Summary: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Yuan S, Burrell B. Endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression in a nociceptive synapse requires coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic transcription and translation. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide significant insights into both eCB-based synaptic plasticity and understanding how activity in non-nociceptive afferents modulates nociceptive pathways. ..
  2. Gregg L, Jung K, Spradley J, Nyilas R, Suplita R, Zimmer A, et al. Activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors and diacylglycerol lipase-? initiates 2-arachidonoylglycerol formation and endocannabinoid-mediated analgesia. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that activation of the postsynaptic mGlu(5)-DGL-? cascade triggers retrograde 2-AG signaling in vivo. This pathway is required for endocannabinoid-mediated stress-induced analgesia. ..
  3. Gatta Cherifi B, Matias I, Vallee M, Tabarin A, Marsicano G, Piazza P, et al. Simultaneous postprandial deregulation of the orexigenic endocannabinoid anandamide and the anorexigenic peptide YY in obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2% of the variance commonly explained. These findings suggest that AEA might be a physiological meal initiator in humans and furthermore show that postprandially AEA and PYY are concomitantly deregulated in obesity. ..
  4. Tanimura A, Uchigashima M, Yamazaki M, Uesaka N, Mikuni T, Abe M, et al. Synapse type-independent degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol after retrograde synaptic suppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12195-200 pubmed publisher
  5. Kallendrusch S, Hobusch C, Ehrlich A, Nowicki M, Ziebell S, Bechmann I, et al. Intrinsic up-regulation of 2-AG favors an area specific neuronal survival in different in vitro models of neuronal damage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51208 pubmed publisher
    ..This intrinsic up-regulation of 2-AG is synergistically controlled by DAGL and MAGL in neurons and astrocytes and thus represents a protective system for neurons that is involved in dendritic reorganisation...
  6. Rengachari S, Bezerra G, Riegler Berket L, Gruber C, Sturm C, Taschler U, et al. The structure of monoacylglycerol lipase from Bacillus sp. H257 reveals unexpected conservation of the cap architecture between bacterial and human enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus it provides insight into the structural conservation of the cap amongst MGLs throughout evolution and provides a framework for rationalising substrate specificities in each organism. ..
  7. Nomura D, Morrison B, Blankman J, Long J, Kinsey S, Marcondes M, et al. Endocannabinoid hydrolysis generates brain prostaglandins that promote neuroinflammation. Science. 2011;334:809-13 pubmed publisher
  8. Zeng X, Xiang L, Li C, Wang Y, Qiu G, Zhang Z, et al. Cytotoxic ceramides and glycerides from the roots of Livistona chinensis. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is first report of the occurrence of ceramides and acylglycerols in the genus Livistona. ..
  9. Hansen K, Rosenkilde M, Knop F, Wellner N, Diep T, Rehfeld J, et al. 2-Oleoyl glycerol is a GPR119 agonist and signals GLP-1 release in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is likely to contribute to the known stimulatory effect of dietary fat on incretin secretion, and it indicates that GPR119 is a fat sensor. ..

More Information


  1. Di Marzo V, De Petrocellis L. Why do cannabinoid receptors have more than one endogenous ligand?. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:3216-28 pubmed publisher
  2. Keimpema E, Tortoriello G, Alpar A, Capsoni S, Arisi I, Calvigioni D, et al. Nerve growth factor scales endocannabinoid signaling by regulating monoacylglycerol lipase turnover in developing cholinergic neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1935-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that NGF can orchestrate endocannabinoid signaling to promote cholinergic differentiation and implicate BRCA1 in determining neuronal morphology. ..
  3. Schlievert P, Peterson M. Glycerol monolaurate antibacterial activity in broth and biofilm cultures. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40350 pubmed publisher
    ..GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination. ..
  4. Forsell P, Brunnström A, Johannesson M, Claesson H. Metabolism of anandamide into eoxamides by 15-lipoxygenase-1 and glutathione transferases. Lipids. 2012;47:781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The metabolism of AEA into eoxamides might engender molecules with novel biological effects. Alternatively, it might represent a new mechanism for the termination of AEA signalling. ..
  5. Sumislawski J, Ramikie T, Patel S. Reversible gating of endocannabinoid plasticity in the amygdala by chronic stress: a potential role for monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition in the prevention of stress-induced behavioral adaptation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2750-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that chronic stress reversibly gates eCB synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses in the amygdala, and in vivo augmentation of 2-AG levels prevents both behavioral and synaptic adaptations to chronic stress. ..
  6. Zhong P, Pan B, Gao X, Blankman J, Cravatt B, Liu Q. Genetic deletion of monoacylglycerol lipase alters endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression in the cerebellum. J Physiol. 2011;589:4847-55 pubmed publisher
  7. Centonze D, Bari M, Rossi S, Prosperetti C, Furlan R, Fezza F, et al. The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in multiple sclerosis and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain. 2007;130:2543-53 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system might be useful for the treatment of MS. ..
  8. Gallala H, Sandhoff K. Biological function of the cellular lipid BMP-BMP as a key activator for cholesterol sorting and membrane digestion. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:1594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will summarize the different properties of BMP and showcase its importance in the catabolism of lipids and membranes in the lysosome. ..
  9. DiPatrizio N, Simansky K. Activating parabrachial cannabinoid CB1 receptors selectively stimulates feeding of palatable foods in rats. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9702-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Garcia Ovejero D, Arevalo Martin A, Petrosino S, Docagne F, Hagen C, Bisogno T, et al. The endocannabinoid system is modulated in response to spinal cord injury in rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;33:57-71 pubmed publisher
    ..CB(2) receptor was strongly upregulated after lesion, and mostly expressed by immune infiltrates and astrocytes. The endocannabinoid system may represent an interesting target for new therapeutical approaches to spinal cord injury. ..
  11. Guasti L, Richardson D, Jhaveri M, Eldeeb K, Barrett D, Elphick M, et al. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Mol Pain. 2009;5:35 pubmed publisher
    ..01) increased levels of PEA in the ipsilateral spinal cord of SNL rats, compared to the contralateral spinal cord. Thus, activation of microglia affects spinal levels of endocannabinoids and related compounds in neuropathic pain states. ..
  12. Lin Y, Schlievert P, Anderson M, Fair C, Schaefers M, Muthyala R, et al. Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7499 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus growth and exotoxin production, which may reduce toxic shock syndrome. GML is proposed as a more effective anti-staphylococcal topical anti-infective candidate than DDG, despite its potential degradation by S. aureus lipase. ..
  13. Muccioli G, Stella N. An optimized GC-MS method detects nanomolar amounts of anandamide in mouse brain. Anal Biochem. 2008;373:220-8 pubmed
  14. Starowicz K, Cristino L, Matias I, Capasso R, Racioppi A, Izzo A, et al. Endocannabinoid dysregulation in the pancreas and adipose tissue of mice fed with a high-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:553-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide unprecedented information on the distribution of EC metabolic enzymes in the pancreas and adipose organ, where their aberrant expression during hyperglycemia and obesity contribute to dysregulated EC levels. ..
  15. Calabrò V, Ricca E, De Paola M, Curcio S, Iorio G. Kinetics of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides for biodiesel production. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2010;33:701-10 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, the reaction of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides with ethanol in a reaction medium containing hexane at a temperature of 37 degrees C has been studied...
  16. Zhang L, Wang M, Bisogno T, Di Marzo V, Alger B. Endocannabinoids generated by Ca2+ or by metabotropic glutamate receptors appear to arise from different pools of diacylglycerol lipase. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16305 pubmed publisher
  17. Jumpertz R, Wiesner T, Bluher M, Engeli S, Batkai S, Wirtz H, et al. Circulating endocannabinoids and N-acyl-ethanolamides in patients with sleep apnea--specific role of oleoylethanolamide. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118:591-5 pubmed publisher
  18. Degn M, Lambertsen K, Petersen G, Meldgaard M, Artmann A, Clausen B, et al. Changes in brain levels of N-acylethanolamines and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in focal cerebral ischemia in mice. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1907-16 pubmed
    ..p.) 1.5 h before arterial occlusion decreased the infarct volume in our model system. Our results suggest that NAEs and 2-AG may be involved in regulation of neuroprotection during focal cerebral ischemia in mice. ..
  19. Bisogno T, Burston J, Rai R, Allarà M, Saha B, Mahadevan A, et al. Synthesis and pharmacological activity of a potent inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. ChemMedChem. 2009;4:946-50 pubmed publisher
  20. Kinsey S, Long J, O Neal S, Abdullah R, Poklis J, Boger D, et al. Blockade of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes attenuates neuropathic pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:902-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that inhibition of FAAH and MAGL reduces neuropathic pain through distinct receptor mechanisms of action and present viable targets for the development of analgesic therapeutics. ..
  21. Izzo A, Piscitelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, et al. Peripheral endocannabinoid dysregulation in obesity: relation to intestinal motility and energy processing induced by food deprivation and re-feeding. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, together with previous observations, provide further evidence for dysregulation of peripheral endocannabinoids in obesity. ..
  22. Nomura D, Long J, Niessen S, Hoover H, Ng S, Cravatt B. Monoacylglycerol lipase regulates a fatty acid network that promotes cancer pathogenesis. Cell. 2010;140:49-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings reveal how cancer cells can co-opt a lipolytic enzyme to translate their lipogenic state into an array of protumorigenic signals. PAPERFLICK: ..
  23. Di Marzo V, Cote M, Matias I, Lemieux I, Arsenault B, Cartier A, et al. Changes in plasma endocannabinoid levels in viscerally obese men following a 1 year lifestyle modification programme and waist circumference reduction: associations with changes in metabolic risk factors. Diabetologia. 2009;52:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that a strong correlation exists between 2-AG levels and high plasma triacylglycerol and low HDL(3)-cholesterol in viscerally obese men. ..
  24. Lerner T, Horne E, Stella N, Kreitzer A. Endocannabinoid signaling mediates psychomotor activation by adenosine A2A antagonists. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data outline a molecular mechanism by which A(2A) antagonists reduce excitatory synaptic drive on the indirect pathway through CB(1) receptor signaling, thus leading to increased psychomotor activation. ..
  25. Moreira F, Kaiser N, Monory K, Lutz B. Reduced anxiety-like behaviour induced by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is mediated by CB1 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:141-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, it indicates an increased activation of CB1 receptors as a mechanism underlying the effects of FAAH inhibition in two models of anxiety. ..
  26. Hill M, Miller G, Ho W, Gorzalka B, Hillard C. Serum endocannabinoid content is altered in females with depressive disorders: a preliminary report. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2008;41:48-53 pubmed publisher
  27. Nyilas R, Gregg L, Mackie K, Watanabe M, Zimmer A, Hohmann A, et al. Molecular architecture of endocannabinoid signaling at nociceptive synapses mediating analgesia. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1964-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The striking positioning of the molecular players of 2-AG synthesis and action at nociceptive excitatory synapses suggests that pharmacological manipulation of spinal 2-AG levels may be an efficacious way to regulate pain sensation. ..
  28. Hurst D, Grossfield A, Lynch D, Feller S, Romo T, Gawrisch K, et al. A lipid pathway for ligand binding is necessary for a cannabinoid G protein-coupled receptor. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17954-64 pubmed publisher
  29. Straiker A, Hu S, Long J, Arnold A, Wager Miller J, Cravatt B, et al. Monoacylglycerol lipase limits the duration of endocannabinoid-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of excitation in autaptic hippocampal neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:1220-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Kim J, Alger B. Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory mechanism, mediated by activity-dependent changes in tonic endocannabinoid level, permits selective local tuning of inhibitory synapses in hippocampal networks. ..
  31. Du H, Chen X, Zhang J, Chen C. Inhibition of COX-2 expression by endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol is mediated via PPAR-?. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1533-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that CB(1) receptor-dependent PPAR? expression is an important and novel signalling pathway in endocannabinoid 2-AG-produced resolution of neuroinflammation in response to pro-inflammatory insults...
  32. Saario S, Laitinen J. Monoglyceride lipase as an enzyme hydrolyzing 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:1903-13 pubmed
  33. Taschler U, Radner F, Heier C, Schreiber R, Schweiger M, Schoiswohl G, et al. Monoglyceride lipase deficiency in mice impairs lipolysis and attenuates diet-induced insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Defective degradation of 2-AG does not provoke cannabinoid-like effects on feeding behavior, lipid storage, and energy expenditure, which may be explained by desensitization of CBR. ..
  34. Destaillats F, Cruz Hernandez C, Nagy K, Dionisi F. Identification of monoacylglycerol regio-isomers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:1543-8 pubmed publisher
  35. Zhang H, Cui Y, Zhu S, Feng F, Zheng X. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of a pharmaceutical microemulsion. Int J Pharm. 2010;395:154-60 pubmed publisher
  36. Gao Y, Vasilyev D, Goncalves M, Howell F, Hobbs C, Reisenberg M, et al. Loss of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling and reduced adult neurogenesis in diacylglycerol lipase knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2010;30:2017-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide the first evidence that DAGLalpha is the major biosynthetic enzyme for 2-AG in the nervous system and reveal an essential role for this enzyme in regulating retrograde synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. ..
  37. Savinainen J, Saario S, Laitinen J. The serine hydrolases MAGL, ABHD6 and ABHD12 as guardians of 2-arachidonoylglycerol signalling through cannabinoid receptors. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012;204:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..9% of total brain 2-AG hydrolysis. Mutations in ABHD12 gene are causally linked to a neurodegenerative disease called PHARC. Whether ABHD12 qualifies as a bona fide member to the endocannabinoid system remains to be established. ..
  38. Rossi C, Pini L, Cupini M, Calabresi P, Sarchielli P. Endocannabinoids in platelets of chronic migraine patients and medication-overuse headache patients: relation with serotonin levels. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;64:1-8 pubmed
    ..These systems appear to be mutually related and able to contribute to the chronification of both CM and MOH. ..
  39. Patel S, Kingsley P, Mackie K, Marnett L, Winder D. Repeated homotypic stress elevates 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels and enhances short-term endocannabinoid signaling at inhibitory synapses in basolateral amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:2699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest stress-induced enhancement of eCB-mediated suppression of inhibitory transmission in the BLA could contribute to affective dysregulation associated with chronic stress. ..
  40. Long J, Li W, Booker L, Burston J, Kinsey S, Schlosburg J, et al. Selective blockade of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis produces cannabinoid behavioral effects. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that 2-AG endogenously modulates several behavioral processes classically associated with the pharmacology of cannabinoids and point to overlapping and unique functions for 2-AG and anandamide in vivo. ..
  41. Alhouayek M, Lambert D, Delzenne N, Cani P, Muccioli G. Increasing endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels counteracts colitis and related systemic inflammation. FASEB J. 2011;25:2711-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This could offer a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of IBD based on the new protective role of 2-arachidonoylglycerol described here. ..
  42. Strandberg K, Peterson M, Schaefers M, Case L, Pack M, Chase D, et al. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GML added to tampons provides additional safety relative to menstrual toxic shock syndrome as well as benefits for vaginal health generally, thus supporting the addition of GML to tampons. ..
  43. Reis P, Holmberg K, Miller R, Krägel J, Grigoriev D, Leser M, et al. Competition between lipases and monoglycerides at interfaces. Langmuir. 2008;24:7400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of stable and amphiphilic Sn-2 monoglycerides can be seen as a self-regulatory process for fat digestion. ..
  44. Maccarrone M, Rossi S, Bari M, De Chiara V, Fezza F, Musella A, et al. Anandamide inhibits metabolism and physiological actions of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, the interaction between AEA and 2-AG was lost after pharmacological and genetic inactivation of TRPV1 channels. ..
  45. Uchigashima M, Yamazaki M, Yamasaki M, Tanimura A, Sakimura K, Kano M, et al. Molecular and morphological configuration for 2-arachidonoylglycerol-mediated retrograde signaling at mossy cell-granule cell synapses in the dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7700-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular-anatomical configuration will contribute to adjust network activity in the dentate gyrus after enhanced excitation. ..
  46. Heier C, Taschler U, Rengachari S, Oberer M, Wolinski H, Natter K, et al. Identification of Yju3p as functional orthologue of mammalian monoglyceride lipase in the yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our studies suggest that catabolic and anabolic reactions affect cellular MAG levels. Yju3p is the functional orthologue of mammalian MGL and is required for efficient degradation of MAG in yeast. ..
  47. Chevallier J, Chamoun Z, Jiang G, Prestwich G, Sakai N, Matile S, et al. Lysobisphosphatidic acid controls endosomal cholesterol levels. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that LBPA controls the cholesterol capacity of endosomes...
  48. Higuchi S, Irie K, Nakano T, Sakamoto Y, Akitake Y, Araki M, et al. Reducing acyl migration during purification of 2-arachidonoylglycerol from biological samples before gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Anal Sci. 2010;26:1199-202 pubmed
    ..We found that extraction with methanol promoted this migration, but acetone and diethyl ether (Et(2)O) did not. Acetone and Et(2)O were used to develop a purification method for the direct determination of 2-AG. ..
  49. Adermark L, Lovinger D. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:20564-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that retrograde eCB signaling requires a postsynaptic release step involving a transporter or carrier that is activated by afferent stimulation/synaptic activation. ..
  50. Di Marzo V, Maccarrone M. FAAH and anandamide: is 2-AG really the odd one out?. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008;29:229-33 pubmed publisher
  51. Tanikawa T, Kurohane K, Imai Y. Induction of preferential chemotaxis of unstimulated B-lymphocytes by 2-arachidonoylglycerol in immunized mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2007;51:1013-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that 2-AG preferentially attracts unstimulated naive B cells rather than activated and/or class-switched B cells. This property may influence the structure of B cell compartments in secondary lymphoid tissues. ..
  52. Yuan H, Wang L, Du Y, You J, Hu F, Zeng S. Preparation and characteristics of nanostructured lipid carriers for control-releasing progesterone by melt-emulsification. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007;60:174-9 pubmed
    ..A sample with almost complete drug release in 24h was obtained by modifying with 1.30mol% PEG-SA. It indicated that the modified NLC was a potential drug delivery system for oral administration. ..
  53. Strandberg K, Peterson M, Lin Y, Pack M, Chase D, Schlievert P. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:597-601 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse events were reported by participating women. GML is antimicrobial for Candida and G. vaginalis in vitro. Vaginal GML gels in women do not affect Lactobacillus negatively but significantly reduce Candida and G. vaginalis. ..