butyric acid

Summary

Summary: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.

Top Publications

  1. Molina S, Moran Valero M, Martin D, Vazquez L, Vargas T, Torres C, et al. Antiproliferative effect of alkylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid on colon cancer cells. Chem Phys Lipids. 2013;175-176:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of each individual product from digestion (1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol; 1-O-octadecyl glycerol; butyric acid) was also performed. The impact of solubilization of lipid products within micellar structures was also tested...
  2. Kim S, Hooker J, Otto N, Win K, Muench L, Shea C, et al. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET. Nucl Med Biol. 2013;40:912-8 pubmed publisher
    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer...
  3. Richert L, Tuschl G, Viollon Abadie C, Blanchard N, Bonet A, Heyd B, et al. Species differences in the response of liver drug-metabolizing enzymes to (S)-4-O-tolylsulfanyl-2-(4-trifluormethyl-phenoxy)-butyric acid (EMD 392949) in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:702-14 pubmed publisher
    ..proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma agonist (S)-4-O-tolylsulfanyl-2-(4-trifluormethyl-phenoxy)-butyric acid (EMD 392949, EMD) with regard to the induction of gene expression and activities of DMEs, their regulators, and ..
  4. Nudelman A, Levovich I, Cutts S, Phillips D, Rephaeli A. The role of intracellularly released formaldehyde and butyric acid in the anticancer activity of acyloxyalkyl esters. J Med Chem. 2005;48:1042-54 pubmed
    ..Among the released acids, butyric acid elicited the greatest antiproliferative activity, but the nature of the acid had minor impact on proliferation...
  5. Abe K. Butyric acid induces apoptosis in both human monocytes and lymphocytes equivalently. J Oral Sci. 2012;54:7-14 pubmed
    ..Gas-liquid chromatography detected butyric acid in P. gingivalis (21.0-34.0 mM) and F. nucleatum (36...
  6. Lambo Fodje A, Oste R, Nyman M. Short-chain fatty acid formation in the hindgut of rats fed native and fermented oat fibre concentrates. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:47-55 pubmed
    ..05), while rats fed Pd-fermented fibre concentrate resulted in lower concentration of butyric acid (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in all parts of the hindgut as compared with rats fed the native fibre concentrates...
  7. Kurita Ochiai T, Hashizume T, Yonezawa H, Ochiai K, Yamamoto M. Characterization of the effects of butyric acid on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;47:67-74 pubmed
    ..We examined concentration-dependent changes in cell cycle distribution and cell cycle-related proteins induced by butyric acid. Butyric acid enhanced or suppressed the proliferation of Jurkat human T lymphocytes depending on concentration...
  8. Jang Y, Woo H, Im J, Kim I, Lee S. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:9355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C...
  9. Gross J, Stute K, Fuchs J, Angerstein M, Amarjargal N, Mazurek B. Effects of retinoic acid and butyric acid on the expression of prestin and Gata-3 in organotypic cultures of the organ of corti of newborn rats. Dev Neurobiol. 2011;71:650-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the effects of the application of retinoic acid, a ligand of a nuclear receptor, and of butyric acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase activity, on the expression of mRNA of prestin and Gata-3 in the ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Huang J, Cai J, Wang J, Zhu X, Huang L, Yang S, et al. Efficient production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:3923-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Butyric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide industrial applications. The feasible large-scale fermentation for the economical production of butyric acid requires low-cost substrate and efficient process...
  2. Lionetti V, Cantoni S, Cavallini C, Bianchi F, Valente S, Frascari I, et al. Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acid affording myocardial survival and repair without stem cell transplantation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9949-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, efficient cardiac regenerative therapy can be afforded by HBR without the need of stem cell transplantation or vector-mediated gene delivery...
  3. Endres T, Fendt M. Aversion- vs fear-inducing properties of 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline, a component of fox odor, in comparison with those of butyric acid. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:2324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to directly compare the aversive and fear-inducing properties of TMT with those of the aversive control odor butyric acid. We first identified concentrations of butyric acid and TMT that induce similar amounts of avoidance behavior ..
  4. Zhang C, Ma Y, Yang F, Liu W, Zhang Y. Optimization of medium composition for butyric acid production by Clostridium thermobutyricum using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:4284-8 pubmed publisher
    The optimal medium for butyric acid production by Clostridium thermobutyricum in a shake flask culture was studied using statistical experimental design and analysis...
  5. Kalousek I, Brodska B, Otevrelova P, Roselova P. BimEL-dependent apoptosis induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes with n-butyric acid is moderated by variation in expression of c-myc and p21(WAF1). Cell Biochem Funct. 2008;26:509-21 pubmed publisher
  6. Saegusa S, Totsuka M, Kaminogawa S, Hosoi T. Cytokine responses of intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells to non-pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic yeasts in the presence of butyric acid. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:2428-34 pubmed
    ..interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) production by intestinal epithelial cell-like Caco-2 cells pre-cultured with 10 mM butyric acid. We examined in this study whether these yeasts also altered the production of other cytokines and ..
  7. Ventura C, Cantoni S, Bianchi F, Lionetti V, Cavallini C, Scarlata I, et al. Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic Acid drive cardiac and endothelial fate in term placenta human mesenchymal stem cells and enhance cardiac repair in infarcted rat hearts. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14243-52 pubmed
    ..These findings may contribute to further development in cell therapy of heart failure...
  8. He G, Kong Q, Chen Q, Ruan H. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by clostridium butyricum ZJUCB. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2005;6:1076-80 pubmed
    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated...
  9. Timbermont L, Lanckriet A, Dewulf J, Nollet N, Schwarzer K, Haesebrouck F, et al. Control of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broilers by target-released butyric acid, fatty acids and essential oils. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:117-21 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy of target-released butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids (C(6) to C(12) but mainly lauric acid) and essential oils (thymol, cinnamaldehyde, essential oil of eucalyptus) micro-encapsulated in a poly-sugar matrix to control ..
  10. Van Immerseel F, De Buck J, De Smet I, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R. Interactions of butyric acid- and acetic acid-treated Salmonella with chicken primary cecal epithelial cells in vitro. Avian Dis. 2004;48:384-91 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment of the Salmonella bacteria with butyric acid resulted in a significant decrease of invasion of the bacteria in the chicken cecal epithelial cells, whereas ..
  11. Teeguarden J, Deisinger P, Poet T, English J, Faber W, Barton H, et al. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid. Toxicol Sci. 2005;85:429-46 pubmed
    ..The metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series), was first demonstrated using a provisional physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) ..
  12. Kiela P, Kuscuoglu N, Midura A, Midura Kiela M, Larmonier C, Lipko M, et al. Molecular mechanism of rat NHE3 gene promoter regulation by sodium butyrate. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C64-74 pubmed
  13. Baba S, Tashiro Y, Shinto H, Sonomoto K. Development of high-speed and highly efficient butanol production systems from butyric acid with high density of living cells of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. J Biotechnol. 2012;157:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..40 g l?¹) and productivity (7.99 g l?¹ h?¹) for approximately 100 h with maintenance of considerably high yield of butanol (0.686 C-mol/C-mol). Thus, we established a high-speed and highly efficient butanol production system...
  14. Heidor R, Ortega J, de Conti A, Ong T, Moreno F. Anticarcinogenic actions of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug. Curr Drug Targets. 2012;13:1720-9 pubmed
    Bioactive food compounds (BFCs) exhibit potential anticarcinogenic effects that deserve to be explored. Butyric acid (BA) is considered a promising BFC and has been used in clinical trials; however, its short half-life considerably ..
  15. Comalada M, Bailon E, de Haro O, Lara Villoslada F, Xaus J, Zarzuelo A, et al. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on colon epithelial proliferation and survival depend on the cellular phenotype. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2006;132:487-97 pubmed
    ..Since there are controversial in vitro studies, we have explored the effects of SCFA on different biological processes...
  16. Liu X, Zhu Y, Yang S. Construction and characterization of ack deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid and hydrogen production. Biotechnol Prog. 2006;22:1265-75 pubmed
    ..To improve butyric acid and hydrogen production, integrational mutagenesis was used to create a metabolically engineered mutant with ..
  17. Sung Y, Lee G. Enhanced human thrombopoietin production by sodium butyrate addition to serum-free suspension culture of bcl-2-overexpressing CHO cells. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21:50-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data obtained suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression in rCHO cells and NaBu addition in serum-free suspension culture can be an effective means to enhance the production of highly glycosylated protein such as hTPO...
  18. Cavallari G, Olivi E, Bianchi F, Neri F, Foroni L, Valente S, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells and islet cotransplantation in diabetic rats: improved islet graft revascularization and function by human adipose tissue-derived stem cells preconditioned with natural molecules. Cell Transplant. 2012;21:2771-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed increase in islet graft revascularization and function suggests that our method of stem cell preconditioning may represent a novel strategy to remarkably improve the efficacy of islets-hMSCs cotransplantation...
  19. Komata T, Kanzawa T, Nashimoto T, Aoki H, Endo S, Kon T, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors, N-butyric acid and trichostatin A, induce caspase-8- but not caspase-9-dependent apoptosis in human malignant glioma cells. Int J Oncol. 2005;26:1345-52 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the function of anti-proliferative effects of HDAC inhibitors, N-butyric acid and trichostatin A, on human malignant glioma cell lines, U251-MG and D54...
  20. Imai K, Yamada K, Tamura M, Ochiai K, Okamoto T. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by a wide variety of butyric acid-producing bacteria. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:2583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid inhibits catalytic action of HDAC and induces transcription of silenced genes including HIV-1 provirus...
  21. Jiang L, Wang J, Liang S, Wang X, Cen P, Xu Z. Production of butyric acid from glucose and xylose with immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:350-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries...
  22. Mitchell R, Kim J, Jeon B, Sang B. Continuous hydrogen and butyric acid fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755: effects of the glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:5352-5 pubmed publisher
    ..7 g/L when the HRT was 16.7 h. This study found the best conditions for the continuous production of hydrogen and butyric acid by C. tyrobutyricum to be with an HRT of 12 h and a glucose concentration of 50 g/L, respectively.
  23. Sakamoto M, Takagaki A, Matsumoto K, Kato Y, Goto K, Benno Y. Butyricimonas synergistica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Butyricimonas virosa sp. nov., butyric acid-producing bacteria in the family 'Porphyromonadaceae' isolated from rat faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:1748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..nov., sp. nov. and Butyricimonas virosa sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains of B. synergistica and B. virosa are MT01(T) (=JCM 15148(T) =CCUG 56610(T)) and MT12(T) (=JCM 15149(T)=CCUG 56611(T)), respectively...
  24. Kurita Ochiai T, Ochiai K. Butyric acid induces apoptosis via oxidative stress in Jurkat T-cells. J Dent Res. 2010;89:689-94 pubmed publisher
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for the induction of T-cell apoptosis by butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria...
  25. Saegusa S, Totsuka M, Kaminogawa S, Hosoi T. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae induce interleukin-8 production from intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells in the presence of butyric acid. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004;41:227-35 pubmed
    ..Live cells of both yeast species stimulated Caco-2 cells to produce IL-8 only in the presence of butyric acid, which is a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. S...
  26. Hedemann M, Theil P, Bach Knudsen K. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a diet providing a large pool of SCFA with a low proportion of butyrate in the colon stimulates the formation of a thick mucous layer, which probably benefits intestinal health...
  27. Abramson C, Giray T, Mixson T, Nolf S, Wells H, Kence A, et al. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. J Insect Sci. 2010;10:122 pubmed publisher
    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)...
  28. Zhu Y, Liu X, Yang S. Construction and characterization of pta gene-deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid fermentation. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;90:154-66 pubmed
    ..tyrobutyricum in order to improve butyric acid production from glucose.
  29. Mishiro T, Kusunoki R, Otani A, Ansary M, Tongu M, Harashima N, et al. Butyric acid attenuates intestinal inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis model via milk fat globule-EGF factor 8. Lab Invest. 2013;93:834-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid and one of the main metabolites of intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been shown to have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, while it also ..
  30. Guilloteau P, Martin L, Eeckhaut V, Ducatelle R, Zabielski R, Van Immerseel F. From the gut to the peripheral tissues: the multiple effects of butyrate. Nutr Res Rev. 2010;23:366-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Such effects could be considered for new applications in human nutrition...
  31. Jiang L, Wang J, Liang S, Cai J, Xu Z, Cen P, et al. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and bioproduction by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was successfully employed to produce butyric acid at a high final concentration as well as to adapt a butyric-acid-tolerant strain...
  32. Maioli M, Santaniello S, Montella A, Bandiera P, Cantoni S, Cavallini C, et al. Hyaluronan esters drive Smad gene expression and signaling enhancing cardiogenesis in mouse embryonic and human mesenchymal stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15151 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently developed hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acids (HBR), turning cardiovascular stem cell fate into a high-yield process. The HBR mechanism(s) remain still largely undefined...
  33. Yoshida T, Sekine T, Aisaki K, Mikami T, Kanno J, Okayasu I. CITED2 is activated in ulcerative colitis and induces p53-dependent apoptosis in response to butyric acid. J Gastroenterol. 2011;46:339-49 pubmed publisher
    In ulcerative colitis (UC), Fusobacterium varium is significantly detected in patients' mucosa, and butyric acid (BA), abundantly produced by the bacterium, activates the p53 system and induces epithelial apoptosis, as we previously ..
  34. Entin Meer M, Rephaeli A, Yang X, Nudelman A, VandenBerg S, Haas Kogan D. Butyric acid prodrugs are histone deacetylase inhibitors that show antineoplastic activity and radiosensitizing capacity in the treatment of malignant gliomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005;4:1952-61 pubmed
    ..Treatment of glioma cell lines with two butyric acid derivatives, pivaloylomethyl butyrate (AN-9) and butyroyloxymethyl butyrate (AN-1), induced hyperacetylation, ..
  35. Morris J, Hubbs A. Inhalation dosimetry of diacetyl and butyric acid, two components of butter flavoring vapors. Toxicol Sci. 2009;108:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of the current study was to characterize inhalation dosimetric patterns of diacetyl and butyric acid, two components of BFV, and to develop a hybrid computational fluid dynamic-physiologically based ..
  36. Rephaeli A, Waks Yona S, Nudelman A, Tarasenko I, Tarasenko N, Phillips D, et al. Anticancer prodrugs of butyric acid and formaldehyde protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:1667-74 pubmed
    ..shown to play a dominant role in promoting synergy between doxorubicin (Dox) and formaldehyde-releasing butyric acid (BA) prodrugs in killing cancer cells...
  37. Wietzke M, Bahl H. The redox-sensing protein Rex, a transcriptional regulator of solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;96:749-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here clearly indicated that Rex is involved in the redox-dependent solventogenic shift of C. acetobutylicum...
  38. Van Immerseel F, Boyen F, Gantois I, Timbermont L, Bohez L, Pasmans F, et al. Supplementation of coated butyric acid in the feed reduces colonization and shedding of Salmonella in poultry. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1851-6 pubmed
    ..Data on the use of butyric acid in poultry are lacking...
  39. Lehmann D, Radomski N, Lütke Eversloh T. New insights into the butyric acid metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;96:1325-39 pubmed publisher
    ..acetobutylicum, supposably mediated by acetoacetyl-CoA:acyl-CoA transferase and acetoacetate decarboxylase, as well as reverse reactions of butyrate kinase and Ptb with respect to previous studies...
  40. Dwidar M, Park J, Mitchell R, Sang B. The future of butyric acid in industry. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:471417 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry...
  41. Rudnick D, Dietzen D, Turmelle Y, Shepherd R, Zhang S, Belle S, et al. Serum alpha-NH-butyric acid may predict spontaneous survival in pediatric acute liver failure. Pediatr Transplant. 2009;13:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis identified alpha-NH(2)-adipic acid and alpha-NH(2)-butyric acid as significantly increased in liver and plasma samples from mice subjected to partial hepatectomy compared to ..
  42. Zhang C, Yang H, YANG F, Ma Y. Current progress on butyric acid production by fermentation. Curr Microbiol. 2009;59:656-63 pubmed publisher
    Several issues of butyric acid production with bacteria through fermentation are presented in this review...
  43. Tsueng G, McArthur K, Potts B, Lam K. Unique butyric acid incorporation patterns for salinosporamides A and B reveal distinct biosynthetic origins. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;75:999-1005 pubmed
    ..The above finding is the first direct evidence to demonstrate that the biosynthesis of NPI-0047 is different from NPI-0052, and NPI-0047 is not a precursor of NPI-0052...
  44. Vissers M, Driehuis F, te Giffel M, de Jong P, Lankveld J. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:850-8 pubmed
    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses...
  45. Kien C, Schmitz Brown M, Solley T, Sun D, Frankel W. Increased colonic luminal synthesis of butyric acid is associated with lowered colonic cell proliferation in piglets. J Nutr. 2006;136:64-9 pubmed
    ..026) and was higher in L + I than in L (P = 0.013) or I (P = 0.046). The increased supply of butyrate to the cecum was associated with decreased cell proliferation, but cecal butyrate concentration did not reflect synthesis...
  46. Leeson S, Namkung H, Antongiovanni M, Lee E. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1418-22 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies...
  47. Gorman C, Howard B, Reeves R. Expression of recombinant plasmids in mammalian cells is enhanced by sodium butyrate. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983;11:7631-48 pubmed
    ..Finally, expression of integrated recombinant plasmid genes is reinducible by a second treatment five weeks after initial exposure to this agent...
  48. Ventura C, Maioli M, Asara Y, Santoni D, Scarlata I, Cantoni S, et al. Butyric and retinoic mixed ester of hyaluronan. A novel differentiating glycoconjugate affording a high throughput of cardiogenesis in embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23574-9 pubmed
  49. Wu Z, Yang S. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;82:93-102 pubmed
    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant ..
  50. Nudelman A, Gnizi E, Katz Y, Azulai R, Cohen Ohana M, Zhuk R, et al. Prodrugs of butyric acid. Novel derivatives possessing increased aqueous solubility and potential for treating cancer and blood diseases. Eur J Med Chem. 2001;36:63-74 pubmed
    The synthesis and biological activities of acidic, basic and neutral types of butyric acid (BA) prodrugs possessing increased aqueous solubility are described...
  51. Chenais B. Requirement of GATA-1 and p45 NF-E2 expression in butyric acid-induced erythroid differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;253:883-6 pubmed
    b>Butyric acid (BA) is known to induce overexpression of fetal hemoglobin and then erythroid differentiation. Therefore, BA is currently under clinical investigation as a potential therapy for the treatment of sickle cell disease and cancer...
  52. Kurita Ochiai T, Fukushima K, Ochiai K. Lipopolysaccharide stimulates butyric acid-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infect Immun. 1999;67:22-9 pubmed
    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells...
  53. Zhu Y, Yang S. Adaptation of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced tolerance to butyric acid in a fibrous-bed bioreactor. Biotechnol Prog. 2003;19:365-72 pubmed
    ..Also, the mutant's ATPase was less sensitive to inhibition by butyric acid, as indicated by a 4-fold increase in the inhibition rate constant, and was more resistant to the enzyme ..