hydroxybutyrates

Summary

Summary: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.

Top Publications

  1. Li S, Dong C, Wang S, Ye H, Chen G. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant Pseudomonas putida. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:659-69 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhou Q, Shi Z, Meng D, Wu Q, Chen J, Chen G. Production of 3-hydroxypropionate homopolymer and poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer by recombinant Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2011;13:777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Up to 92 wt% P3HP and 42 wt% P3HP4HB were produced by the recombinant Escherichia coli grown on PDO and a mixture of PDO+1,4-butanediol (BD), respectively...
  3. Pfeiffer D, Jendrossek D. Localization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granule-associated proteins during PHB granule formation and identification of two new phasins, PhaP6 and PhaP7, in Ralstonia eutropha H16. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:5909-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A chromosomal deletion of phaP6 or phaP7 had no visible effect on formation of PHB granules...
  4. Bult W, de Leeuw H, Steinebach O, van der Bom M, Wolterbeek H, Heeren R, et al. Radioactive holmium acetylacetonate microspheres for interstitial microbrachytherapy: an in vitro and in vivo stability study. Pharm Res. 2012;29:827-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, an in vitro and an in vivo stability study with HoAcAcMS was conducted...
  5. Trainer M, Capstick D, Zachertowska A, Lam K, Clark S, Charles T. Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:92 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions...
  6. Berg I, Kockelkorn D, Ramos Vera W, Say R, Zarzycki J, Hügler M, et al. Autotrophic carbon fixation in archaea. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These reactions differ fundamentally from those of the well-known Calvin cycle, and their distribution mirrors the phylogenetic positions of the archaeal lineages and the needs of the ecological niches that they occupy...
  7. Cho M, Brigham C, Sinskey A, Stubbe J. Purification of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from its native organism, Ralstonia eutropha: implications for the initiation and elongation of polymer formation in vivo. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..A modified micelle model for granule genesis is proposed to accommodate the reported observations...
  8. Beeby M, Cho M, Stubbe J, Jensen G. Growth and localization of polyhydroxybutyrate granules in Ralstonia eutropha. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1092-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous thin-section electron microscopy (EM), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results to the contrary may reflect both differences in nucleoid condensation and specimen preparation-induced artifacts...
  9. Siedler S, Bringer S, Blank L, Bott M. Engineering yield and rate of reductive biotransformation in Escherichia coli by partial cyclization of the pentose phosphate pathway and PTS-independent glucose transport. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, metabolic engineering strategies are presented for improving yield and rate of reductive redox biocatalysis by partial cyclization of the PPP and by increasing glucose uptake, respectively...
  10. Hu D, Chung A, Wu L, Zhang X, Wu Q, Chen J, et al. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer P3HB-b-P4HB. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:3166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1 demonstrated a better yield and tensile strength compared with that of its related random copolymer and blend of homopolymers of P3HB and P4HB...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Li S, Dong C, Wang S, Ye H, Chen G. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant Pseudomonas putida. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:659-69 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhou Q, Shi Z, Meng D, Wu Q, Chen J, Chen G. Production of 3-hydroxypropionate homopolymer and poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer by recombinant Escherichia coli. Metab Eng. 2011;13:777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Up to 92 wt% P3HP and 42 wt% P3HP4HB were produced by the recombinant Escherichia coli grown on PDO and a mixture of PDO+1,4-butanediol (BD), respectively...
  3. Pfeiffer D, Jendrossek D. Localization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granule-associated proteins during PHB granule formation and identification of two new phasins, PhaP6 and PhaP7, in Ralstonia eutropha H16. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:5909-21 pubmed publisher
    ..A chromosomal deletion of phaP6 or phaP7 had no visible effect on formation of PHB granules...
  4. Bult W, de Leeuw H, Steinebach O, van der Bom M, Wolterbeek H, Heeren R, et al. Radioactive holmium acetylacetonate microspheres for interstitial microbrachytherapy: an in vitro and in vivo stability study. Pharm Res. 2012;29:827-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, an in vitro and an in vivo stability study with HoAcAcMS was conducted...
  5. Trainer M, Capstick D, Zachertowska A, Lam K, Clark S, Charles T. Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:92 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced survival capacity of free-living cells unable to access their accumulated stores of PHB suggests that PHB is a crucial metabolite under adverse conditions...
  6. Berg I, Kockelkorn D, Ramos Vera W, Say R, Zarzycki J, Hügler M, et al. Autotrophic carbon fixation in archaea. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These reactions differ fundamentally from those of the well-known Calvin cycle, and their distribution mirrors the phylogenetic positions of the archaeal lineages and the needs of the ecological niches that they occupy...
  7. Cho M, Brigham C, Sinskey A, Stubbe J. Purification of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from its native organism, Ralstonia eutropha: implications for the initiation and elongation of polymer formation in vivo. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..A modified micelle model for granule genesis is proposed to accommodate the reported observations...
  8. Beeby M, Cho M, Stubbe J, Jensen G. Growth and localization of polyhydroxybutyrate granules in Ralstonia eutropha. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1092-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous thin-section electron microscopy (EM), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results to the contrary may reflect both differences in nucleoid condensation and specimen preparation-induced artifacts...
  9. Siedler S, Bringer S, Blank L, Bott M. Engineering yield and rate of reductive biotransformation in Escherichia coli by partial cyclization of the pentose phosphate pathway and PTS-independent glucose transport. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, metabolic engineering strategies are presented for improving yield and rate of reductive redox biocatalysis by partial cyclization of the PPP and by increasing glucose uptake, respectively...
  10. Hu D, Chung A, Wu L, Zhang X, Wu Q, Chen J, et al. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer P3HB-b-P4HB. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:3166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1 demonstrated a better yield and tensile strength compared with that of its related random copolymer and blend of homopolymers of P3HB and P4HB...
  11. Asran A, Razghandi K, Aggarwal N, Michler G, Groth T. Nanofibers from blends of polyvinyl alcohol and polyhydroxy butyrate as potential scaffold material for tissue engineering of skin. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the addition of 5 wt % PVA to PHB inhibited growth of HaCaT cells but not of fibroblasts. On the contrary, adhesion and proliferation of HaCaT cells were promoted on PVA/PHB (50/50) fibers, which inhibited growth of fibroblasts...
  12. Kadowaki M, Müller Santos M, Rego F, Souza E, Yates M, Monteiro R, et al. Identification and characterization of PhbF: a DNA binding protein with regulatory role in the PHB metabolism of Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:230 pubmed publisher
    ..It produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) which is stored intracellularly as granules. However, PHB metabolism and regulatory control is not yet well studied in this organism...
  13. Tripathi L, Wu L, Chen J, Chen G. Synthesis of Diblock copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate -block-poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate [PHB-b-PHHx] by a ?-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida KT2442. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:44 pubmed publisher
  14. Pfeiffer D, Jendrossek D. Interaction between poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) granule-associated proteins as revealed by two-hybrid analysis and identification of a new phasin in Ralstonia eutropha H16. Microbiology. 2011;157:2795-807 pubmed publisher
    ..PhaP5 was not essential for PHB granule formation, but overexpression of PhaP5 increased the number of cells with PHB granules at the cell poles...
  15. Pfeiffer D, Wahl A, Jendrossek D. Identification of a multifunctional protein, PhaM, that determines number, surface to volume ratio, subcellular localization and distribution to daughter cells of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:936-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, subcellular localization of PHB granules in R.?eutropha depends on a concerted expression of at least three PHB granule-associated proteins, namely PhaM, PhaP5 and PHB synthase PhaC1...
  16. Li G, Li P, Qiu H, Li D, Su M, Xu K. Synthesis, characterizations and biocompatibility of alternating block polyurethanes based on P3/4HB and PPG-PEG-PPG. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011;98:88-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that these polyurethanes would be promising candidates as hemocompatibility and tissue-inert materials...
  17. Brigham C, Budde C, Holder J, Zeng Q, Mahan A, Rha C, et al. Elucidation of beta-oxidation pathways in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by examination of global gene expression. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Many findings of this analysis confirm results from previous studies by our group and others. This work represents the first examination of global gene expression involving triacylglycerol and fatty acid catabolism genes in R. eutropha...
  18. Gall W, Beebe K, Lawton K, Adam K, Mitchell M, Nakhle P, et al. alpha-hydroxybutyrate is an early biomarker of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a nondiabetic population. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10883 pubmed publisher
    ..Current diagnostic tests, such as glycemic indicators, have limitations in the early detection of insulin resistant individuals. We searched for novel biomarkers identifying these at-risk subjects...
  19. Smithen M, Elustondo P, Winkfein R, Zakharian E, Abramov A, Pavlov E. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake. Cell Calcium. 2013;54:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system...
  20. Bohmert Tatarev K, McAvoy S, Daughtry S, Peoples O, Snell K. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1690-708 pubmed publisher
    ..These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated...
  21. Elustondo P, Zakharian E, Pavlov E. Identification of the polyhydroxybutyrate granules in mammalian cultured cells. Chem Biodivers. 2012;9:2597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, in mammalian cells, PHB can accumulate in the cytoplasm in granules similar to 'energy storage' carbonosomes found in PHB-accumulating bacteria...
  22. Taran M, Amirkhani H. Strategies of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis by Haloarcula sp. IRU1 utilizing glucose as carbon source: Optimization of culture conditions by Taguchi methodology. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:632-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2g/l NH(4)Cl, 0.004 g/l KH(2)PO(4) and temperature (42°C). In overall, the results of this study showed that Haloarcula sp. IRU1 has a high potential for synthesis of PHB from glucose...
  23. Lord R, Bralley J. Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part I: Detoxification markers. Altern Med Rev. 2008;13:205-15 pubmed
    ..Patterns of these compounds measured in a simple overnight urine specimen help to identify focal areas of clinical concern and monitor patient responses to detoxification interventions...
  24. Jendrossek D. Polyhydroxyalkanoate granules are complex subcellular organelles (carbonosomes). J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3195-202 pubmed publisher
  25. Chien C, Chen C, Choi M, Kung S, Wei Y. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Vibrio spp. isolated from marine environment. J Biotechnol. 2007;132:259-63 pubmed
    ..V. natriegens has the shortest generation time (9.8 min) of any bacterium and this characteristic may be an exploitable trait for the industrial production of PHB...
  26. Trainer M, Charles T. The role of PHB metabolism in the symbiosis of rhizobia with legumes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;71:377-86 pubmed
    ..This includes the elucidation of the PHB cycle, variations in PHB metabolism among rhizobial species, and the implications of these variations, while proposing a model for the role of PHB metabolism and storage in symbiosis...
  27. Kobayashi T, Uchino K, Abe T, Yamazaki Y, Saito T. Novel intracellular 3-hydroxybutyrate-oligomer hydrolase in Wautersia eutropha H16. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5129-35 pubmed
    ..PhaZc differs from the hydrolases of W. eutropha previously reported and is a novel type of intracellular 3-hydroxybutyrate-oligomer hydrolase, and it participates in the mobilization of PHB along with other hydrolases...
  28. Thirumala M, Reddy S, Mahmood S. Production and characterization of PHB from two novel strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from soil and activated sludge. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;37:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The viscosity average molecular mass (M (v)) of the polymers from Bacillus sp. 87I was 513 kDa and from Bacillus sp. 112A was 521 kDa. All the properties of the biopolymers produced by the two strains 87I and 112A were characterized...
  29. Ye C, Hu P, Ma M, Xiang Y, Liu R, Shang X. PHB/PHBHHx scaffolds and human adipose-derived stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2009;30:4401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Collagen type II was detected by Western blot at 12 and 24 weeks of implantation. In the control group, no cartilage formation was observed. This study demonstrated that PHB/PHBHHx is a suitable material for cartilage tissue engineering...
  30. Caputo F, Francini S, Stoppo M, Lorenzini F, Vignoli T, del RE A, et al. Incidence of craving for and abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in different populations of treated alcoholics: an open comparative study. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:883-90 pubmed publisher
  31. Bhattacharya I, Boje K. Potential gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) drug interactions through blood-brain barrier transport inhibition: a pharmacokinetic simulation-based evaluation. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006;33:657-81 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 6.51 min; n = 4) in the control group (1.58 mmol/kg GHB plus saline) were significantly (p < 0.05) abrogated by salicylic acid (1.25 mmol/kg) coadministration...
  32. Kadouri D, Jurkevitch E, Okon Y. Poly beta-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase (PhaZ) in Azospirillum brasilense and characterization of a phaZ mutant. Arch Microbiol. 2003;180:309-18 pubmed
    ..In addition, motility was the same between the two strains, whereas cell aggregation and exopolysaccharide production were higher in the wild-type than in the phaZ mutant strain...
  33. Law J, Slepecky R. Assay of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid. J Bacteriol. 1961;82:33-6 pubmed
    ..This method has been used to follow the production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by Bacillus megaterium strain KM...
  34. Pötter M, Muller H, Reinecke F, Wieczorek R, Fricke F, Bowien B, et al. The complex structure of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules: four orthologous and paralogous phasins occur in Ralstonia eutropha. Microbiology. 2004;150:2301-11 pubmed
    ..These new and unexpected findings should affect our current models of PHA-granule structure and may also have a considerable impact on the establishment of heterologous production systems for PHAs...
  35. Jendrossek D. Fluorescence microscopical investigation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) granule formation in bacteria. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:598-603 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence obtained from living cells that PHB synthesis initiates not randomly but at discrete regions in bacteria...
  36. Caputo F, Vignoli T, Lorenzini F, Ciuffoli E, Del Re A, Stefanini G, et al. Suppression of craving for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid by naltrexone administration: three case reports. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2005;28:87-9 pubmed
    ..A combined therapy with GHB and NTX seems to be able to suppress craving for the former, thus improving the manageability and safety of treatment...
  37. Townsend K, Busse K, Kressler J, Scholz C. Contact angle, WAXS, and SAXS analysis of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers obtained via Azotobacter vinelandii UWD. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21:959-64 pubmed
    ..The significant decrease of the contact angle and corresponding increase in surface tension, as well as significant decrease in cell adhesion, suggest the presence of hydrophilic PEG and DEG within the hydrophobic surface...
  38. Suwantong O, Waleetorncheepsawat S, Sanchavanakit N, Pavasant P, Cheepsunthorn P, Bunaprasert T, et al. In vitro biocompatibility of electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) fiber mats. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007;40:217-23 pubmed
    ..Scanning electron microscopy was also used to observe the behavior of both types of cells that were cultured on both the fibrous and the film scaffolds and glass substrate for 24 h...
  39. Kourtz L, Dillon K, Daughtry S, Peoples O, Snell K. Chemically inducible expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. Transgenic Res. 2007;16:759-69 pubmed
    ..This study represents a first step towards engineering a chemically inducible gene switch for PHB production in plants using inducing agents that are approved for field use...
  40. Tokiwa Y, Ugwu C. Biotechnological production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid monomer. J Biotechnol. 2007;132:264-72 pubmed
    ..This review discusses each of these options to assess the alternatives that exist for production of pure biodegradable PHB and its copolyesters with good properties...
  41. Snead O, Gibson K. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2721-32 pubmed
  42. Reusch R, Bryant E, Henry D. Increased poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Acta Diabetol. 2003;40:91-4 pubmed
    ..9-fold). These data indicate a significant increase in polyhydroxybutyrate levels in organs affected by complications of diabetes, and further suggest that plasma polyhydroxybutyrate levels may serve as a marker for the disease...
  43. Neumann L, Spinozzi F, Sinibaldi R, Rustichelli F, Pötter M, Steinbüchel A. Binding of the major phasin, PhaP1, from Ralstonia eutropha H16 to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) granules. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides new insights into the structure of the PHB granule surface, and the results should also have an impact on potential biotechnological applications of phasin fusion proteins and PHB granules in nanobiotechnology...
  44. Palmer G, Burger D, Mezin F, Magne D, Gabay C, Dayer J, et al. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726, increases the production of IL-1 receptor antagonist in human synovial fibroblasts and articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2004;6:R181-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of A77 1726 may be partially mediated by inhibition of COX-2, but other mechanisms likely concur to stimulate IL-1Ra production...
  45. Yezza A, Halasz A, Levadoux W, Hawari J. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes latus from maple sap. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;77:269-74 pubmed
    ..87 in chloroform. The melting point (177.0 degrees C) and enthalpy of fusion (77.2 J/g) of the polymer were also in line with those reported, i.e., 177 degrees C and 81 J/g, respectively...
  46. Han J, Lu Q, Zhou L, Zhou J, Xiang H. Molecular characterization of the phaECHm genes, required for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6058-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that the phaEC genes are required for biosynthesis of PHB and might encode an active PHA synthase in the Haloarcula species...
  47. Solaiman D, Ashby R, Foglia T, Marmer W. Conversion of agricultural feedstock and coproducts into poly(hydroxyalkanoates). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;71:783-9 pubmed
  48. Pederson E, McChalicher C, Srienc F. Bacterial synthesis of PHA block copolymers. Biomacromolecules. 2006;7:1904-11 pubmed
  49. Somleva M, Snell K, Beaulieu J, Peoples O, Garrison B, Patterson N. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in switchgrass, a value-added co-product in an important lignocellulosic biomass crop. Plant Biotechnol J. 2008;6:663-78 pubmed publisher
  50. Zakharian E, Reusch R. Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein P5 is associated with inorganic polyphosphate and polyhydroxybutyrate. Biophys J. 2007;92:588-93 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that NTHi P5 associates with polyP and poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate to create large, cation-selective pores in the outer membrane of H. influenzae...
  51. Wang Q, Morris M. The role of monocarboxylate transporter 2 and 4 in the transport of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in mammalian cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:1393-9 pubmed
    ..This investigation demonstrated that GHB is a substrate for both MCT2 and MCT4; these transporters may be important in the nonlinear disposition of GHB, as well as influencing its tissue distribution...
  52. Li X, Loh X, Wang K, He C, Li J. Poly(ester urethane)s consisting of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(ethylene glycol) as candidate biomaterials: characterization and mechanical property study. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:2740-7 pubmed
    ..Young's modulus and the stress at break increased with increasing PHB segment length or PEG segment length, whereas the strain at break increased with increasing PEG segment length or decreasing PHB segment length...
  53. Zhu C, Nomura C, Perrotta J, Stipanovic A, Nakas J. Production and characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from biodiesel-glycerol by Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17759. Biotechnol Prog. 2010;26:424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The fermentation was successfully scaled up to 200 L for PHB production and the yield of dry biomass and PHB were 23.6 g/L and 7.4 g/L, respectively...
  54. Li Z, Cai L, Wu Q, Chen G. Overexpression of NAD kinase in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the phbCAB operon improves poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;83:939-47 pubmed publisher
    ..15 g PHB/g glucose for the NAD kinase-overexpressing strain, a 76% increase for the Y (PHB/glucose). These results clearly showed that the overexpression of NAD kinase could be used to enhance the PHB synthesis...
  55. Koller M, Bona R, Braunegg G, Hermann C, Horvat P, Kroutil M, et al. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from agricultural waste and surplus materials. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:561-5 pubmed
    ..2 g/L (glycerol liquid phase). In an additional fermentation, an expensive nitrogen source was substituted by meat and bone meal beside the glycerol liquid phase as a carbon source, resulting in a final PHA concentration of 5.9 g/L...
  56. Pötter M, Steinbüchel A. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) granule-associated proteins: impacts on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis and degradation. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:552-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, putative applications of PHA granules and PHA granule-associated proteins in nanotechnology are discussed...
  57. Zheng Z, Bei F, Tian H, Chen G. Effects of crystallization of polyhydroxyalkanoate blend on surface physicochemical properties and interactions with rabbit articular cartilage chondrocytes. Biomaterials. 2005;26:3537-48 pubmed
    ..It indicated that endochondral ossification of chondrocytes was remarkably influenced by the crystallinity of the polyesters...
  58. Pohlmann A, Fricke W, Reinecke F, Kusian B, Liesegang H, Cramm R, et al. Genome sequence of the bioplastic-producing "Knallgas" bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16. Nat Biotechnol. 2006;24:1257-62 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the genome sequence offers the genetic basis for exploiting the biotechnological potential of this organism and provides insights into its remarkable metabolic versatility...
  59. Kuchta K, Chi L, Fuchs H, Pötter M, Steinbüchel A. Studies on the influence of phasins on accumulation and degradation of PHB and nanostructure of PHB granules in ralstonia eutropha H16. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:657-62 pubmed
    ..The AFM images obtained in this study showed that the PHB granules of R. eutropha H16 form a single interconnected system inside the wild-type cells...
  60. Ibrahim M, Steinbüchel A. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from glycerol by Zobellella denitrificans MW1 via high-cell-density fed-batch fermentation and simplified solvent extraction. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximum PHB recovery (85.0% +/- 0.10% [wt/wt]) was reached after 72 h of extraction with chloroform at 30 degrees C, with a polymer purity of 98.3% +/- 1.3%...
  61. Chou M, Yang M. Analyses of binding sequences of the PhaR protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides FJ1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;302:138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PhaR regulates the expression of phaP in R. sphaeroides FJ1...
  62. Wong C, Gibson K, Snead O. From the street to the brain: neurobiology of the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:29-34 pubmed