volatile fatty acids


Summary: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.

Top Publications

  1. Grigoryan A, Cornish S, Buziak B, Lin S, Cavallaro A, Arensdorf J, et al. Competitive oxidation of volatile fatty acids by sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria from an oil field in Argentina. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4324-35 pubmed publisher
    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in ..
  2. Lins P, Malin C, Wagner A, Illmer P. Reduction of accumulated volatile fatty acids by an acetate-degrading enrichment culture. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010;71:469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..with the diluted fermenter sludge of a biogas plant, and process parameters including the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and gases in the headspace were measured...
  3. Thanh N, Loh T, Foo H, Hair Bejo M, Azhar B. Effects of feeding metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, faecal microbial population, small intestine villus height and faecal volatile fatty acids in broilers. Br Poult Sci. 2009;50:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..4. The addition of a metabolite combination supplementation also increased faecal lactic acid bacteria population, small intestine villus height and faecal volatile fatty acids and faecal Enterobacteriaceae population.
  4. Lomborg C, Holm Nielsen J, Oleskowicz Popiel P, Esbensen K. Near infrared and acoustic chemometrics monitoring of volatile fatty acids and dry matter during co-digestion of manure and maize silage. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:1711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both process analytical modalities were validated with respect to the total solids prediction. The near infrared model had an RPD equal to 5.7, while the acoustic chemometrics model resulted in a RPD of 2.6. ..
  5. Zuhainis Saad W, Abdullah N, Alimon A, Yin Wan H. Effects of phenolic monomers on the enzymes activities and volatile fatty acids production of Neocallimastix frontalis B9. Anaerobe. 2008;14:118-22 pubmed
    ..For total volatile fatty acid production, all phenolic monomers showed inhibitory effects, but rho-coumaric and ferulic acids were the stronger inhibitors than rho-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin...
  6. Loh T, Thanh N, Foo H, Hair Bejo M, Azhar B. Feeding of different levels of metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, fecal microflora, volatile fatty acids and villi height in broilers. Anim Sci J. 2010;81:205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..4% supplementation. These results indicate that 0.2% is an optimum level to be included in the diets of broiler in order to replace antibiotic growth promoters. ..
  7. Wong J, de Souza R, Kendall C, Emam A, Jenkins D. Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:235-43 pubmed
    ..Short-term and long-term human studies are particularly required on SCFAs in relation to markers of cancer risk. These studies will be key to the success of dietary recommendations to maximize colonic disease prevention. ..
  8. Johnson S, Jackson S, Abratt V, Wolfaardt G, Cordero Otero R, Nicolson S. Xylose utilization and short-chain fatty acid production by selected components of the intestinal microflora of a rodent pollinator (Aethomys namaquensis). J Comp Physiol B. 2006;176:631-41 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in the context of other studies of gut microflora in vertebrates...
  9. Kristensen N, Harmon D. Splanchnic metabolism of volatile fatty acids absorbed from the washed reticulorumen of steers. J Anim Sci. 2004;82:2033-42 pubmed
    ..When PDV "second-pass" uptake of arterial nutrients is accounted for, PDV fluxes of VFA, lactate, and 3-hydroxybutyrate represent VFA production in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby VFA availability to the ruminant animal...

More Information


  1. Martin F, Dumas M, Wang Y, Legido Quigley C, Yap I, Tang H, et al. A top-down systems biology view of microbiome-mammalian metabolic interactions in a mouse model. Mol Syst Biol. 2007;3:112 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the microbiome modulates absorption, storage and the energy harvest from the diet at the systems level. ..
  2. Sutton J, Dhanoa M, Morant S, France J, Napper D, Schuller E. Rates of production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the rumen of lactating dairy cows given normal and low-roughage diets. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:3620-33 pubmed
    ..Milk fat (g/kg) was severely reduced on diet LR. To measure rates of production of individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen, 0...
  3. Cavaglieri C, Nishiyama A, Fernandes L, Curi R, Miles E, Calder P. Differential effects of short-chain fatty acids on proliferation and production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by cultured lymphocytes. Life Sci. 2003;73:1683-90 pubmed
    ..A combination of the three SCFA causes a shift in the T helper lymphocyte phenotype towards a more anti-inflammatory phenotype and this might explain the protective effects of fiber. ..
  4. Shi X, Yu H. Optimization of glutamate concentration and pH for H production from volatile fatty acids by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;40:401-6 pubmed
    ..surface methodology (RSM) to evaluate the effects of glutamate concentration and pH on H(2) production from volatile fatty acids by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata...
  5. Li Y, Xiong Y, Liang Q, Fang C, Wang C. Application of headspace single-drop microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for the determination of short-chain fatty acids in RuO4 oxidation products of asphaltenes. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:3561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of a real asphaltene sample using this method proved that HS-SDME can be a promising tool for the determination of volatile SCFAs in complex matrices. ..
  6. Elia M, Engfer M, Green C, Silk D. Systematic review and meta-analysis: the clinical and physiological effects of fibre-containing enteral formulae. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;27:120-45 pubmed
    ..The review indicates that the fibre-supplemented enteral formulae have important physiological effects and clinical benefits. There is a need to use a consistent approach to undertake more studies on this issue in the community setting. ..
  7. Méndez Acosta H, Campos Rodríguez A, Gonzalez Alvarez V, García Sandoval J, Snell Castro R, Latrille E. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes. Bioresour Technol. 2016;218:1195-202 pubmed publisher
    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes...
  8. Wang Y, Zhu Y, Gu P, Li Y, Fan X, Song D, et al. Biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by bacterial community from propylene oxide saponification wastewater residual sludge. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;98:34-38 pubmed publisher
    ..residual sludge were acclimated to produce poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from volatile fatty acids. Through Miseq Illumina highthroughput sequencing, the bacterial community discrepancy between the original ..
  9. Lv L, Li W, Yu Y, Meng L, Qin W, Wu C. Predicting acute toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater using UV absorption and volatile fatty acids as surrogates. Chemosphere. 2018;194:211-219 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the applicability of UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to serve as reliable surrogates to predict acute toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater was investigated...
  10. Gozho G, Mutsvangwa T. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2726-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved production performance with corn and barley diets appeared to be due to greater nutrient absorption than in cows fed oats and wheat diets, rather than improved nutrient utilization efficiency. ..
  11. Zou J, Zhang L, Wang L, Li Y. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process. Chemosphere. 2017;171:601-608 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited...
  12. Stone J, Clay S, Zhu Z, Wong K, Porath L, Spellman G. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion. Water Res. 2009;43:4740-50 pubmed publisher
    ..was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin...
  13. Mengmeng C, Hong C, Qingliang Z, Shirley S, Jie R. Optimal production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in activated sludge fed by volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated from alkaline excess sludge fermentation. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:1399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..PHA) and disposal amount of excess sludge simultaneously, the feasibility of using fermentative volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as carbon sources to synthesize PHA by activated sludge was examined. At pH 11...
  14. Nerdahl M, Weimer P. Redox mediators modify end product distribution in biomass fermentations by mixed ruminal microbes in vitro. AMB Express. 2015;5:130 pubmed publisher
    The fermentation system of mixed ruminal bacteria is capable of generating large amounts of short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) via the carboxylate platform in vitro...
  15. Dieho K, Bannink A, Geurts I, Schonewille J, Gort G, Dijkstra J. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:2339-2352 pubmed publisher
    ..This response in surface area of the rumen papillae potentially facilitates the absorption of the volatile fatty acids.
  16. Ramirez Ramirez H, Castillo Lopez E, Jenkins C, Aluthge N, Anderson C, Fernando S, et al. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:1912-1928 pubmed publisher
    ..11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile fatty acids was observed; the overall mean was 121 ± 4...
  17. Weimer P, da Silva Cabral L, Cacite F. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:8078-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Ruminal pH and total millimolar volatile fatty acids and lactate did not differ between dosed and control cows, although acetate-to-propionate ratio declined in ..
  18. Vander Pol K, Luebbe M, Crawford G, Erickson G, Klopfenstein T. Performance and digestibility characteristics of finishing diets containing distillers grains, composites of corn processing coproducts, or supplemental corn oil. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:639-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the greater energy value of WDGS compared with corn may be due to more propionate production, greater fat digestibility, and more unsaturated fatty acids reaching the duodenum. ..
  19. Ye F, Zhu R, Li Y. Deodorization of swine manure slurry using horseradish peroxidase and peroxides. J Hazard Mater. 2009;167:148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..0g) was examined for the efficiency of controlling the release of seven malodor compounds, including three volatile fatty acids (isobutyric acid, isocaproic acid and isovaleric acid), two phenolic compounds (phenol and p-cresol) and ..
  20. Martínez Fernández G, Abecia L, Martín García A, Ramos Morales E, Denman S, Newbold C, et al. Response of the rumen archaeal and bacterial populations to anti-methanogenic organosulphur compounds in continuous-culture fermenters. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015;91:fiv079 pubmed publisher
    ..No effects on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were observed with PTS or DDS, but VFA were decreased with BCM...
  21. Giraldo L, Tejido M, Ranilla M, Ramos S, Carro M. Influence of direct-fed fibrolytic enzymes on diet digestibility and ruminal activity in sheep fed a grass hay-based diet. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1617-23 pubmed publisher
    ..12) or amylase (P = 0.83) activity. The results indicate that supplementing ENZ directly into the rumen increased the fibrolytic activity and stimulated the growth of cellulolytic bacteria without a prefeeding feed-enzyme interaction. ..
  22. Vlaeminck B, Mengistu G, Fievez V, de Jonge L, Dijkstra J. Effect of in vitro docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to marine algae-adapted and unadapted rumen inoculum on the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in freeze-dried grass. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1122-32 pubmed publisher
  23. Schievano A, Colombo A, Cossettini A, Goglio A, D Ardes V, Trasatti S, et al. Single-chamber microbial fuel cells as on-line shock-sensors for volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digesters. Waste Manag. 2018;71:785-791 pubmed publisher
    In anaerobic digesters (AD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration is a critical operative parameter, which is usually manually monitored to prevent inhibition of microbial consortia...
  24. Kleerebezem R, Rodriguez J, Temudo M, van Loosdrecht M. Modeling mixed culture fermentations; the role of different electron carriers. Water Sci Technol. 2008;57:493-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Catabolic acetate production can potentially be explained by anabolic requirements for a specific electron donor like NADH. ..
  25. Leite W, Magnus B, Guimarães L, Gottardo M, Belli Filho P. Feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic processes for treating waste activated sludge under low HRT and intermittent mixing. J Environ Manage. 2017;201:335-344 pubmed publisher
    ..Although instabilities on partial alkalinity (1245-3000 mgCaCO3/L), volatile fatty acids (1774-6421 mg/L acetic acid) and biogas production (0.21-0...
  26. Khan M, Ngo H, Guo W, Liu Y, Zhou J, Zhang J, et al. Comparing the value of bioproducts from different stages of anaerobic membrane bioreactors. Bioresour Technol. 2016;214:816-825 pubmed publisher
    ..This digestion process basically involves the production of volatile fatty acids and biohydrogen as intermediate products and methane as a final product...
  27. Jiang Y, Marang L, Tamis J, Van Loosdrecht M, Dijkman H, Kleerebezem R. Waste to resource: Converting paper mill wastewater to bioplastic. Water Res. 2012;46:5517-5530 pubmed publisher
    ..The fraction of P. acidivorans in the biomass was largely dependent on the fraction of volatile fatty acids in the total soluble COD in the wastewater after acidification...
  28. Yang Z, Shi X, Dai M, Wang L, Xu X, Guo R. Promoting degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with fermentative effluents from hydrogen-producing reactor. Chemosphere. 2018;201:859-863 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhancement effect most probably resulted from the co-metabolic degradation of 2,4-D facilitated by volatile fatty acids (e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) in the effluents which served as the beneficial substrates...
  29. Yu G, He P, Shao L, He P. Toward understanding the mechanism of improving the production of volatile fatty acids from activated sludge at pH 10.0. Water Res. 2008;42:4637-44 pubmed publisher
    ..flocs was applied to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of improving the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the hydrolysis and acidification processes at pH 10.0...
  30. Li R, Li X. Recovery of phosphorus and volatile fatty acids from wastewater and food waste with an iron-flocculation sequencing batch reactor and acidogenic co-fermentation. Bioresour Technol. 2017;245:615-624 pubmed publisher
    ..sludge and food waste undergo acidogenesis, releasing phosphates under acidic conditions and producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) into the supernatant...
  31. Tong J, Chen Y. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal driven by short-chain fatty acids produced from waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:7126-30 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded from this studythatthe SCFAs from alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge were a superior carbon source for EBPR microorganisms than pure acetic acid. ..
  32. Abrahamse P, Dijkstra J, Vlaeminck B, Tamminga S. Frequent allocation of rotationally grazed dairy cows changes grazing behavior and improves productivity. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2033-45 pubmed publisher
    ..66 vs. 3.76% and 3.28 vs. 3.34%, respectively). This study confirmed that increasing pasture allocation frequency from once every 4 d to every day improved milk production in grazing dairy cows, especially when offered pasture was high. ..
  33. Faseleh Jahromi M, Wesam Altaher Y, Shokryazdan P, Ebrahimi R, Ebrahimi M, Idrus Z, et al. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions. Int J Biometeorol. 2016;60:1099-110 pubmed publisher
    ..of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition ..
  34. Ferguson R, Coulon F, Villa R. Organic loading rate: A promising microbial management tool in anaerobic digestion. Water Res. 2016;100:348-356 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the effect of changes in organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and their potential use as a bioengineering management tool to improve stability of anaerobic ..
  35. Lee B, Park J, Shin W, Tian D, Jun H. Microbial communities change in an anaerobic digestion after application of microbial electrolysis cells. Bioresour Technol. 2017;234:273-280 pubmed publisher
    ..increase in overall bacterial population, increasing the removal of organic matters and the conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs)...
  36. Whelan K, Judd P, Tuohy K, Gibson G, Preedy V, Taylor M. Fecal microbiota in patients receiving enteral feeding are highly variable and may be altered in those who develop diarrhea. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..044), acetate (P = 0.029), and butyrate (P = 0.055). Intestinal dysbiosis occurs in patients who develop diarrhea during enteral feeding and may be involved in its pathogenesis. ..
  37. Wan J, Jing Y, Zhang S, Angelidaki I, Luo G. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis. Water Res. 2016;102:524-532 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mL H2/gVSS at 37 °C and pH 10-80.1 mL H2/gVSS at 55 °C and pH 10. However, the production of volatile fatty acids (mainly acetate) was higher at 37 °C and pH 10 by comparison with 55 °C and pH 10...
  38. Clarke J, Bird A, Topping D, Cobiac L. Excretion of starch and esterified short-chain fatty acids by ileostomy subjects after the ingestion of acylated starches. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1146-51 pubmed
    ..These products have potential application in the treatment and prevention of bowel disorders amenable to modulation by SCFAs. ..
  39. Marin A, Casas Valdez M, Carrillo S, Hernández H, Monroy A, Sanginés L, et al. The marine algae Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae) as feed for sheep in tropical and subtropical regions. Rev Biol Trop. 2009;57:1271-81 pubmed
    ..as feed for sheep through the measures of in vivo digestibility, dry matter degradability, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids in rumen...
  40. Latif M, Mehta C, Batstone D. Low pH anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge for enhanced phosphorous release. Water Res. 2015;81:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..yield was mainly due to decrease in hydrolytic capability rather than inhibition of methanogenesis with volatile fatty acids being <300 mgCOD L(-1) and soluble COD <1300 mgCOD L(-1) even at low pH...
  41. Xiao B, Liu J. Biological hydrogen production from sterilized sewage sludge by anaerobic self-fermentation. J Hazard Mater. 2009;168:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were the important by-products and acetate was the major composition...
  42. Liu C, Huang C, Sun X, Li R, Li J, Shen J, et al. The effect of Mg2+ on digestion performance and microbial community structures in sludge digestion systems. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:17474-17484 pubmed publisher
    ..01 to 0.2 mol/L. Maximum total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production (372.78 mg COD/L) occurred at a Mg2+ dose of 0...
  43. Nofrarias M, Martínez Puig D, Pujols J, Majo N, Perez J. Long-term intake of resistant starch improves colonic mucosal integrity and reduces gut apoptosis and blood immune cells. Nutrition. 2007;23:861-70 pubmed
  44. Amorocho A, Jenkins T, Staples C. Evaluation of catfish oil as a feedstuff for lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:5178-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Ruminal fluid was collected hourly for 8 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acids. Intake of dry matter increased as intake of CFO increased (23.0, 24.4, and 25.4 kg/d)...
  45. Trzcinski A, Stuckey D. Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a two-stage membrane process. Water Sci Technol. 2009;60:1965-78 pubmed publisher
  46. Huo S, Kong M, Zhu F, Zou B, Wang F, Xu L, et al. Mixotrophic Chlorella sp. UJ-3 cultivation in the typical anaerobic fermentation effluents. Bioresour Technol. 2018;249:219-225 pubmed publisher
    ..8×107?cells/mL. Under intermediate light intensity, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were almost depleted on the fifth day of the cultivation for all the three types of fermentation ..
  47. Heo J, Kim J, Hansen C, Mullan B, Hampson D, Pluske J. Feeding a diet with decreased protein content reduces indices of protein fermentation and the incidence of postweaning diarrhea in weaned pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:2833-43 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. Infection was associated with decreased indices of protein fermentation in the distal gastrointestinal tract but did not compromise the growth of weaner pigs in the 4-wk period after weaning. ..
  48. Akins M, Kegley E, Coffey K, Caldwell J, Lusby K, Moore J, et al. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:3278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, shrinking of cattle before grazing wheat pasture did not induce bloat. ..
  49. Nkemka V, Murto M. Evaluation of biogas production from seaweed in batch tests and in UASB reactors combined with the removal of heavy metals. J Environ Manage. 2010;91:1573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrolysis and treatment with IDA cryogel reduced the heavy metals content in the seaweed leachate before methane production. This study also demonstrated the suitability of the treatment of seaweed leachate in a UASB reactor...
  50. Aich U, Meledeo M, Sampathkumar S, Fu J, Jones M, Weier C, et al. Development of delivery methods for carbohydrate-based drugs: controlled release of biologically-active short chain fatty acid-hexosamine analogs. Glycoconj J. 2010;27:445-59 pubmed publisher
  51. Hwang J, Cha G, Jeong T, Kim D, Bhatnagar A, Min B, et al. Effect of COD/SO(4)2- ratio and Fe(II) under the variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) on fermentative hydrogen production. Water Res. 2009;43:3525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium perfringens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens as hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) and absence of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in our study. ..
  52. Millet S, Van Oeckel M, Aluwé M, Delezie E, De Brabander D. Prediction of in vivo short-chain fatty acid production in hindgut fermenting mammals: problems and pitfalls. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50:605-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review it is concluded that the choice for a method will rely on the purpose of the study taking into account the (dis)advantages of every method. ..