Summary: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.

Top Publications

  1. Song L, Xiao W, Templeton D. Low-concentration heparin suppresses ionomycin-activated CAMK-II/EGF receptor- and ERK-mediated signaling in mesangial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..kinases and subsequent induction of the c-fos gene in mesangial cells in response to the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, in the absence of serum factors...
  2. Méo S, Yamazaki W, Ferreira C, Perecin F, Saraiva N, Leal C, et al. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using single and combined strontium, ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine treatments. Zygote. 2007;15:295-306 pubmed
    In vitro-matured (IVM) bovine oocytes were activated with single and combined treatments of strontium (S), ionomycin (I) and 6-DMAP (D)...
  3. Nasr Esfahani M, Razavi S, Javdan Z, Tavalaee M. Artificial oocyte activation in severe teratozoospermia undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2231-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate efficiency of ionomycin on fertilization and cleavage rates, embryo development, and pregnancy rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in teratozoospermic patients. Laboratory study...
  4. Schreiber R, Uliyakina I, Kongsuphol P, Warth R, Mirza M, Martins J, et al. Expression and function of epithelial anoctamins. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that each tissue expresses a set of anoctamins that form cell- and tissue-specific Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels. ..
  5. Gao Y, Flori L, Lecardonnel J, Esquerré D, Hu Z, Teillaud A, et al. Transcriptome analysis of porcine PBMCs after in vitro stimulation by LPS or PMA/ionomycin using an expression array targeting the pig immune response. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:292 pubmed publisher
    ..mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin for 24 hours...
  6. Ye Z, Yuan M, Zhou Q, Du R, Yang W, Xiong X, et al. Differentiation and recruitment of Th9 cells stimulated by pleural mesothelial cells in human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31710 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-? was essential for Th9 cell differentiation from naïve CD4(+) T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in vitro for 5 h, and addition of IL-1?, IL-4 or IL-6 further augmented Th9 cell differentiation...
  7. Olsen I, Sollid L. Pitfalls in determining the cytokine profile of human T cells. J Immunol Methods. 2013;390:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..most widely applied methods for activation of T cells are phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) together with Ionomycin or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation...
  8. Pangrsic T, Potokar M, Stenovec M, Kreft M, Fabbretti E, Nistri A, et al. Exocytotic release of ATP from cultured astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28749-58 pubmed
    ..After ionomycin stimulation only non-directional vesicle mobility could be observed, indicating that an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) ..
  9. Abed M, Towhid S, Mia S, Pakladok T, Alesutan I, Borst O, et al. Sphingomyelinase-induced adhesion of eryptotic erythrocytes to endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mU/ml) or C6-ceramide (50 ?M) augmented erythrocyte adhesion following a 30-min treatment with Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 ?M) or following energy depletion by 48-h glucose removal...

More Information


  1. Wemhoner A, Hackspiel I, Hobi N, Ravasio A, Haller T, Rudiger M. Effects of perfluorocarbons on surfactant exocytosis and membrane properties in isolated alveolar type II cells. Respir Res. 2010;11:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, surfactant exocytosis was stimulated by either ATP, PMA or ionomycin. The effects of PFC on cell morphology, cellular viability, endocytosis, membrane permeability and fluidity were ..
  2. Canel N, Bevacqua R, Fernandez Martin R, Salamone D. Activation with ionomycin followed by dehydroleucodine and cytochalasin B for the production of parthenogenetic and cloned bovine embryos. Cell Reprogram. 2010;12:491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Oocytes were activated with 5 microM Ionomycin (Io) and exposed for 3 h to 1 or 5 microM DhL alone (Io-Dhl1 or Io-DhL5) or combined with Cytochalasin B (Io-..
  3. Le H, Graham L, Miller C, Kmieciak M, Manjili M, Bear H. Incubation of antigen-sensitized T lymphocytes activated with bryostatin 1 + ionomycin in IL-7 + IL-15 increases yield of cells capable of inducing regression of melanoma metastases compared to culture in IL-2. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:1565-76 pubmed publisher adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with tumor draining lymph node (DLN) lymphocytes activated with bryostatin and ionomycin (B/I)...
  4. Han S, Tie X, Meng L, Wang Y, Wu A. PMA and ionomycin induce glioblastoma cell death: activation-induced cell-death-like phenomena occur in glioma cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76717 pubmed publisher
    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io) can induce T cell activation and proliferation. Furthermore, they stimulate activation-induced cell death (AICD) in mature lymphocytes via Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) up-regulation...
  5. Hinrichs K, Choi Y, Varner D, Hartman D. Production of cloned horse foals using roscovitine-treated donor cells and activation with sperm extract and/or ionomycin. Reproduction. 2007;134:319-25 pubmed
    ..In experiment 1, blastocyst production after activation by injection of sperm extract followed by treatment with ionomycin was significantly higher than that for activation with a serial treatment of ionomycin, 6-DMAP, and ionomycin (..
  6. Foller M, Sopjani M, Koka S, Gu S, Mahmud H, Wang K, et al. Regulation of erythrocyte survival by AMP-activated protein kinase. FASEB J. 2009;23:1072-80 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin triggered eryptosis, an effect blunted by the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-..
  7. Heytens E, Soleimani R, Lierman S, De Meester S, Gerris J, Dhont M, et al. Effect of ionomycin on oocyte activation and embryo development in mouse. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:764-71 pubmed
    Artificial oocyte activation using the calcium ionophore ionomycin is applied successfully in assisted reproduction but some concern exists on the clinical use...
  8. Jia Y, Gao P, Chen H, Wan Y, Zhang R, Zhang Z, et al. SIRT1 suppresses PMA and ionomycin-induced ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Sci China Life Sci. 2013;56:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that expression of SIRT1 and ICAM-1 was significantly induced by PMA and ionomycin (PMA/Io) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
  9. Kucherenko Y, Zelenak C, Eberhard M, Qadri S, Lang F. Effect of casein kinase 1? activator pyrvinium pamoate on erythrocyte ion channels. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyrvinium pamoate inhibited Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channels. Ca(2+)-ionophore ionomycin (1 µM) decreased forward scatter, an effect significantly blunted by pyrvinium pamoate...
  10. Weingärtner A, dos Santos M, Drobot B, Pomorski T. Ca2+-activated transbilayer movement of plasma membrane phospholipids in Leishmania donovani during ionomycin or thapsigargin stimulation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;179:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation of parasites with ionomycin increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and triggers exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine at the cell surface...
  11. Orriss I, Knight G, Utting J, Taylor S, Burnstock G, Arnett T. Hypoxia stimulates vesicular ATP release from rat osteoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2009;220:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, increased extracellular ATP levels following acute exposure to low O(2) could influence local purinergic signaling and affect the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. ..
  12. Tian Y, Schreiber R, Kunzelmann K. Anoctamins are a family of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4991-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They may operate as Cl(-) channels located in the plasma membrane or in intracellular compartments. These results increase our understanding of the physiological significance of anoctamins and their role in disease. ..
  13. Enyeart J, Liu H, Enyeart J. Calcium-dependent inhibition of adrenal TREK-1 channels by angiotensin II and ionomycin. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In whole cell recordings with pipette solutions containing 0.5 mM EGTA and no ATP, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 ?M) produced a transient inhibition of bTREK-1 that reversed spontaneously within minutes...
  14. Heytens E, Schmitt John T, Moser J, Jensen N, Soleimani R, Young C, et al. Reduced fertilization after ICSI and abnormal phospholipase C zeta presence in spermatozoa from the wobbler mouse. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;21:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the fertilizing capacity of wobbler sperm cells was tested and the efficiency of AOA with two exposures to ionomycin to restore fertilization and embryo development was studied...
  15. Terada Y, Hasegawa H, Takahashi A, Ugajin T, Yaegashi N, Okamura K. Successful pregnancy after oocyte activation by a calcium ionophore for a patient with recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure, with an assessment of oocyte activation and sperm centrosomal function using bovine eggs. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:935.e11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..After artificial oocyte activation by exposure to ionomycin, clinical pregnancy was confirmed, and a healthy baby was born...
  16. Marquardt N, Wilk E, Pokoyski C, Schmidt R, Jacobs R. Murine CXCR3+CD27bright NK cells resemble the human CD56bright NK-cell population. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, CXCR3 serves as an additional applicable marker for improved discrimination of functionally distinct murine NK-cell subsets that comply with those in humans. ..
  17. Borst O, Abed M, Alesutan I, Towhid S, Qadri S, Foller M, et al. Dynamic adhesion of eryptotic erythrocytes to endothelial cells via CXCL16/SR-PSOX. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302:C644-51 pubmed publisher triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, which may result from treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin or from energy depletion by removal of glucose...
  18. Stankov K, Bogdanovic G, Stankov S, Draskovic D, Grubor Lajsic G, Spasic M, et al. Expression analysis of genes involved in apoptosis, proliferation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in ionomycin/PMA treated Jurkat cells. J BUON. 2012;17:369-76 pubmed
    Activation of T cells by direct stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (Io) results in numerous downstream signals that activate pathways enabling T cells to proliferate and produce cytokines...
  19. Majowicz A, van der Marel S, te Velde A, Meijer S, Petry H, van Deventer S, et al. Murine CD4?CD25? cells activated in vitro with PMA/ionomycin and anti-CD3 acquire regulatory function and ameliorate experimental colitis in vivo. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:172 pubmed publisher
    ..Using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin and anti-CD3 activation of CD4?CD25? cells we generated in vitro functional CD4?CD25? iTreg (TregPMA) cells...
  20. Hamidinia S, Tan B, Erdahl W, Chapman C, Taylor R, Pfeiffer D. The ionophore nigericin transports Pb2+ with high activity and selectivity: a comparison to monensin and ionomycin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15956-65 pubmed
    ..The selectivity of nigericin for Pb(2+) exceeds that of ionomycin or monensin and arises, at least in part, from a high stability of nigericin-Pb(2+) complexes...
  21. Urdaneta A, Jiménez A, Paramio M, Izquierdo D. Cysteamine, glutathione and ionomycin treatments improve in vitro fertilization of prepubertal goat oocytes. Zygote. 2004;12:277-84 pubmed
    ..of adding cysteamine to in vitro maturation medium, glutathione (GSH) to in vitro fertilization medium and ionomycin to the sperm capacitation medium...
  22. Stasik I, Rapak A, Kalas W, Ziolo E, Strzadala L. Ionomycin-induced apoptosis of thymocytes is independent of Nur77 NBRE or NurRE binding, but is accompanied by Nur77 mitochondrial targeting. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1773:1483-90 pubmed
    ..b>Ionomycin treatment induces endogenous Nur77 expression as well as apoptosis and cytochrome c release in thymocytes...
  23. Kaplan B, Ouyang Y, Rockwell C, Rao G, Kaminski N. 2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol suppresses interferon-gamma production in phorbol ester/ionomycin-activated mouse splenocytes independent of CB1 or CB2. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;77:966-74 pubmed
  24. Quintana F, Gerber D, Kent S, Cohen I, Shai Y. HIV-1 fusion peptide targets the TCR and inhibits antigen-specific T cell activation. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2149-58 pubmed
    ..These effects are specific: T cell activation by PMA/ionomycin or mitogenic antibodies is not affected by FPs, and FPs do not interfere with antigen-presenting cell function...
  25. Stigliani S, Zappettini S, Raiteri L, Passalacqua M, Melloni E, Venturi C, et al. Glia re-sealed particles freshly prepared from adult rat brain are competent for exocytotic release of glutamate. J Neurochem. 2006;96:656-68 pubmed
    ..The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (0...
  26. Dreolini L, Takei F. Activation of LFA-1 by ionomycin is independent of calpain-mediated talin cleavage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;356:207-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we tested the effects of the calcium ionophore ionomycin and calpain inhibitor calpeptin on LFA-1-mediated adhesion of a T cell hybridoma line, cytotoxic T cells and ..
  27. Bonanno G, Giambelli R, Raiteri L, Tiraboschi E, Zappettini S, Musazzi L, et al. Chronic antidepressants reduce depolarization-evoked glutamate release and protein interactions favoring formation of SNARE complex in hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3270-9 pubmed
    ..treatment with the three drugs only barely changed the release of glutamate (and of GABA) induced by ionomycin. In synaptic membranes of chronically treated rats we found a marked reduction in the protein-protein ..
  28. Himmerkus N, Vassen V, Sievers B, Goerke B, Shan Q, Harder J, et al. Human beta-defensin-2 increases cholinergic response in colon epithelium. Pflugers Arch. 2010;460:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..043 microg/ml, and still present in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Also, the ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) transient was increased by hBD-2 treatment...
  29. Braley A, Kwak T, Jules J, Harja E, Landgraf R, Hudson B. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12057-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ..
  30. Chandele A, Sewatanon J, Gunisetty S, Singla M, Onlamoon N, Akondy R, et al. Characterization of Human CD8 T Cell Responses in Dengue Virus-Infected Patients from India. J Virol. 2016;90:11259-11278 pubmed
    ..but produced IFN-? by TCR-independent polyclonal stimulation (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA] plus ionomycin)...
  31. Vernon P, Schaub L, Dallelucca J, Pusateri A, Sheppard F. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0146105 pubmed publisher
    ..NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson's test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0...
  32. Tian W, Wijewickrama G, Kim J, Das S, Tun M, Gokhale N, et al. Mechanism of regulation of group IVA phospholipase A2 activity by Ser727 phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3960-71 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies provide new insight into the regulatory mechanism of cPLA(2)alpha through Ser(727) phosphorylation. ..
  33. Tsaadon L, Kaplan Kraicer R, Shalgi R. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, but not Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, is the mediator in cortical granules exocytosis. Reproduction. 2008;135:613-24 pubmed publisher
    ..eggs with mutant-unphosphorylatable MARCKS reduced the intensity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate or ionomycin-induced CGE by 50%, indicating that phosphorylation of MARCKS by novel and/or conventional PKCs (n/cPKCs) is a ..
  34. Tobío A, Alfonso A, Botana L. C-kit mutations and PKC crosstalks: PKC translocates to nucleous only in cells HMC???,?¹?. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2637-51 pubmed publisher
    ..PKC activation increases ionomycin-induced histamine release in HMC-1(560) ...
  35. Mendel I, Shoham A, Propheta Meiran O, Ishai E, Halperin G, Feige E, et al. A Lecinoxoid, an oxidized phospholipid small molecule, constrains CNS autoimmune disease. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;226:126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data presents a novel prospect for the role of Ox-PL analogs in CNS inflammatory diseases. ..
  36. Gobran L, Rooney S. Regulation of SP-B and SP-C secretion in rat type II cells in primary culture. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L1413-9 pubmed fivefold by terbutaline, 5'-(N-ethylcarboxyamido)adenosine, ATP, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, and ionomycin. Similar to their effects on phospholipid secretion, the stimulatory effects of the agonists were abolished by ..
  37. Ferrero J, Ramírez Franco J, Martín R, Bartolomé Martín D, Torres M, Sánchez Prieto J. Cross-talk between metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 and beta adrenergic receptor signaling at cerebrocortical nerve terminals. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:412-25 pubmed publisher
  38. Abdalla H, Shimoda M, Hirabayashi M, Hochi S. A combined treatment of ionomycin with ethanol improves blastocyst development of bovine oocytes harvested from stored ovaries and microinjected with spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 2009;72:453-60 pubmed publisher
    ..After ICSI, oocytes were treated with 5microM ionomycin for 5 min, 7% ethanol for 5 or 10min, ionomycin followed by ethanol (5 or 10 min), ionomycin followed by 10 ..
  39. El Bassuoni M, Soliman M, El Megeed N, Al Gazar A. IL-17 Producing Cells and RORγt mRNA Transcriptional Factor in Cirrhotic and HCC Egyptian Patients. Egypt J Immunol. 2015;22:59-68 pubmed
    ..Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with cytosim, ionomycin and monensin, and surface (CD4-PE)as well as intracellular staining for Th17 (IL-17 FITC) was performed...
  40. Kipanyula M, Woodhoo A, Rahman M, Payne D, Jessen K, Mirsky R. Calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells regulation of Krox-20 expression in Schwann cells requires elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of this pathway requires elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. The calcium ionophore A23187 or ionomycin was used to increase intracellular Ca(2+) levels in Schwann cell cultures that had been treated with dibutyryl ..
  41. Zhu F, Khatri I, Spaner D, Gorczynski R. An autologous tumor vaccine for CLL. Leuk Res. 2018;68:40-47 pubmed publisher
    ..following stimulation of CLL cells with Phorbol myristic acetate, IL-2, the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (P2I) and ionomycin (P2Iio), markedly increased expression of CD54 and CD83 was seen, indicative of B cell activation and a ..
  42. Shilling D, Mak D, Kang D, Foskett J. Lack of evidence for presenilins as endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak channels. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:10933-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, cells lacking PS or expressing a FAD-linked PS mutation displayed increased area under the ionomycin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) versus time curve (AI) compared with cells expressing WT PS...
  43. Hossain A, Jung L. Expression of bone specific alkaline phosphatase on human B cells. Cell Immunol. 2008;253:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of B lymphocytes using phorbal ester, PMA with or without ionomycin did not affect change in BAP expression...
  44. Sato T, Hongu T, Sakamoto M, Funakoshi Y, Kanaho Y. Molecular mechanisms of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced superoxide generation and degranulation in mouse neutrophils: phospholipase D is dispensable. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The calcium ionophore ionomycin and the membrane-permeative compound 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OADG) synergistically induced superoxide ..
  45. Potokar M, Stenovec M, Gabrijel M, Li L, Kreft M, Grilc S, et al. Intermediate filaments attenuate stimulation-dependent mobility of endosomes/lysosomes in astrocytes. Glia. 2010;58:1208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulation with ionomycin or ATP enhanced the mobility of VGLUT1-positive vesicles and reduced the mobility of ANP-positive vesicles in WT ..
  46. Conde S, Obeso A, Monteiro E, Gonzalez C. The A(2B)-D(2) receptor interaction that controls carotid body catecholamines release locates between the last two steps of hypoxic transduction cascade. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;648:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..D(2) receptor agonists applied alone or conjunctly, was studied on the basal and evoked release (10% O(2) and ionomycin) of CA from CB...
  47. Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Nakajima Y, Komuro I, Matsuda T, Baba A, et al. A Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoform, NCX1, is involved in retinal cell death after N-methyl-D-aspartate injection and ischemia-reperfusion. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:906-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that NCX1 may play a role in retinal cell death induced by NMDA and ischemia-reperfusion. ..
  48. Qiu Z, Zhang M, Zhu Y, Zheng F, Lu P, Liu H, et al. Multifunctional CD4 T cell responses in patients with active tuberculosis. Sci Rep. 2012;2:216 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that patients with tuberculosis had decreased PMA/ionomycin stimulated multifunctional CD4 T cells, and increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific ..
  49. Torkkeli P, Panek I, Meisner S. Ca²(+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mediates the octopamine-induced increase in sensitivity in spider VS-3 mechanosensory neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1186-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in sensitivity were also detected when the Ca²(+) ionophore ionomycin or the cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP was applied...
  50. Kubo M, Kamiya Y, Nagashima R, Maekawa T, Eshima K, Azuma S, et al. LRRK2 is expressed in B-2 but not in B-1 B cells, and downregulated by cellular activation. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;229:123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that LRRK2, whose true function has not yet been clarified, may play some important role(s) in the development and function of B cells, particularly the maintenance of B-2 cells in a resting status. ..
  51. Bourdeau R, Malito E, Chenal A, Bishop B, Musch M, Villereal M, et al. Cellular functions and X-ray structure of anthrolysin O, a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel structural elements and unique cellular functions of ALO revealed by our studies provide new insight into the molecular basis for the diverse nature of the CDC family. ..
  52. Wang S, Ehrlich D. Image-Based Phenotypic Screening with Human Primary T Cells Using One-Dimensional Imaging Cytometry with Self-Tuning Statistical-Gating Algorithms. SLAS Discov. 2017;22:985-994 pubmed publisher
    ..55 and strictly standardized mean difference of 13 with standard phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin induction...
  53. Kostova E, Beuger B, Klei T, Halonen P, Lieftink C, Beijersbergen R, et al. Identification of signalling cascades involved in red blood cell shrinkage and vesiculation. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher
    ..We have established a screening method for RBC vesicle shedding using the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin which is a rapid and efficient method to promote vesiculation...