85 pubmed
    ..Therefore, subtle differences are likely in the mechanism by which cupiennin 1a causes membrane lysis in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, and may explain the specific spectrum of activity. ..
  32. Arouri A, Dathe M, Blume A. Peptide induced demixing in PG/PE lipid mixtures: a mechanism for the specificity of antimicrobial peptides towards bacterial membranes?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:650-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Mastronicolis S, Arvanitis N, Karaliota A, Magiatis P, Heropoulos G, Litos C, et al. Coordinated regulation of cold-induced changes in fatty acids with cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol composition among phospholipid species for the food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4543-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosploaminolipid (19.9%) and phosphatidylinositol, (9.1%) are significantly different, containing significant amounts of straight-chain FA. These findings are supported by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. ..
  34. Ding W, Li Y, Hou X, Li G. Bleomycin A6-loaded anionic liposomes with in situ gel as a new antitumoral drug delivery system. Drug Deliv. 2016;23:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..A thermosensitive in situ gel with anionic liposome was a promising carrier for hydrophilic BLM A6, to be used in parenteral delivery system for anti-tumor treatment. ..
  35. Ruokonen S, Duša F, Lokajová J, Kilpelainen I, King A, Wiedmer S. Effect of ionic liquids on the interaction between liposomes and common wastewater pollutants investigated by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1405:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the ILs hindered the interactions between the liposomes and the compounds, indicating strong interaction between ILs and liposomes. In addition, the nature of the studied compounds themselves affected the interactions. ..
  36. Kucerka N, Holland B, Gray C, Tomberli B, Katsaras J. Scattering density profile model of POPG bilayers as determined by molecular dynamics simulations and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering experiments. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0 ± 1.3 Å(2), its overall bilayer thickness is 36.7 ± 0.7 Å, and its hydrocarbon region thickness is 27.9 ± 0.6 Å, assuming a simulated value of 1203 Å(3) for the total lipid volume. ..
  37. Mizuno N, Varkey J, Kegulian N, Hegde B, Cheng N, Langen R, et al. Remodeling of lipid vesicles into cylindrical micelles by α-synuclein in an extended α-helical conformation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29301-11 pubmed publisher
  38. Liu D, Hu Q, Jang C. Orientational behaviors of liquid crystals coupled to chitosan-disrupted phospholipid membranes at the aqueous-liquid crystal interface. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;108:142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We then further examined the interactions between other polyelectrolytes and phospholipid membranes. ..
  39. Mahabir S, Small D, Li M, Wan W, Kucerka N, Littrell K, et al. Growth kinetics of lipid-based nanodiscs to unilamellar vesicles-a time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the low-T annealing of samples has only a marginal effect on the mean size of end-state ULVs, it does affect their polydispersity, which increases with increased T, presumably driven by the entropy of the system. ..
  40. Adams H, Joyce L, Guan Z, Akins R, Palmer K. Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis Lack a Requirement for CdsA, the Enzyme Required for Synthesis of Major Membrane Phospholipids in Bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher
  41. Dadashzadeh S, Mirahmadi N, Babaei M, Vali A. Peritoneal retention of liposomes: Effects of lipid composition, PEG coating and liposome charge. J Control Release. 2010;148:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..DOTAP/PEG100 may also be a more efficient formulation because this formulation can provide a high level of anticancer drug into the peritoneal cavity and also can passively target the primary tumor. ..
  42. Salay L, Ferreira M, Oliveira O, Nakaie C, Schreier S. Headgroup specificity for the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide tritrpticin with phospholipid Langmuir monolayers. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012;100:95-102 pubmed publisher
  43. Huang Q, Chen A, Li Q, Kang C. Expression, purification, and initial structural characterization of nonstructural protein 2B, an integral membrane protein of Dengue-2 virus, in detergent micelles. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;80:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The initial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) results indicate that the purified protein adopts alpha-helical structures in LMPG and TDPC micelles. ..
  44. Felföldi T, Vengring A, Márialigeti K, András J, Schumann P, Tóth E. Hephaestia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Sphingomonadaceae isolated from activated sludge. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;64:738-44 pubmed publisher
    ..nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ERB1-3(T) (?=?DSM 25527(T)?=?NCAIM B 02511(T)). ..
  45. Decker C, Schubert H, May S, Fahr A. Pharmacokinetics of temoporfin-loaded liposome formulations: correlation of liposome and temoporfin blood concentration. J Control Release. 2013;166:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our combined experimental-theoretical approach for in vivo plasma re-distribution of liposomal drugs may help to optimize colloidal drug carrier systems. ..
  46. Enoki T, Henriques V, Lamy M. Light scattering on the structural characterization of DMPG vesicles along the bilayer anomalous phase transition. Chem Phys Lipids. 2012;165:826-37 pubmed publisher
    ..One could envisage biotechnological applications, with vesicles being produced to enlarge and perforate in a chosen temperature and/or pH value. ..
  47. Sapay N, Bennett W, Tieleman D. Molecular simulations of lipid flip-flop in the presence of model transmembrane helices. Biochemistry. 2010;49:7665-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests specific PE and PG interactions with the peptide have a large affect on their stability in the membrane, with implications on cellular lipid and protein trafficking. ..
  48. Park S, Choi S, Park J, Yoon J. Umboniibacter caenipelagi sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:2959-2963 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCTF-16T (=KCTC 52628T=NBRC 112760T). ..
  49. Seehase M, Collins J, Kuypers E, Jellema R, Ophelders D, Ospina O, et al. New surfactant with SP-B and C analogs gives survival benefit after inactivation in preterm lambs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47631 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time a synthetic surfactant containing both surfactant protein B and C analogs showed significant benefit over animal derived surfactant in an in vivo model of surfactant inactivation in premature lambs. ..
  50. Akgun B, Satija S, Nanda H, Pirrone G, Shi X, Engen J, et al. Conformational transition of membrane-associated terminally acylated HIV-1 Nef. Structure. 2013;21:1822-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This work rules out previous speculation that the Nef core remains closely associated with the membrane to optimize interactions with the cytoplasmic domain of MHC-1. ..
  51. Dorosz J, Gofman Y, Kolusheva S, Otzen D, Ben Tal N, Nielsen N, et al. Membrane interactions of novicidin, a novel antimicrobial peptide: phosphatidylglycerol promotes bilayer insertion. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:11053-60 pubmed publisher
  52. Schaller S, Latowski D, Jemioła Rzemińska M, Dawood A, Wilhelm C, Strzałka K, et al. Regulation of LHCII aggregation by different thylakoid membrane lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:326-35 pubmed publisher
  53. Kampfer P, Glaeser S, Busse H, Abdelmohsen U, Hentschel U. Rubrobacter aplysinae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;64:705-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Strain RV113(T) is thus considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Rubrobacter aplysinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RV113(T) (?=?DSM 27440(T)?=?CECT 8425(T)). ..