Summary: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

Top Publications

  1. Chanda B, Venugopal S, Kulshrestha S, Navarre D, Downie B, Vaillancourt L, et al. Glycerol-3-phosphate levels are associated with basal resistance to the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:2017-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that G3P-associated resistance to C. higginsianum occurs independently or downstream of the camalexin pathway. Together, these results suggest a novel and specific link between G3P metabolism and plant defense. ..
  2. Guldan H, Matysik F, Bocola M, Sterner R, Babinger P. Functional assignment of an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of an archaea-type ether lipid in bacteria. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2011;50:8188-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The product becomes dephosphorylated and acetylated in vivo...
  3. Payandeh J, Fujihashi M, Gillon W, Pai E. The crystal structure of (S)-3-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase reveals an ancient fold for an ancient enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6070-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence and structural comparisons lead us to postulate an early evolutionary history for AfGGGPS, which may highlight its role in the emergence of Archaea...
  4. Boucher Y, Kamekura M, Doolittle W. Origins and evolution of isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis in archaea. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:515-27 pubmed
  5. Webb A, Karatsa Dodgson M, Gr ndling A. Two-enzyme systems for glycolipid and polyglycerolphosphate lipoteichoic acid synthesis in Listeria monocytogenes. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:299-314 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of LtaS leads to severe growth and cell division defects, underscoring the pivotal role of LTA in this gram-positive pathogen...
  6. zur Nieden N, Kempka G, Ahr H. In vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mineralized osteoblasts. Differentiation. 2003;71:18-27 pubmed
    ..The in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into osteoblasts may provide a suitable model for studying the molecular processes of osteoblastic development in vivo. ..
  7. Taylor J, Butcher M, Zeadin M, Politano A, Shaughnessy S. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells by up-regulating Osterix expression in an Msx2-dependent manner. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest a plausible mechanism by which oxLDL may promote osteoblast differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo. ..
  8. Sammons J, Ahmed N, El Sheemy M, Hassan H. The role of BMP-6, IL-6, and BMP-4 in mesenchymal stem cell-dependent bone development: effects on osteoblastic differentiation induced by parathyroid hormone and vitamin D(3). Stem Cells Dev. 2004;13:273-80 pubmed
    ..These results may facilitate therapeutic utility of MSCs for bone disease and help clarify mechanisms involved in stem cell-mediated bone development. ..
  9. Song S, Jeon O, Yang H, Han D, Kim B. Effects of culture conditions on osteogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;17:1113-9 pubmed
    ..HA had the highest positive effect on OPN expression and calcium deposition. The interaction between AC, betaG, and HA had the second highest positive effect on ALP activity. ..

More Information


  1. Shen W, Wei Y, Dauk M, Tan Y, Taylor D, Selvaraj G, et al. Involvement of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in modulating the NADH/NAD+ ratio provides evidence of a mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:422-41 pubmed
    ..We propose a model that outlines potential involvements of a mitochondrial G-3-P shuttle in plant cells for redox homeostasis. ..
  2. D Rozario R, Sansom M. Helix dynamics in a membrane transport protein: comparative simulations of the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter and its constituent helices. Mol Membr Biol. 2008;25:571-83 pubmed publisher
  3. Huang Z, Li J, Jiang Z, Qi Y, Tang C, Du J. Effects of adrenomedullin, C-type natriuretic peptide, and parathyroid hormone-related peptide on calcification in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2003;42:89-97 pubmed
    ..This study could be of help in understanding the pathogenesis of vascular calcification, and providing new target for clinical treatment of cardiovascular diseases associated with vascular calcification. ..
  4. Qi Y, Wang S, Zhang B, Bu D, Shu T, Du J. Changes in amount of ADM mRNA and RAMP2 mRNA in calcified vascular smooth muscle cells. Peptides. 2003;24:287-94 pubmed
    ..76, P<0.05) in calcified VSMCs. In conclusion, calcified VSMCs generated an increased amount of ADM, and up-regulated gene expressions of ADM and RAMP2. ..
  5. Lynch R. Calcium glycerophosphate and caries: a review of the literature. Int Dent J. 2004;54:310-4 pubmed
  6. Oku Y, Kurokawa K, Matsuo M, Yamada S, Lee B, Sekimizu K. Pleiotropic roles of polyglycerolphosphate synthase of lipoteichoic acid in growth of Staphylococcus aureus cells. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:141-51 pubmed publisher
  7. Khanna Jain R, Agata H, Vuorinen A, Sandor G, Suuronen R, Miettinen S. Addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6 to dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and ?-glycerophosphate may not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells. Growth Factors. 2010;28:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The mineralization ability was not enhanced by the addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6. These findings suggest that the addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6 to OS may not enhance an osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. ..
  8. Farrell E, O Brien F, Doyle P, Fischer J, Yannas I, Harley B, et al. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold supports adult rat mesenchymal stem cell differentiation along osteogenic and chondrogenic routes. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:459-68 pubmed
  9. Bear M, Butcher M, Shaughnessy S. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein acts synergistically with beta-glycerophosphate to induce osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..When taken together, these findings suggest a plausible mechanism by which oxLDL may promote osteogenic differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 185-193, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  10. Karatsa Dodgson M, Wörmann M, GRUNDLING A. In vitro analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid synthase enzyme using fluorescently labeled lipids. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5, characteristic for an enzyme that functions extracellularly. Lastly, we show that the in vitro assay can be used to study the enzyme activities of other members of the lipoteichoic acid synthase enzyme family. ..
  11. Buttery L, Bourne S, Xynos J, Wood H, Hughes F, Hughes S, et al. Differentiation of osteoblasts and in vitro bone formation from murine embryonic stem cells. Tissue Eng. 2001;7:89-99 pubmed
    ..This could be applied to obtain purified osteoblasts to analyze mechanisms of osteogenesis and for use of ES cells in skeletal tissue repair. ..
  12. Steitz S, Speer M, Curinga G, Yang H, Haynes P, Aebersold R, et al. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic transition associated with calcification: upregulation of Cbfa1 and downregulation of smooth muscle lineage markers. Circ Res. 2001;89:1147-54 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest a positive role for SMCs in promoting vascular calcification. ..
  13. Zheng Z, Zou J. The initial step of the glycerolipid pathway: identification of glycerol 3-phosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate dual substrate acyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41710-6 pubmed
    ..This did not appear to affect the mutants as no growth defect was found. However, null mutations of both GAT1 and GAT2(SCT1) are synthetically lethal to yeast. ..
  14. Miquel M, Cassagne C, Browse J. A new class of Arabidopsis mutants with reduced hexadecatrienoic acid fatty acid levels. Plant Physiol. 1998;117:923-30 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a mutant lesion affecting the G3P supply within the chloroplast. The gly1 mutants may therefore help in determining the pathway for synthesis of chloroplast G3P. ..
  15. Phillips B, Belmonte N, Vernochet C, Ailhaud G, Dani C. Compactin enhances osteogenesis in murine embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:478-84 pubmed
    ..These results establish ES-cell derived osteogenesis as an effective model system to study the molecular mechanisms by which the statin compactin promotes osteoblastic differentiation and bone nodule formation. ..
  16. Nishihara M, Koga Y. Purification and properties of sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum: characterization of the biosynthetic enzyme for the enantiomeric glycerophosphate backbone of ether polar lipids of Archaea. J Biochem. 1997;122:572-6 pubmed
    ..Under the assay conditions used, no product inhibition was observed. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined...
  17. Vogel G, Shim D, Schumacher G, Carey C, Chow L, Takagi S. Salivary fluoride from fluoride dentifrices or rinses after use of a calcium pre-rinse or calcium dentifrice. Caries Res. 2006;40:449-54 pubmed
    ..Although the persistence of these increases requires further study, these results suggest that a moderately high concentration of Ca given shortly before a F rinse or F dentifrice may increase the cariostatic effect of the F product...
  18. Tretter L, Takacs K, Kövér K, Adam Vizi V. Stimulation of H(2)O(2) generation by calcium in brain mitochondria respiring on alpha-glycerophosphate. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:3471-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that in alpha-GP-supported mitochondria activation of alpha-GPDH by Ca(2+) leads to an accelerated RET-mediated ROS generation as well as to a stimulated ROS production by alpha-GPDH. ..
  19. Guo Z, Zhou L. Substrate concentration and metabolism in left and right muscles of rats. Metabolism. 2003;52:1571-5 pubmed
    ..The results support interchangeable use of left and right side of same muscles, and probably among different muscles of similar fiber type, but not muscles of different fiber types. ..
  20. Chaves V, Frasson D, Martins Santos M, Navegantes L, Galban V, Garófalo M, et al. Fatty acid synthesis and generation of glycerol-3-phosphate in brown adipose tissue from rats fed a cafeteria diet. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:416-23 pubmed publisher
  21. Id Boufker H, Lagneaux L, Najar M, Piccart M, Ghanem G, Body J, et al. The Src inhibitor dasatinib accelerates the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells into osteoblasts. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:298 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, dasatinib is a potentially interesting candidate drug for the treatment of osteolysis through its dual effect on bone metabolism. ..
  22. Zheng L, Ao Q, Han H, Zhang X, Gong Y. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-beta-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration. Biomed Mater. 2010;5:35003 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the present study also confirmed that Schwann cell implantation stimulated nerve regeneration. ..
  23. Cheng Y, Makarova N, Tsukahara R, Guo H, Shuyu E, Farrar P, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced arterial wall remodeling: requirement of PPARgamma but not LPA1 or LPA2 GPCR. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1874-84 pubmed publisher
  24. Janda J, Busch M, Kuck F, Porfenenko M, Merkl R. CLIPS-1D: analysis of multiple sequence alignments to deduce for residue-positions a role in catalysis, ligand-binding, or protein structure. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the algorithm can be applied in cases where function cannot be transferred from well-characterized proteins by means of sequence comparison. ..
  25. Ishida T. [Overview of structural study on conformations and intermolecular interactions of biomolecules]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2012;132:785-816 pubmed
  26. Shimada H, Yamagishi A. Stability of heterochiral hybrid membrane made of bacterial sn-G3P lipids and archaeal sn-G1P lipids. Biochemistry. 2011;50:4114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we suggest that the heterochiral hybrid membrane could be used as the membrane lipid for the last universal common ancestor (Commonote) before the emergence of Archaea and Bacteria. ..
  27. Bakopoulou A, Leyhausen G, Volk J, Tsiftsoglou A, Garefis P, Koidis P, et al. Comparative analysis of in vitro osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP). Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:709-21 pubmed publisher
  28. Peng Q, Sun X, Gong T, Wu C, Zhang T, Tan J, et al. Injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogels loaded with PHBHHx nanoparticles for the sustained and controlled release of insulin. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:5063-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the NP-loaded hydrogel system also paves the way for long-term delivery of other proteins and peptides. ..
  29. Beazley M, Martinez R, Sobecky P, Webb S, Taillefert M. Uranium biomineralization as a result of bacterial phosphatase activity: insights from bacterial isolates from a contaminated subsurface. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5701-7 pubmed
  30. Kempe S, Metz H, Bastrop M, Hvilsom A, Contri R, MADER K. Characterization of thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels by rheology and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;68:26-33 pubmed
    ..A sustained release of Insulin was observed over a period of 2 weeks. Increasing the proportion of beta-GP increased the amount of released Insulin and the velocity thereof. ..
  31. Camps J, About I, Thonneman B, Mitsiadis T, Schmaltz G, Franquin J. Two- versus three-dimensional in vitro differentiation of human pulp cells into odontoblastic cells. Connect Tissue Res. 2002;43:396-400 pubmed
    ..This was particularly evident in the 10% FCS group. beta-Glycerophosphate in the 3D system seems to stimulate the osteogenic cell phenotype, as a considerable induction of osteonectin is observed. ..
  32. Yue B, Huang C, Nieh M, Glinka C, Katsaras J. Highly stable phospholipid unilamellar vesicles from spontaneous vesiculation: A DLS and SANS study. J Phys Chem B. 2005;109:609-16 pubmed
    ..ULV size is found to be invariant over a wide range of temperatures, both below and above the phase-transition temperature, T(M), of DMPC, and was stable for periods of weeks and months, even after sonication. ..
  33. Veloso A, Astigarraga E, Barreda Gómez G, Manuel I, Ferrer I, Giralt M, et al. Anatomical distribution of lipids in human brain cortex by imaging mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2011;22:329-38 pubmed publisher
  34. Wendel A, Lewin T, Coleman R. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: rate limiting enzymes of triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Much work remains to fully delineate the regulation of each GPAT isoform and its individual role in triacylglycerol synthesis. ..
  35. Wu J, Su Z, Ma G. A thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrogel composed of quaternized chitosan/glycerophosphate. Int J Pharm. 2006;315:1-11 pubmed
    ..The HTCC/GP hydrogel in this study was transparent which made it suitable for some specific uses such as ocular drug formulation. ..
  36. Liao X, Zhang Z, Yuan K, Liu Y, Feng X, Cui R, et al. MiR-133a modulates osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3344-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that miR-133a is a key negative regulator of the osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. ..
  37. Yasuda Y, Ohtomo E, Tsukuba T, Okamoto K, Saito T. Carbon dioxide laser irradiation stimulates mineralization in rat dental pulp cells. Int Endod J. 2009;42:940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that carbon dioxide laser irradiation stimulated mineralization in dental pulp cells. The laser irradiation also increased HSP47 expression but not collagen gene expression. ..
  38. Potekhina N, Streshinskaya G, Tul skaya E, Kozlova Y, Senchenkova S, Shashkov A. Phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2011;76:745-54 pubmed publisher
  39. Huang K, Zhang Q, Cai G. [Effects of osteoblasts and inductor on proliferation and osteodifferentiation of marrow stromal stem cells]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006;20:125-9 pubmed
    ..Their combined use does not affect the normal proliferation but can obviously promote the osteodifferentiation of marrow stromal cells. This combined use can become a new culture system of the seed cells for bone tissue engineering. ..
  40. Tian X, Heng B, Ge Z, Lu K, Rufaihah A, Fan V, et al. Comparison of osteogenesis of human embryonic stem cells within 2D and 3D culture systems. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2008;68:58-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon implantation in situ, the differentiating human embryonic stem cells can contribute positively to the repair and regeneration of bone defects. ..
  41. Badurina D, Zolli Juran M, Brown E. CTP:glycerol 3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (TarD) from Staphylococcus aureus catalyzes the cytidylyl transfer via an ordered Bi-Bi reaction mechanism with micromolar K(m) values. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1646:196-206 pubmed
    ..subtilis 168 mutant defective in tagD (temperature-sensitive, tag-12). Growth of the resulting strain at the restrictive temperature (47 degrees C) was shown to be xylose-dependent...
  42. Roughley P, Hoemann C, DesRosiers E, Mwale F, Antoniou J, Alini M. The potential of chitosan-based gels containing intervertebral disc cells for nucleus pulposus supplementation. Biomaterials. 2006;27:388-96 pubmed
    ..The results support the concept that chitosan may be a suitable scaffold for cell-based supplementation to help restore the function of the NP during the early stages of IVD degeneration. ..
  43. Simon G, Cravatt B. Endocannabinoid biosynthesis proceeding through glycerophospho-N-acyl ethanolamine and a role for alpha/beta-hydrolase 4 in this pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:26465-72 pubmed
    ..These results support the existence of an NAPE-PLD-independent route for NAE biosynthesis and suggest that Abh4 plays a role in this metabolic pathway by acting as a (lyso)NAPE-selective lipase. ..
  44. Wang Y, Xu N, Luo Q, Li Y, Sun L, Wang H, et al. In vivo assessment of chitosan/?-glycerophosphate as a new liquid embolic agent. Interv Neuroradiol. 2011;17:87-92 pubmed
    ..Our preliminary feasibility evaluation in rabbit renal arteries indicates that C/GP is a satisfactory embolization agent. ..
  45. Song K, Qiao M, Liu T, Jiang B, Macedo H, Ma X, et al. Preparation, fabrication and biocompatibility of novel injectable temperature-sensitive chitosan/glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogels. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21:2835-42 pubmed publisher
  46. Crompton K, Goud J, Bellamkonda R, Gengenbach T, Finkelstein D, Horne M, et al. Polylysine-functionalised thermoresponsive chitosan hydrogel for neural tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2007;28:441-9 pubmed
    ..The results show that thermally responsive chitosan/GP hydrogels provide a suitable 3D scaffolding environment for neural tissue engineering. ..
  47. Tsybulskaya I, Kulak T, Baranovsky A, Golubeva M, Kuzmitsky B, Kalinichenko E. Synthesis and in vitro cytostatic activity of 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerophosphates of clofarabine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:5414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the synthesized conjugates exhibited cytostatic activity against HL-60, A-549, MCF-7, and HeLa tumor cell lines. ..
  48. Siddals K, Allen J, Sinha S, Canfield A, Kalra P, Gibson J. Apposite insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor glycosylation is critical to the maintenance of vascular smooth muscle phenotype in the presence of factors promoting osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..IGF-I thus occupies a critical position in the maintenance of normal VSMC phenotype and protection from factors known to stimulate vascular calcification...
  49. Min J, Ko S, Cho Y, Ryu C, Jang Y. Dentinogenic potential of human adult dental pulp cells during the extended primary culture. Hum Cell. 2011;24:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, a dentinogenic population of pulp cells occurred in limited early passages, whereas osteogenic cells occurred throughout the whole passage range. ..
  50. Rigoulet M, Aguilaniu H, Avéret N, Bunoust O, Camougrand N, Grandier Vazeille X, et al. Organization and regulation of the cytosolic NADH metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;256-257:73-81 pubmed
    ..The cell physiological consequences of such an organized and regulated network are discussed. ..
  51. Wayment Steele H, Jing Y, Swann M, Johnson L, Agnarsson B, Svedhem S, et al. Effects of Al(3+) on Phosphocholine and Phosphoglycerol Containing Solid Supported Lipid Bilayers. Langmuir. 2016;32:1771-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The measured variations in SLB thickness, birefringence, and density indicate a phase transition from a disordered to a densely packed ordered phase. ..
  52. Cai Y, Teng X, Pan C, Duan X, Tang C, Qi Y. Adrenomedullin up-regulates osteopontin and attenuates vascular calcification via the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:1359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..ADM up-regulates OPN expression and thus attenuates VC via PKA. ADM appears to be an endogenous cardiovascular protective peptide and may represent a new therapeutic target for VC treatment. ..
  53. Chaves Neto A, Queiroz K, Milani R, Paredes Gamero E, Justo G, Peppelenbosch M, et al. Profiling the changes in signaling pathways in ascorbic acid/?-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:71-7 pubmed publisher