sodium oxybate

Summary

Summary: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.

Top Publications

  1. Schwartz T. Gamma hydroxy butyric acid and sodium oxybate used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectr. 2007;12:884-6 pubmed
  2. George C, Feldman N, Zheng Y, Steininger T, Grzeschik S, Lai C, et al. A 2-week, polysomnographic, safety study of sodium oxybate in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath. 2011;15:13-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium oxybate (SXB) is approved for cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) affects ?9-50% of narcoleptics...
  3. Frucht S, Houghton W, Bordelon Y, Greene P, Louis E. A single-blind, open-label trial of sodium oxybate for myoclonus and essential tremor. Neurology. 2005;65:1967-9 pubmed
    The authors performed an open-label, rater-blinded, add-on study of sodium oxybate in 20 patients with ethanol-responsive myoclonus or essential tremor...
  4. Huang Y, Guilleminault C. Narcolepsy: action of two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B agonists, baclofen and sodium oxybate. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;41:9-16 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to evaluate the actions of baclofen and sodium oxybate, two medications with gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist properties, on symptoms of narcolepsy in drug-naïve teenagers...
  5. Spitzer A, Broadman M. Treatment of the narcoleptiform sleep disorder in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia with sodium oxybate. Pain Pract. 2010;10:54-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When considered appropriate based on the clinical picture and test results, treatment with sodium oxybate was offered to these patients...
  6. Poryazova R, Tartarotti S, Khatami R, Baumann C, Valko P, Kallweit U, et al. Sodium oxybate in narcolepsy with cataplexy: Zurich sleep center experience. Eur Neurol. 2011;65:175-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium oxybate (SO; Xyrem®) has been approved in most countries for treatment of narcolepsy and cataplexy...
  7. Caputo F, Francini S, Brambilla R, Vigna Taglianti F, Stoppo M, Del Re A, et al. Sodium oxybate in maintaining alcohol abstinence in alcoholic patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:450-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium oxybate (SMO) is a GABA-ergic drug currently used for the treatment of alcohol-dependence in some European countries...
  8. Akins B, Miranda E, Lacy J, Logan B. A multi-drug intoxication fatality involving Xyrem (GHB). J Forensic Sci. 2009;54:495-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The manner of death was determined to be accidental...
  9. Fait A, Yellin A, Fromm H. GABA shunt deficiencies and accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates: insight from Arabidopsis mutants. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:415-20 pubmed
    ..These results provide novel evidence for the relationship between the GABA shunt and ROI, which may, in part, explain the phenotype of SSADH-deficient plants and animals...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Arnulf I, Mignot E. Sodium oxybate for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Sleep. 2004;27:1242-3 pubmed
  2. Husain A, Ristanovic R, Bogan R. Weight loss in narcolepsy patients treated with sodium oxybate. Sleep Med. 2009;10:661-3 pubmed publisher
    Narcolepsy is often associated with increased body weight. Sodium oxybate has efficacy in many narcolepsy symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium oxybate on weight in patients with narcolepsy.
  3. Struys E, Verhoeven N, Jansen E, Ten Brink H, Gupta M, Burlingame T, et al. Metabolism of gamma-hydroxybutyrate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate in mammals: further evidence for d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase. Metabolism. 2006;55:353-8 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that d-2-HG is a prominent GHB metabolite and provide further evidence for the existence of d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase in different mammalian species...
  4. Robinson D, Keating G. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in the management of narcolepsy. CNS Drugs. 2007;21:337-54 pubmed
    b>Sodium oxybate (Xyrem) is the sodium salt of the CNS depressant gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and is therefore subject to prescription restrictions...
  5. Mamelak M, Black J, Montplaisir J, Ristanovic R. A pilot study on the effects of sodium oxybate on sleep architecture and daytime alertness in narcolepsy. Sleep. 2004;27:1327-34 pubmed
    To measure the effect of nocturnal sodium oxybate administration on sleep architecture in patients with narcolepsy.
  6. Zvosec D, Smith S. Comment on "The abrupt cessation of therapeutically administered sodium oxybate (GHB) may cause withdrawal symptoms". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42:121-3; author reply 125-7 pubmed
  7. Russell I, Holman A, Swick T, Alvarez Horine S, Wang Y, Guinta D. Sodium oxybate reduces pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbance and improves functionality in fibromyalgia: results from a 14-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2011;152:1007-17 pubmed publisher
    This 14-week, phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated sodium oxybate (SXB) 4.5 and 6g per night versus placebo in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). SXB is the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)...
  8. Felmlee M, ROIKO S, Morse B, Morris M. Concentration-effect relationships for the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:764-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of a clinical GHB detoxification strategy aimed at decreasing plasma and brain GHB concentrations after GHB overdoses...
  9. Lecendreux M, Poli F, Oudiette D, Benazzouz F, Donjacour C, Franceschini C, et al. Tolerance and efficacy of sodium oxybate in childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy: a retrospective study. Sleep. 2012;35:709-11 pubmed publisher
    ..ranging from 6 to 16 years old, suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy, who had been treated with off-label sodium oxybate and had been followed in a clinical setting...
  10. Vienne J, Lecciso G, Constantinescu I, Schwartz S, Franken P, Heinzer R, et al. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory. Sleep. 2012;35:1071-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABA? agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4...
  11. McElroy S, Guerdjikova A, WINSTANLEY E, O Melia A, Mori N, Keck P, et al. Sodium oxybate in the treatment of binge eating disorder: an open-label, prospective study. Int J Eat Disord. 2011;44:262-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess preliminarily the effectiveness of sodium oxybate in binge eating disorder.
  12. Sauer S, Kolker S, Hoffmann G, ten Brink H, Jakobs C, Gibson K, et al. Enzymatic and metabolic evidence for a region specific mitochondrial dysfunction in brains of murine succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (Aldh5a1-/- mice). Neurochem Int. 2007;50:653-9 pubmed
    ..Although our results suggest hippocampal and cortical dysfunction in Aldh5a1(-/-) brain, we found no evidence that accumulating key metabolites of SSADH deficiency directly induce impairment of energy metabolism...
  13. Li Q, Kuhn C, Wilson W, Lewis D. Effects of gamma hydroxybutyric acid on inhibition and excitation in rat neocortex. Neuroscience. 2007;150:82-92 pubmed
    ..The suppression of NMDA more than AMPA responses by GHB at intoxicating doses may make it attractive as a recreational drug and may explain why GHB is abused and baclofen is not...
  14. Wise M, Arand D, Auger R, Brooks S, Watson N. Treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin. Sleep. 2007;30:1712-27 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this paper is to summarize current knowledge about treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin...
  15. Knerr I, Gibson K, Jakobs C, Pearl P. Neuropsychiatric morbidity in adolescent and adult succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency patients. CNS Spectr. 2008;13:598-605 pubmed
    ..While neurological manifestations, such as developmental delay, are typical during infancy, limited data are available on adolescent and adult symptomatology...
  16. Ondo W, Perkins T, Swick T, Hull K, Jimenez J, Garris T, et al. Sodium oxybate for excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson disease: an open-label polysomnographic study. Arch Neurol. 2008;65:1337-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Many patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have excessive daytime sleepiness and numerous nocturnal sleep abnormalities...
  17. Pardi D, Black J. gamma-Hydroxybutyrate/sodium oxybate: neurobiology, and impact on sleep and wakefulness. CNS Drugs. 2006;20:993-1018 pubmed
    ..Endogenously, GHB is synthesised locally within the CNS, mostly from its parent compound GABA. Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of GHB and is used for the exogenous oral administration of GHB...
  18. Donjacour C, Aziz N, Roelfsema F, Frolich M, Overeem S, Lammers G, et al. Effect of sodium oxybate on growth hormone secretion in narcolepsy patients and healthy controls. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E1069-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptoms can be treated effectively with sodium oxybate (SXB; ?-hydroxybutyrate) in many patients...
  19. Andriamampandry C, Taleb O, Kemmel V, Humbert J, Aunis D, Maitre M. Cloning and functional characterization of a gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor identified in the human brain. FASEB J. 2007;21:885-95 pubmed
    ..9 microM for NCS-382. The present data led to the conclusion that both C12K32 and GHBh1 are two closely related isoforms of a human GHB receptor, GHBh1, that is described in the databank as the GPCR 172A...
  20. Staud R. Sodium oxybate for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:1789-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Its sodium salt (sodium oxybate: SXB) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of narcolepsy...
  21. Jacobson L, Bettler B, Kaupmann K, Cryan J. GABAB1 receptor subunit isoforms exert a differential influence on baseline but not GABAB receptor agonist-induced changes in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;319:1317-26 pubmed
    ..Therefore, GABA(B(1a)) and GABA(B(1b)) isoforms are functionally relevant molecular variants of the GABA(B(1)) receptor subunit, which are differentially involved in specific neurophysiological processes and behaviors...
  22. Black J, Houghton W. Sodium oxybate improves excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy. Sleep. 2006;29:939-46 pubmed
    To assess the effectiveness of sodium oxybate therapy, modafinil therapy and the combination of the two for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients previously taking modafinil.
  23. . Further evidence supporting the use of sodium oxybate for the treatment of cataplexy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 228 patients. Sleep Med. 2005;6:415-21 pubmed
    To measure the effect of the nocturnal administration of sodium oxybate on cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.
  24. Wellendorph P, Høg S, Greenwood J, de Lichtenberg A, Nielsen B, Frølund B, et al. Novel cyclic gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) analogs with high affinity and stereoselectivity of binding to GHB sites in rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:346-51 pubmed
    ..Neither of the cycloalkenes showed any affinity (IC50 > 1 mM) for GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. These compounds show excellent potential as lead structures and novel tools for studying specific GHB receptor-mediated pharmacology...
  25. Russell I, Perkins A, Michalek J. Sodium oxybate relieves pain and improves function in fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:299-309 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of sodium oxybate for management of the symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS).
  26. Black J, Pardi D, Hornfeldt C, Inhaber N. The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:596-602 pubmed
    To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in ..
  27. Wallace D, Maze T, Shafazand S. Sodium oxybate-induced sleep driving and sleep-related eating disorder. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011;7:310-1 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sodium oxybate (SO), the sodium salt of ?-hydroxybutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with dose-..
  28. Lyon R, Johnston S, Watson D, McGarvie G, Ellis E. Synthesis and catabolism of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells: role of the aldo-keto reductase AKR7A2. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25986-92 pubmed
    ..Together these findings delineate pathways for GHB metabolism in the brain and will enable a better understanding of the relationship between GHB biosynthesis and catabolism in disease states and in drug overdose...
  29. Murali H, Kotagal S. Off-label treatment of severe childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy with sodium oxybate. Sleep. 2006;29:1025-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of off-label sodium oxybate (gamma hydroxy butyrate) therapy in severe childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy.
  30. Moldofsky H, Inhaber N, Guinta D, Alvarez Horine S. Effects of sodium oxybate on sleep physiology and sleep/wake-related symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:2156-66 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) on sleep physiology and sleep/wake-related symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM).
  31. Walsh J, Hall Porter J, Griffin K, Dodson E, Forst E, Curry D, et al. Enhancing slow wave sleep with sodium oxybate reduces the behavioral and physiological impact of sleep loss. Sleep. 2010;33:1217-25 pubmed
    To investigate whether enhancement of slow wave sleep (SWS) with sodium oxybate reduces the impact of sleep deprivation.
  32. Molnar T, Antal K, Nyitrai G, Emri Z. gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces GABA(B) receptor independent intracellular Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, but has no effect on GHB or GABA(B) receptors of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience. 2009;162:268-81 pubmed publisher
  33. Schweitzer P, Roberto M, Madamba S, Siggins G. gamma-hydroxybutyrate increases a potassium current and decreases the H-current in hippocampal neurons via GABAB receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;311:172-9 pubmed
  34. George C, Feldman N, Inhaber N, Steininger T, Grzeschik S, Lai C, et al. A safety trial of sodium oxybate in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Acute effects on sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2010;11:38-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium oxybate (SXB) is an approved drug for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy in narcolepsy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a condition that frequently co-occurs with narcolepsy...
  35. Zvosec D, Smith S, Hall B. Three deaths associated with use of Xyrem. Sleep Med. 2009;10:490-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report three deaths associated with use of Xyrem (sodium oxybate), a pharmaceutical preparation of GHB initially approved for treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy...
  36. Nava F, Premi S, Manzato E, Campagnola W, Lucchini A, Gessa G. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces both withdrawal syndrome and hypercortisolism in severe abstinent alcoholics: an open study vs. diazepam. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2007;33:379-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that GHB may act as potent anti-withdrawal agent in severe abstinent alcoholics...
  37. Scrima L, Hartman P, Johnson F, Thomas E, Hiller F. The effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on the sleep of narcolepsy patients: a double-blind study. Sleep. 1990;13:479-90 pubmed
  38. Kaupmann K, Cryan J, Wellendorph P, Mombereau C, Sansig G, Klebs K, et al. Specific gamma-hydroxybutyrate-binding sites but loss of pharmacological effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in GABA(B)(1)-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:2722-30 pubmed
    ..It, therefore, appears that all studied GHB effects are GABAB receptor dependent. The molecular nature and the signalling properties of the specific [3H]GHB-binding sites remain elusive...
  39. Brancucci A, Berretta N, Mercuri N, Francesconi W. Presynaptic modulation of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:537-43 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that GHB inhibits spontaneous inhibitory synaptic transmission recorded from dopaminergic neurons in the SNc likely by reducing voltage-dependent calcium influx involved in presynaptic GABA release...
  40. Gibson K, Gupta M, Pearl P, Tuchman M, Vezina L, Snead O, et al. Significant behavioral disturbances in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria). Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:763-8 pubmed
  41. Queva C, Bremner Danielsen M, Edlund A, Ekstrand A, Elg S, Erickson S, et al. Effects of GABA agonists on body temperature regulation in GABA(B(1))-/- mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;140:315-22 pubmed
    ..Using this model, GHB was shown to be a selective GABAB receptor agonist. In addition, GABAB(1)-/- mice are hypersensitive to GABAA receptor stimulation, indicating that GABAB tone normally balances GABAA-mediated effects...
  42. Andriamampandry C, Taleb O, Viry S, Muller C, Humbert J, Gobaille S, et al. Cloning and characterization of a rat brain receptor that binds the endogenous neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). FASEB J. 2003;17:1691-3 pubmed
    ..CGP-55845, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, did not inhibit the GHB-induced response nor did the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382, suggesting that the GHB receptor system includes several subtypes...
  43. Scharf M, Baumann M, Berkowitz D. The effects of sodium oxybate on clinical symptoms and sleep patterns in patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:1070-4 pubmed
    ..b>Sodium oxybate has been shown to increase both slow-wave sleep and growth hormone levels...
  44. Mason P, Kerns W. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9:730-9 pubmed
    ..Emergency physicians should be familiar with the presentation and management of GHB-related emergencies...
  45. Picklo M, Olson S, Hayes J, Markesbery W, Montine T. Elevation of AKR7A2 (succinic semialdehyde reductase) in neurodegenerative disease. Brain Res. 2001;916:229-38 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that reactive gliosis, as a response to injury, may affect GHB neuromodulatory pathways in neurodegenerative disease and elevate aldehyde detoxification pathways...
  46. Jensen K, Mody I. GHB depresses fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission via GABA(B) receptors in mouse neocortical neurons. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11:424-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that GABA(B)-receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of acute GHB intoxication...
  47. Liu Z, Snead O, Vergnes M, Depaulis A, Marescaux C. Intrathalamic injections of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid increase genetic absence seizures in rats. Neurosci Lett. 1991;125:19-21 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GHB receptors in the mediolateral thalamus may be involved in the control of spontaneous SWD in this rat model of petit mal epilepsy...
  48. Ramo D, Grov C, Delucchi K, Kelly B, Parsons J. Typology of club drug use among young adults recruited using time-space sampling. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;107:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings highlight the utility of using person-centered approaches to understand patterns of substance use, as well as highlight several patterns of club drug use among young adults...
  49. Summers S, Glynne P. Acute poisoning on the medical admissions unit. Clin Med (Lond). 2007;7:277-9 pubmed
  50. Thorpy M. Therapeutic advances in narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2007;8:427-40 pubmed
    ..Following the widespread use of antidepressant medications for cataplexy, we now have sodium oxybate, which works by an unknown mechanism but is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication ..
  51. Knudsen K, Jonsson U, Abrahamsson J. Twenty-three deaths with gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdose in western Sweden between 2000 and 2007. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear whether coingestion with other drugs or ethanol causes death in GHB overdoses or whether GHB itself is the main cause of death...
  52. Brunt T, Koeter M, Hertoghs N, van Noorden M, van den Brink W. Sociodemographic and substance use characteristics of ? hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent inpatients and associations with dependence severity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;131:316-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study characterizes inpatients in treatment for GHB dependence in terms of sociodemographics, motives for substance use and reasons for seeking treatment. In addition, variables associated with dependence severity are identified...
  53. Donjacour C, Pardi D, Aziz N, Frolich M, Roelfsema F, Overeem S, et al. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:797-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium oxybate, alter the levels of these hormones.