6 ketoprostaglandin f1 alpha


Summary: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.

Top Publications

  1. Karamouzis M, Karamouzis I, Vamvakoudis E, Ampatzidis G, Christoulas K, Angelopoulou N, et al. The response of muscle interstitial prostaglandin E(2)(PGE(2)), prostacyclin I(2)(PGI(2)) and thromboxane A(2)(TXA(2)) levels during incremental dynamic exercise in humans determined by in vivo microdialysis. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2001;64:259-63 pubmed
    ..This is further evidence that exercise induces propitious biochemical changes. Furthermore, the muscle production of arachidonic acid metabolites during exercise depends on the intensity of the exercise. ..
  2. Sato T, Keelan J, Mitchell M. Regulation of prostaglandin production in an immortalized human myometrial cell line by cytokines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;100:158-62 pubmed
    ..5) and indomethacin (2.7). DFU was not as selective in TNF-alpha stimulated cells (ratio 99.5). PGHS-II-selective inhibitors may be effective in the prevention of cytokine-driven myometrial PG production associated with preterm labor. ..
  3. Ozaki N, Beharry K, Nishihara K, Akmal Y, Ang J, Modanlou H. Differential regulation of prostacyclin and thromboxane by dexamethasone and celecoxib during oxidative stress in newborn rabbits. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2002;70:61-78 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to examine whether Cel can be used as a therapeutic alternative to Dex for oxygen-induced injury in the newborn. ..
  4. van Heerden P, Barden A, Michalopoulos N, Bulsara M, Roberts B. Dose-response to inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin for hypoxemia due to ARDS. Chest. 2000;117:819-27 pubmed
    ..Despite significant systemic levels of prostacyclin metabolite, there was no demonstrable platelet function defect. ..
  5. Rodriguez Garcia J, Villa E, Serrano M, Gallardo J, Garcia Robles R. Prostacyclin: its pathogenic role in essential hypertension and the class effect of ACE inhibitors on prostaglandin metabolism. Blood Press. 1999;8:279-84 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the hypotensive mechanisms of ACEI may be mediated by an increase in prostacyclin production; this effect seems to be class-dependent. ..
  6. Frisbee J, Maier K, Falck J, Roman R, Lombard J. Integration of hypoxic dilation signaling pathways for skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R309-19 pubmed
    ..6-fold with severe hypoxia. These results suggest vascular reactivity to progressive hypoxia represents an integration of NO production (mild hypoxia), PGI(2) production (severe hypoxia), and reduced 20-HETE levels (moderate hypoxia). ..
  7. Qiu J, Long Q, Yao M. [Effects of slenderstyle Acanthopanax root-bark on cyclooxygenase]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:316-9 pubmed
    ..One of the antirheumatic mechanisms of slender-root-bark might probably be mediating through inhibition of cyclooxygenase. style acanthopanax ..
  8. Chung C, Gottstein J, Blei A. Indomethacin prevents the development of experimental ammonia-induced brain edema in rats after portacaval anastomosis. Hepatology. 2001;34:249-54 pubmed
    ..Cerebral vasoconstriction reduces cerebral ammonia uptake and, if selective to the brain, may be of benefit in FHF. ..
  9. Caprani A, Richert A, Flaud P. Experimental evidence of a potentially increased thrombo-embolic disease risk by domestic electromagnetic field exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. 2004;25:313-5 pubmed
    ..We experimentally established, by comparing these two secretions with or without a Faraday cage, that the environmental electromagnetic field significantly increases the thrombo-embolic risks in this endothelial cell line. ..

More Information


  1. Chen H, Chen J, Ng C, Chiu D, Chen M. Melatonin reduces pancreatic prostaglandins production and protects against caerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. J Pineal Res. 2006;40:34-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, melatonin treatment changed local PG production toward control level. Higher dose of melatonin was somewhat more effective in preventing the caerulein-induced alterations than was the lower dose. ..
  2. Arai I, Takano N, Hashimoto Y, Futaki N, Sugimoto M, Takahashi N, et al. Prostanoid DP1 receptor agonist inhibits the pruritic activity in NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;505:229-35 pubmed
  3. Nichols F, Riep B, Mun J, Morton M, Kawai T, Dewhirst F, et al. Structures and biological activities of novel phosphatidylethanolamine lipids of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:844-53 pubmed
    ..gingivalis and likely contribute to the biological activity of these substances, in addition to the phosphatidylethanolamine lipids described in this report. ..
  4. Desai U, Deo S, Hyland K, Poon M, Daunert S. Determination of prostacyclin in plasma through a bioluminescent immunoassay for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha: implication of dosage in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Anal Chem. 2002;74:3892-8 pubmed
    ..This measurement demonstrated that the assay allows the measurement of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha directly in plasma without any pretreatment of the samples, which results in a much simpler method with a faster assay time. ..
  5. Keeble J, Poyser N. Effects of epidermal growth factor, interleukin 1 and nitric oxide on prostaglandin production by guinea-pig uterus. Reproduction. 2002;124:317-22 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide may increase the spontaneous activity of the uterus when this activity is low. ..
  6. Hausman N, Beharry K, Nishihara K, Akmal Y, Asrat T. Antenatal administration of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, appears to improve placental perfusion in the pregnant rabbit. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2003;70:303-15 pubmed
    ..05). Maternal administration of celecoxib appears to preferentially increase placental vasodilators and decrease placental TxA2, suggesting that the drug may increase uteroplacental perfusion without adverse fetal outcome. ..
  7. McCrory C, Fitzgerald D. Spinal prostaglandin formation and pain perception following thoracotomy: a role for cyclooxygenase-2. Chest. 2004;125:1321-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the inducible COX-2 mediates central PG synthesis, which may be important in the generation of pain, as the use of nimesulide also resulted in significant decreases in postoperative pain perception. ..
  8. Casetta B, Vecchione G, Tomaiuolo M, Margaglione M, Grandone E. Setting up a 2D-LC/MS/MS method for the rapid quantitation of the prostanoid metabolites 6-oxo-PGF(1alpha) and TXB2 as markers for hemostasis assessment. J Mass Spectrom. 2009;44:346-52 pubmed publisher
  9. Grace R, Lin Y, Edwards S, Power I, Mather L. Effects of diclofenac in the rat tail ischaemia--reperfusion injury model of acute hyperalgesia. Pain. 2001;89:117-25 pubmed
    ..We propose that both central and peripheral mechanisms are associated with the hyperalgesia and that the findings lend indirect support to a central action for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ..
  10. Rossoni G, Berti M, Colonna V, Bernareggi M, Del Soldato P, Berti F. Myocardial protection by the nitroderivative of aspirin, NCX 4016: in vitro and in vivo experiments in the rabbit. Ital Heart J. 2000;1:146-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this nitroderivative of aspirin may lead to innovative therapy in myocardial ischemia and infarction. ..
  11. Murphy J, Lennon F, Steele C, Kelleher D, Fitzgerald D, Long A. Engagement of CD44 modulates cyclooxygenase induction, VEGF generation, and proliferation in human vascular endothelial cells. FASEB J. 2005;19:446-8 pubmed
    ..Results from this study may have important and widespread implications for the development of novel therapeutic agents for modulating blood vessel growth during ischemic heart disease, during inflammation, or around solid tumors. ..
  12. Tran H, Quinn J, Puc M, Woolley D, Puglisi R, Slotman G. Prostacyclin is neither sufficient alone nor necessary to cause pulmonary dysfunction: results from infusions of prostacyclin and antiprostacyclin antibody in porcine septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:1445-51 pubmed
  13. Zhao S, Gu Y, Lewis D, Wang Y. Predominant basal directional release of thromboxane, but not prostacyclin, by placental trophoblasts from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Placenta. 2008;29:81-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate if predominant basal release of TX by TCs occurs in vivo as we found in our in vitro culture condition, basal released TX may play a significant role in increased placental vasoconstriction such as in PE. ..
  14. Chen Y, Hanaoka M, Chen P, Droma Y, Voelkel N, Kubo K. Protective effect of beraprost sodium, a stable prostacyclin analog, in the development of cigarette smoke extract-induced emphysema. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..BPS may potentially represent a new therapeutic option in the prevention of emphysema in humans in prospect. ..
  15. Okumura M, Imanishi M, Yamashita T, Yamamura Y, Kim S, Iwao H, et al. Renal production of thromboxane and prostaglandins in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Life Sci. 2000;66:371-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that altered renal production of TXA2 and PGI2 is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in rats with type 2 diabetes. ..
  16. Meghdadi S, Rodrigues M, Oguogho A, Santler R, Sinzinger H. 8-Epi-PGF2alpha and 6-oxo-PGF1alpha in human (varicose) veins: influence of age, sex, and risk factors. Angiology. 2003;54:317-24 pubmed
    ..Lower 8-epi-PGF2alpha in varicose veins may shift the venous tone toward vasodilatation and contribute to development and progression of varicosis. ..
  17. Beretta G, Rossoni G, Santagati N, Facino R. Anti-ischemic activity and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect of hydrolysable tannins from the leaves of Rhus coriaria (Sumac) in isolated rabbit heart and thoracic aorta. Planta Med. 2009;75:1482-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cardiovascular protective effect of RCLE seems to be due to an interplay of different factors: COX pathway activation, TNF-alpha inhibition, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation, and free radical and ROS scavenging...
  18. Miller V, Vanhoutte P. Prostaglandins but not nitric oxide are endothelium-derived relaxing factors in the trout aorta. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000;21:871-6 pubmed
    ..A phylogenetic appearance of nitric-oxide sensitive mechanism for vasodilatation, perhaps is associated with the transition from water to air respiration. ..
  19. Bauer A, Dwyer Nield L, Hankin J, Murphy R, Malkinson A. The lung tumor promoter, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), causes chronic inflammation in promotion-sensitive BALB/cByJ mice but not in promotion-resistant CXB4 mice. Toxicology. 2001;169:1-15 pubmed
    ..Our results support a hypothesis that resistance to BHT-induced inflammation in CXB4 mice accounts, at least in part, for the lack of effect of BHT on lung tumor multiplicity in this strain. ..
  20. Boutaud O, Aronoff D, Richardson J, Marnett L, Oates J. Determinants of the cellular specificity of acetaminophen as an inhibitor of prostaglandin H(2) synthases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7130-5 pubmed
    ..Together these findings support the hypothesis that the clinical action of acetaminophen is mediated by inhibition of PGHS activity, and that hydroperoxide concentration contributes to its cellular selectivity. ..
  21. Ochi T, Yamane Sugiyama A, Ohkubo Y, Sakane K, Tanaka H. The anti-inflammatory effect of FR188582, a highly selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, with an ulcerogenic sparing effect in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;85:175-82 pubmed
    ..The safety profile of FR188582 appears to be improved over the safety profile of indomethacin. ..
  22. Haider A, Olszanecki R, Gryglewski R, Schwartzman M, Lianos E, Kappas A, et al. Regulation of cyclooxygenase by the heme-heme oxygenase system in microvessel endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;300:188-94 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the heme-HO system can function as a cellular regulator of the expression of vascular COX, thus influencing the generation of prostanoids, PGE(2) and PGI(2), known to play a role in vascular homeostasis. ..
  23. Salvatierra A, Guerrero R, Rodriguez M, Alvarez A, Soriano F, López Pedrera R, et al. Antithrombin III prevents early pulmonary dysfunction after lung transplantation in the dog. Circulation. 2001;104:2975-80 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that AT III prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury in a dog model of lung transplantation and that this effect is conditioned by an increase in PGI(2) production. ..
  24. Molina V, Arruzazabala M, Carbajal D, Mas R. D-003, a potential antithrombotic compound isolated from sugar cane wax with effects on arachidonic acid metabolites. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;67:19-24 pubmed
    ..The present results support that these effects of D-003 on AA metabolites could explain, at least partially, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. ..
  25. Csanyi G, Lepran I, Flesch T, Telegdy G, Szabo G, Mezei Z. Lack of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) up-regulation in endothelial dysfunction in aorta in diabetic rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:447-55 pubmed
    ..The above alterations in the endothelial function may play an important role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications of diabetes. ..
  26. Hu H, Zhang X, Wang Y, Chen S. Honokiol inhibits arterial thrombosis through endothelial cell protection and stimulation of prostacyclin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:1063-8 pubmed
    ..Endothelial cell protection and the stimulation of prostacyclin release may be its main anti-thrombosis mechanism. Stimulation of NO release in endothelial cells may play a role, but it is not a key factor. ..
  27. Saloheimo P, Juvela S, Riutta A, Pyhtinen J, Hillbom M. Thromboxane and prostacyclin biosynthesis in patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Thromb Res. 2005;115:367-73 pubmed
    ..The metabolite levels remained high 3 months after ICH in all patients. Prior use of aspirin did not seem to cause hematoma enlargement. ..
  28. Mogielnicki A, Kramkowski K, Pietrzak L, Buczko W. N-methylnicotinamide inhibits arterial thrombosis in hypertensive rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58:515-27 pubmed
    ..The antithrombotic effect of N-methylnicotinamide is accompanied by platelet inhibition and enhanced fibrinolysis, due to the decrease production of plasminogen activator inhibitor - 1. ..
  29. Chen B, Qin H, Liu Z. [Characteristic changes of vascular tension factors in diabetic arterial occlusion of lower extremities]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:798-800 pubmed
  30. Korita D, Itoh H, Sagawa N, Yura S, Yoshida M, Kakui K, et al. 17beta-estradiol up-regulates prostacyclin production in cultured human uterine myometrial cells via augmentation of both cyclooxygenase-1 and prostacyclin synthase expression. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2004;11:457-64 pubmed
    ..17beta-Estradiol from placenta may contribute to the augmentation of PGI(2) production in the human myometrium in the middle of gestation via up-regulation of both COX-1 and PGIS expression. ..
  31. Liu X, Wei J, Tan F, Zhou S, Würthwein G, Rohdewald P. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci. 2004;75:2505-13 pubmed
    ..Mild and transient unwanted effects were reported for both groups without significant differences. Supplementation of Pycnogenol to conventional diabetes treatment lowers glucose levels and improves endothelial function. ..
  32. Ghuysen A, Lambermont B, Dogne J, Kolh P, Tchana Sato V, Morimont P, et al. Effect of BM-573 [N-terbutyl-N'-[2-(4'-methylphenylamino)-5-nitro-benzenesulfonyl]urea], a dual thromboxane synthase inhibitor and thromboxane receptor antagonist, in a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;310:964-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in this animal model of acute pulmonary embolism, infusion of BM-573 reduced pulmonary vasoconstriction. As a result, right ventricular-vascular coupling values were maintained at a maximal efficiency level. ..
  33. Shahbazian A, Schuligoi R, Heinemann A, Peskar B, Holzer P. Disturbance of peristalsis in the guinea-pig isolated small intestine by indomethacin, but not cyclo-oxygenase isoform-selective inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:1299-309 pubmed
  34. Canales A, Bastida S, Librelottto J, Nus M, Sanchez Muniz F, Benedi J. Platelet aggregation, eicosanoid production and thrombogenic ratio in individuals at high cardiovascular risk consuming meat enriched in walnut paste. A crossover, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..066) in volunteers whose serum cholesterol levels were > or = 2200 mg/l. The WM diet should be considered a functional meat because it improves the thrombogenic status mainly in individuals with high-cholesterol levels or high BMI. ..
  35. Amann R, Schuligoi R, Peskar B. Effects of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors on eicosanoid biosynthesis and the release of substance P from the guinea-pig isolated perfused lung. Inflamm Res. 2001;50:50-3 pubmed
  36. Ichikawa K, Tazawa S, Hamano S, Kojima M, Hiraku S. Effect of ozagrel on locomotor and motor coordination after transient cerebral ischemia in experimental animal models. Pharmacology. 1999;59:257-65 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that ozagrel suppressed the obstruction following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion by preserving the cerebral blood flow via preventing the increase in TXA(2) and causing an increase in the PGI(2) level. ..
  37. Stamme C, Brasch F, von Bethmann A, Uhlig S. Effect of surfactant on ventilation-induced mediator release in isolated perfused mouse lungs. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2002;15:455-61 pubmed
  38. Gallicchio M, Rosa A, Benetti E, Collino M, Dianzani C, Fantozzi R. Substance P-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;147:681-9 pubmed
    ..The study shows HUVEC to possess functional NK(1) and NK(2) receptors, which mediate the ability of SP to induce expression of COX-2 in HUVEC, thus showing a previously-undetected effect of SP on endothelial cells. ..
  39. Wan Y, Vinson J, Etherton T, Proch J, Lazarus S, Kris Etherton P. Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:596-602 pubmed
  40. Giuliano F, Mitchell J, Warner T. Sodium salicylate inhibits prostaglandin formation without affecting the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299:894-900 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results exclude mechanisms other than direct enzyme inhibition as responsible for the anti-COX effects of salicylate. ..
  41. Höffner L, Nielsen J, Langberg H, Hellsten Y. Exercise but not prostanoids enhance levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and other proliferative agents in human skeletal muscle interstitium. J Physiol. 2003;550:217-25 pubmed
    ..Products of cyclooxygenase do not appear to have an effect on the release of VEGF or other proliferative agents in human skeletal muscle. ..
  42. Potenza M, Botrugno O, De Salvia M, Lerro G, Nacci C, Marasciulo F, et al. Endothelial COX-1 and -2 differentially affect reactivity of MVB in portal hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G587-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that generation of endothelial vasodilator prostanoids, from COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, accounts for the increased mesenteric blood flow in portal hypertension. ..
  43. Lu Z, Xiong X, Zhang B, Lin G, Shi Y, Liu Z, et al. Evaluation of 2 celecoxib derivatives: analgesic effect and selectivity to cyclooxygenase-2/1. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:1505-11 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon occurs partly because substitution with an isopropyl group is more beneficial for COX-2 selectivity than is substitution with a naphthyl group. ..
  44. Blumenstein M, Keelan J, Mitchell M. Hypoxia attenuates PGE(2)but increases prostacyclin and thromboxane production in human term villous trophoblast. Placenta. 2001;22:519-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a putative link between hypoxia and compromised placental perfusion. ..
  45. Rydkina E, Sahni A, Baggs R, Silverman D, Sahni S. Infection of human endothelial cells with spotted Fever group rickettsiae stimulates cyclooxygenase 2 expression and release of vasoactive prostaglandins. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5067-74 pubmed
    ..Induction of the endothelial COX-2 system and the resultant enhanced release of vasoactive PGs may contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses and vascular permeability changes during spotted fever rickettsioses. ..
  46. Xing X, Li H. Isolated liver perfusion for regional chemotherapy in rats. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:388-92 pubmed
    ..Evident injury may not occur in hepatocytes, and the changes of liver function are slight and transient by using ILP with no more than the MTD of 5-FU. ..
  47. Yang W, Herzberg G, Kang Z, Wang L, Robb D, Randell E, et al. Attenuation of ciclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity by dietary supplementation of seal oil in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:1485-92 pubmed
    ..79% and 11.93%, while those in rats maintained on SFO diet were found to be 1.67% and 22.71%, respectively. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of seal oil was found to reduce ciclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. ..
  48. Liu H, Chang L, Chen Y, Xia S, Zhang X. Clinical implication of the changes of cAMP, TXA2 and PGI2 in CSF of asphyxiated newborns. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23:195-7, 200 pubmed
    ..05). The results suggested that the concentration of cAMP, TXA2 and T/K ratio in CSF after neonatal asphyxia might be sensitive markers in evaluating the severity of brain damage in early stage and predicting the future outcome. ..
  49. Kaneko I, Hishinuma T, Suzuki K, Owada Y, Kitanaka N, Kondo H, et al. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) regulates cytokine responses of mast cells through the receptors for prostaglandin E. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:590-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides an insight into a novel function of PGF(2alpha), i.e., an autocrine accelerator for mast cell activation. ..
  50. Ye Y, Martinez J, Perez Polo R, Lin Y, Uretsky B, Birnbaum Y. The role of eNOS, iNOS, and NF-kappaB in upregulation and activation of cyclooxygenase-2 and infarct size reduction by atorvastatin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both eNOS and iNOS are essential for the IS-limiting effect of ATV. The expression of COX2 by ATV is iNOS, but not eNOS or NF-kappaB, dependent. Activation of COX2 is dependent on iNOS. ..
  51. Messner M, Albert C, Ford D. 2-Chlorohexadecanal and 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Lipids. 2008;43:581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that 2-ClHDA and its metabolite 2-ClHA, which are produced during leukocyte activation, may alter vascular endothelial cell function by upregulation of COX-2 expression. ..
  52. Wang Y, Niu F, Zhao M, Zhong B, Hao J, Yan W, et al. A clinical and experimental study on the protective effects of jiangzhi tongmai fang on endothelial injury. J Tradit Chin Med. 2002;22:87-92 pubmed
    ..The mechanism is, probably, restoration of the function of endothelial cells (EC) by increasing the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and decreasing the release of endothelin (ET) as evidenced in the experimental study. ..
  53. Chen L, He H, Fernandez Mondejar E, Hedenstierna G. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor blocks rebound response after NO inhalation in an endotoxin model. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H290-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the rebound response to INO discontinuation is related to COX products. ..