omega 6 fatty acids


Summary: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Schuchardt J, Huss M, Stauss Grabo M, Hahn A. Significance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the development and behaviour of children. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:149-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, several controlled studies investigated the clinical benefits of LC-PUFA supplementation in affected children and adolescents, with occasionally conflicting results. ..
  2. Norris J, Yin X, Lamb M, Barriga K, Seifert J, Hoffman M, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and islet autoimmunity in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. JAMA. 2007;298:1420-8 pubmed
    ..63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.96; P = .03). Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced risk of IA in children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. ..
  3. Johnson M, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents. J Atten Disord. 2009;12:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..A subgroup of children and adolescents with ADHD, characterized by inattention and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, treated with omega 3/6 fatty acids for 6 months responded with meaningful reduction of ADHD symptoms. ..
  4. Sioen I, Pynaert I, Matthys C, De Backer G, Van Camp J, de Henauw S. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids for Belgian women, focused on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids. 2006;41:415-22 pubmed
    ..The main sources of long-chain PUFA were fish and seafood, and meat, poultry, and eggs. From a public health perspective, it seems desirable to tackle the problem of low n-3 PUFA intake. ..
  5. Schmitz G, Ecker J. The opposing effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res. 2008;47:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the n-3/n-6 PUFA content of cell and organelle membranes, as well as membrane microdomains strongly influences membrane function and numerous cellular processes such as cell death and survival. ..
  6. Funahashi H, Satake M, Hasan S, Sawai H, Newman R, Reber H, et al. Opposing effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on pancreatic cancer growth. Pancreas. 2008;36:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..n-3 PUFAs may prove beneficial as monotherapy or combination therapy with standard chemotherapeutic agents in pancreatic cancer patients. ..
  7. Frölich J, Dopfner M. [The treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders with polyunsaturated fatty acids - an effective treatment alternative?]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2008;36:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Considerable research has to be done in the future to identify ideal therapeutic combinations and dosages of various fatty acids, and to develop reliable ways of defining those individuals to benefit from this treatment access. ..
  8. Margioris A. Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will summarize all experimental evidence suggesting that the two families of PUFA appear to have antagonistic effects on postprandial inflammation, n-3 PUFA being anti-inflammatory while n-6 PUFA proinflammatory. ..
  9. Simopoulos A. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:674-88 pubmed publisher
    ..A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is more desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases of high prevalence in Western societies, as well as in the developing countries. ..

More Information


  1. Kornsteiner M, Singer I, Elmadfa I. Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..To ensure physical, mental and neurological health vegetarians have to reduce the n-6/n-3 ratio with an additional intake of direct sources of EPA and DHA, regardless of age and gender. ..
  2. Lu Y, Nie D, Witt W, Chen Q, Shen M, Xie H, et al. Expression of the fat-1 gene diminishes prostate cancer growth in vivo through enhancing apoptosis and inhibiting GSK-3 beta phosphorylation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:3203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that fat-1 gene transfer directly into tumor cells could be used as a novel therapeutic approach. ..
  3. Conklin S, Manuck S, Yao J, Flory J, Hibbeln J, Muldoon M. High omega-6 and low omega-3 fatty acids are associated with depressive symptoms and neuroticism. Psychosom Med. 2007;69:932-4 pubmed
    ..In conjunction with other reports, these findings suggest that the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are related to negative affect at both the symptom and trait levels. ..
  4. Johnson G, Keast D, Kris Etherton P. Dietary modeling shows that the substitution of canola oil for fats commonly used in the United States would increase compliance with dietary recommendations for fatty acids. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:1726-34 pubmed
  5. De Caterina R, Madonna R, Bertolotto A, Schmidt E. n-3 fatty acids in the treatment of diabetic patients: biological rationale and clinical data. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1012-26 pubmed
  6. Brown M, Hart C, Gazi E, Bagley S, Clarke N. Promotion of prostatic metastatic migration towards human bone marrow stoma by Omega 6 and its inhibition by Omega 3 PUFAs. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:842-53 pubmed
    ..These results identify a mechanism by which arachidonic acid may potentiate the risk of metastatic migration and secondary implantation in vivo, a risk which can be reduced with the uptake of Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids. ..
  7. Leitzmann M, Stampfer M, Michaud D, Augustsson K, Colditz G, Willett W, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:204-16 pubmed
    ..62 (0.45, 0.86). Increased dietary intakes of ALA may increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer. In contrast, EPA and DHA intakes may reduce the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer. ..
  8. Bjørkkjaer T, Brunborg L, Arslan G, Lind R, Brun J, Valen M, et al. Reduced joint pain after short-term duodenal administration of seal oil in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: comparison with soy oil. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:1088-94 pubmed
    ..The results suggest distinctive, differential prolonged effects on IBD-related joint pain of short-term duodenal administration of n-3-rich seal oil (significant improvement) and n-6-rich soy oil (tendency to exacerbation). ..
  9. Madani S, Hichami A, Cherkaoui Malki M, Khan N, Charkaoui Malki M. Diacylglycerols containing Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids bind to RasGRP and modulate MAP kinase activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:1176-83 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that three DAG molecular species bind to RasGRP, but only DAG-AA and DAG-DHA participate in the modulation of RasGRP-mediated activation of MAP kinases in Jurkat T cells. ..
  10. Vecchini A, Ceccarelli V, Susta F, Caligiana P, Orvietani P, Binaglia L, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid reduces COX-2 expression and induces apoptosis of hepatoma cells. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:308-16 pubmed
    ..Conversely, it was observed that apoptosis induced by the alpha-linolenic acid-enriched diet correlated with a decrease in arachidonate content in hepatoma cells and decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression. ..
  11. Kang J, Wang J, Wu L, Kang Z. Transgenic mice: fat-1 mice convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Nature. 2004;427:504 pubmed
    ..As well as presenting an opportunity to investigate the roles played by n-3 fatty acids in the body, our discovery indicates that this technology might be adapted to enrich n-3 fatty acids in animal products such as meat, milk and eggs. ..
  12. Astorg P, Arnault N, Czernichow S, Noisette N, Galan P, Hercberg S. Dietary intakes and food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in French adult men and women. Lipids. 2004;39:527-35 pubmed
    ..Fish and seafood consumption showed very large interindividual variations, the low consumers being at risk of insufficient n-3 PUFA intake. ..
  13. Perez J, Ware M, Chevalier S, Gougeon R, Shir Y. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids may be associated with increased neuropathic pain in nerve-injured rats. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:444-8, table of contents pubmed
    ..We found that certain commonly used oils can have a significant analgesic effect in rats with persistent pain after partial nerve injury. This effect may be associated with the amounts of omega-3 fatty acids consumed by rats. ..
  14. Calder P. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids. 2003;38:343-52 pubmed
    ..There are indications that the inclusion of fish oil in enteral and parenteral formulae is beneficial to patients. ..
  15. Simopoulos A. What is so special about the diet of Greece? The scientific evidence. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2005;95:80-92 pubmed
  16. Simopoulos A. Importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids: evolutionary aspects. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2003;92:1-22 pubmed
  17. Kang J. The importance of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cell function. The gene transfer of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2003;92:23-36 pubmed
  18. Calder P. n-3 fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity--relevance to postsurgical and critically ill patients. Lipids. 2004;39:1147-61 pubmed
    ..Studies to date are suggestive of clinical benefits from these approaches, especially in postsurgical patients. ..
  19. Richardson A, Montgomery P. The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1360-6 pubmed
    ..Additional work is needed to investigate whether our inability to detect any improvement in motor skills reflects the measures used and to assess the durability of treatment effects on behavior and academic progress. ..
  20. Kang J. From fat to fat-1: a tale of omega-3 fatty acids. J Membr Biol. 2005;206:165-72 pubmed
  21. Bolte G, Kompauer I, Fobker M, Cullen P, Keil U, Mutius E, et al. Fatty acids in serum cholesteryl esters in relation to asthma and lung function in children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:293-302 pubmed
    ..Elevated arachidonic acid levels in children with asthma may be because of a disturbed balance in the metabolism of n-6 PUFA or may be secondary to inflammation in these patients. ..
  22. Lowe A, Thien F, Stoney R, Bennett C, Hosking C, Hill D, et al. Associations between fatty acids in colostrum and breast milk and risk of allergic disease. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this cohort of high-risk children, a number of modest associations were observed between FA concentrations in colostrum and breast milk and allergic disease outcomes. Further research in this area with larger sample sizes is needed. ..
  23. Wang L, Reiterer G, Toborek M, Hennig B. Changing ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids can differentially modulate polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in endothelial cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;172:27-38 pubmed
    ..The present studies suggest that NF-kappaB is a critical player in the regulation of PCB-induced inflammatory markers as modulated by omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. ..
  24. do Prado R, Palin M, do Prado I, Dos Santos G, Benchaar C, Petit H. Milk yield, milk composition, and hepatic lipid metabolism in transition dairy cows fed flaxseed or linola. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:8831-8846 pubmed publisher
  25. Kuroda T, Ohta H, Onoe Y, Tsugawa N, Shiraki M. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28:2887-2891 pubmed publisher
    ..Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip. ..
  26. Torres A, Ney J, Meneses F, Trugo N. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers in breast milk are associated with plasma non-esterified and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in lactating women. Br J Nutr. 2006;95:517-24 pubmed
    ..These findings emphasize the contribution of the NEFA pool derived from the adipose tissue to the long-chain fatty acid composition of breast milk. ..
  27. Quiles J, Pamplona R, Ramirez Tortosa M, Naudi A, Portero Otin M, Araujo Nepomuceno E, et al. Coenzyme Q addition to an n-6 PUFA-rich diet resembles benefits on age-related mitochondrial DNA deletion and oxidative stress of a MUFA-rich diet in rat heart. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010;131:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, under our experimental conditions, lipid-derived oxidative damage appears to be more important than the pure protein-derived oxidative damage during aging...
  28. Zhang L, Geng Y, Xiao N, Yin M, Mao L, Ren G, et al. High dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio promotes HDL cholesterol level, but does not suppress atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice 1. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:463-71 pubmed
    ..The elevated HDL-C level is possibly due to up-regulated hepatic apoA-I and ABCA1 with suppression of apoA-Ii expression. ..
  29. Miura K, Hughes M, Ungerer J, Smith D, Green A. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women. Eur J Nutr. 2018;57:713-722 pubmed publisher
    ..However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units. ..
  30. Daley C, Abbott A, Doyle P, Nader G, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010;9:10 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. ..
  31. Navas Carretero S, Perez Granados A, Schoppen S, Vaquero M. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:546-53 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in oily fish consumption increases insulin sensitivity in young iron-deficient women. This outcome should be considered when giving dietary advice to this population. ..
  32. Pizato N, Bonatto S, Piconcelli M, de Souza L, Sassaki G, Naliwaiko K, et al. Fish oil alters T-lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage responses in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Nutrition. 2006;22:425-32 pubmed
    ..Decreased tumor growth and cachexia and increased survival previously reported for fish oil in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats may be related to improved macrophage function rather than to improved T-cell function. ..
  33. Lerman R. Essential fatty acids. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12:20-9; quiz 30-1 pubmed
  34. Hassan I, Gronert K. Acute changes in dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have a pronounced impact on survival following ischemic renal injury and formation of renoprotective docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1. J Immunol. 2009;182:3223-32 pubmed publisher
  35. Varney M, Hardman W, Sollars V. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the ..
  36. Kirby A, Woodward A, Jackson S, Wang Y, Crawford M. The association of fatty acid deficiency symptoms (FADS) with actual essential fatty acid status in cheek cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010;83:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using FADS as a marker of PUFA deficiency may not be appropriate especially when assessing typically developing children. ..
  37. Delgado G, März W, Lorkowski S, von Schacky C, Kleber M. Omega-6 fatty acids: Opposing associations with risk-The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. J Clin Lipidol. 2017;11:1082-1090.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences do not support the use of omega-6 PUFA concentrations as a single combined metric, and the prognostic value of each individual member should be examined separately. ..
  38. Carriquiry M, Weber W, Dahlen C, Lamb G, Baumgard L, Crooker B. Production response of multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed diets enriched with n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:4852-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Results support the premise that bST administration prolongs the delay in postpartum tissue replenishment. ..
  39. Lundqvist Persson C, Lau G, Nordin P, Strandvik B, Sabel K. Early behaviour and development in breast-fed premature infants are influenced by omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid status. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86:407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Mother's education and the gestational age influenced the outcome more strongly than mother's and infant's morbidities. Further follow-up will elucidate the significance of these early findings. ..
  40. Simopoulos A. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8:128 pubmed publisher
    ..A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. ..
  41. Hagi A, Nakayama M, Shinzaki W, Haji S, Ohyanagi H. Effects of the omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of fat emulsions on the fatty acid composition in cell membranes and the anti-inflammatory action. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2010;34:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The EPA:AA ratio in membranous phospholipid in PMNs was positively correlated with the LTB(5):LTB(4) production ratio and was a good indicator of anti-inflammatory effects. ..
  42. Wadhwani N, Narang A, Mehendale S, Wagh G, Gupte S, Joshi S. Reduced Maternal Erythrocyte Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Exist in Early Pregnancy in Preeclampsia. Lipids. 2016;51:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..05 for both) in preeclampsia. Our study for the first time indicates alteration in maternal erythrocyte fatty acids at 16th weeks of gestation which is further reflected in cord erythrocytes at delivery in preeclampsia. ..
  43. Solakivi T, Kunnas T, Kärkkäinen S, Jaakkola O, Nikkari S. Arachidonic acid increases matrix metalloproteinase 9 secretion and expression in human monocytic MonoMac 6 cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that of the PUFA studied, AA alone influences the expression of MMP-9, which might have implications in MMP-9 induced plaque rupture. ..
  44. Huiskes V, Kuipers R, Velzing Aarts F, Dijck Brouwer D, van der Meulen J, Muskiet F. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega3- and omega6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009;80:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..An explanation of this might be placental dysfunction, while the similarity of umbilical vessel FA-abnormalities in preeclamptic and diabetic pregnancies suggests insulin resistance as a common denominator. ..
  45. Wathes D, Abayasekara D, Aitken R. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in male and female reproduction. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:190-201 pubmed
    ..Adequately powered trials that control for the ratios of different PUFAs consumed are required to determine the extent to which this aspect of our diets does influence our fertility. ..
  46. Mirzaei Alamouti H, Mohammadi Z, Shahir M, Vazirigohar M, Mansouryar M. Effects of short-term feeding of different sources of fatty acids in pre-mating diets on reproductive performance and blood metabolites of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes. Theriogenology. 2018;113:85-91 pubmed publisher
  47. Galan P, Kesse Guyot E, Czernichow S, Briancon S, Blacher J, Hercberg S. Effects of B vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases: a randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;341:c6273 pubmed publisher
    ..Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41926726. ..
  48. Vauzour D, Houseman E, George T, Corona G, Garnotel R, Jackson K, et al. Moderate Champagne consumption promotes an acute improvement in acute endothelial-independent vascular function in healthy human volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:1168-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that a daily moderate consumption of Champagne wine may improve vascular performance via the delivery of phenolic constituents capable of improving NO bioavailability and reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity. ..
  49. Kim W, Fan Y, Smith R, Patil B, Jayaprakasha G, McMurray D, et al. Dietary curcumin and limonin suppress CD4+ T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production in mice. J Nutr. 2009;139:1042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05) of Cur or Lim with respect to CD4(+) T-cell proliferation in response to anti-CD3/28 mAb. These results suggest that combination chemotherapy (FO+Cur or Lim) may favorably modulate CD4(+) T-cell-mediated inflammation...
  50. Appleton K, Gunnell D, Peters T, Ness A, Kessler D, Rogers P. No clear evidence of an association between plasma concentrations of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and depressed mood in a non-clinical population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008;78:337-42 pubmed publisher
  51. Gillies P. Preemptive nutrition of pro-inflammatory states: a nutrigenomic model. Nutr Rev. 2007;65:S217-20 pubmed
    ..With the expansion of research and the development of shared nutrigenomic databases, it may well become possible to define and track the influence of targeted nutrition on inflammation and the aging process. ..
  52. Parekh N, Voland R, Moeller S, Blodi B, Ritenbaugh C, Chappell R, et al. Association between dietary fat intake and age-related macular degeneration in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a growing body of evidence suggesting that diets high in several types of fat may contribute to the risk of intermediate AMD and that diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids may be protective. ..
  53. de Moffarts B, Portier K, Kirschvink N, Coudert J, Fellmann N, Van Erck E, et al. Effects of exercise and oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) fatty acids on blood oxidant markers and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses. Vet J. 2007;174:113-21 pubmed
    ..The (omega-3)-vitamin supplementation tested improved the oxidative balance poorly but delayed the exercise-induced decrease of EMF and increased the FAR. ..