conjugated linoleic acids


Summary: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.

Top Publications

  1. Whigham L, Watras A, Schoeller D. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1203-11 pubmed
    ..05 +/- 0.05 kg/wk; P<0.001) and for the CLA group compared with placebo (0.09 +/- 0.08 kg/wk; P<0.001) Given at a dose of 3.2 g/d, CLA produces a modest loss in body fat in humans. ..
  2. McKain N, Shingfield K, Wallace R. Metabolism of conjugated linoleic acids and 18 : 1 fatty acids by ruminal bacteria: products and mechanisms. Microbiology. 2010;156:579-88 pubmed publisher
  3. Dauchy R, Dauchy E, Davidson L, Krause J, Lynch D, Tirrell P, et al. Inhibition of fatty acid transport and proliferative activity in tissue-isolated human squamous cell cancer xenografts perfused in situ with melatonin or eicosapentaenoic or conjugated linoleic acids. Comp Med. 2007;57:377-82 pubmed
    Melatonin and eicosapentaenoic and 10t,12c-conjugated linoleic acids suppress the growth-stimulating effects of linoleic acid (LA) and its metabolism to the mitogenic agent 13-(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-(S)-HODE) in established ..
  4. Iwata T, Kamegai T, Yamauchi Sato Y, Ogawa A, Kasai M, Aoyama T, et al. Safety of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a 12-weeks trial in healthy overweight Japanese male volunteers. J Oleo Sci. 2007;56:517-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CLA at a dose of 3.4 g/day is a safe dietary level in healthy Japanese populations in terms of the parameters examined. ..
  5. Nakamura Y, Omaye S. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers' roles in the regulation of PPAR-gamma and NF-kappaB DNA binding and subsequent expression of antioxidant enzymes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Nutrition. 2009;25:800-11 pubmed publisher
  6. Mitchell P, McLeod R. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis: studies in animal models. Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;86:293-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are isomeric forms of linoleic acid (LA) containing two conjugated sites of unsaturation...
  7. Lasa A, Churruca I, Simón E, Fernández Quintela A, Rodriguez V, Portillo M. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:1245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment. ..
  8. Ip M, McGee S, Masso Welch P, Ip C, Meng X, Ou L, et al. The t10,c12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice over-expressing erbB2 in the mammary epithelium. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1269-76 pubmed
    ..However, even though c9,t11-CLA was not efficacious in the erbB2 model, its ability to inhibit mammary tumor development in rat models suggests that it may have activity for prevention of some types of breast cancer. ..
  9. Nazare J, de la Perrière A, Bonnet F, Desage M, Peyrat J, MaItrepierre C, et al. Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:273-80 pubmed
    ..Moreover, changes in mRNA PPAR gamma and HSL in adipose tissue were recorded. ..

More Information


  1. Jenkins T, Wallace R, Moate P, Mosley E. Board-invited review: Recent advances in biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids within the rumen microbial ecosystem. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:397-412 pubmed
  2. Kelley N, Hubbard N, Erickson K. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. J Nutr. 2007;137:2599-607 pubmed
    ..Additional studies with purified isomers are needed to establish the health benefit and risk ratios of each isomer in humans. ..
  3. Steck S, Chalecki A, Miller P, Conway J, Austin G, Hardin J, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. J Nutr. 2007;137:1188-93 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term. ..
  4. Gaullier J, Halse J, Høivik H, Høye K, Syvertsen C, Nurminiemi M, et al. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:550-60 pubmed
    ..Adverse events did not differ between the groups. It is concluded that supplementation with CLA in healthy, overweight and obese adults decreases BFM in specific regions and is well tolerated. ..
  5. Lambert E, Goedecke J, Bluett K, Heggie K, Claassen A, Rae D, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid versus high-oleic acid sunflower oil: effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individuals. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:1001-11 pubmed
  6. Prais Botelho A, Santos Zago L, Costa de Oliveira A. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation modified the body composition and serum leptin levels in weaning rats. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2008;58:156-63 pubmed
    ..05). Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid in the concentration of 2% of mean daily feed consumption was able to change body composition of rats after 42 days of experimentation. ..
  7. Moloney F, Toomey S, Noone E, Nugent A, Allan B, Loscher C, et al. Antidiabetic effects of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid may be mediated via anti-inflammatory effects in white adipose tissue. Diabetes. 2007;56:574-82 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that altering fatty acid composition may attenuate the proinflammatory state in adipose tissue that predisposes to obesity-induced insulin resistance. ..
  8. Kennedy A, Chung S, Lapoint K, Fabiyi O, McIntosh M. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid antagonizes ligand-dependent PPARgamma activity in primary cultures of human adipocytes. J Nutr. 2008;138:455-61 pubmed
    ..Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that 10,12 CLA antagonizes ligand-dependent PPARgamma activity, possibly via PPARgamma phosphorylation by ERK. ..
  9. Ringseis R, Gahler S, Herter C, Eder K. Conjugated linoleic acids exert similar actions on prostanoid release from aortic and coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2006;76:281-9 pubmed
    b>Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are biologically active lipid compounds exerting anti-atherogenic actions in vivo without exact knowledge about the underlying mechanisms...
  10. Aryaeian N, Shahram F, Djalali M, Eshragian M, Djazayeri A, Sarrafnejad A, et al. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids, vitamin E and their combination on the clinical outcome of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Rheum Dis. 2009;12:20-8 pubmed publisher
    Despite beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in animal studies, there is little information on their effects on human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
  11. LeDoux M, Laloux L, Fontaine J, Carpentier Y, Chardigny J, Sebedio J. Rumenic acid significantly reduces plasma levels of LDL and small dense LDL cholesterol in hamsters fed a cholesterol- and lipid-enriched semi-purified diet. Lipids. 2007;42:135-41 pubmed
    b>Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) consist of a series of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid. CLA have been reported to beneficially affect cardiovascular risk factors in animal models...
  12. Mullen A, Moloney F, Nugent A, Doyle L, Cashman K, Roche H. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduces peripheral blood mononuclear cell interleukin-2 production in healthy middle-aged males. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:658-66 pubmed
    ..This study showed that CLA supplementation reduced PBMC IL-2 secretion from Con A-stimulated PBMC but lacked effect on other markers of the human inflammatory response. ..
  13. Murphy E, Hooiveld G, Muller M, Calogero R, Cashman K. Conjugated linoleic acid alters global gene expression in human intestinal-like Caco-2 cells in an isomer-specific manner. J Nutr. 2007;137:2359-65 pubmed
    ..These may help our mechanistic understanding of the role of CLA in promoting gut function and health. ..
  14. Chapkin R, McMurray D, Davidson L, Patil B, Fan Y, Lupton J. Bioactive dietary long-chain fatty acids: emerging mechanisms of action. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:1152-7 pubmed publisher
  15. Bu D, Wang J, Dhiman T, Liu S. Effectiveness of oils rich in linoleic and linolenic acids to enhance conjugated linoleic acid in milk from dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:998-1007 pubmed
    ..Increasing the proportion of healthy fatty acids (VA and CLA) by feeding soybean or flaxseed oil would result in milk with higher nutritive and therapeutic value. ..
  16. Santos Zago L, Botelho A, de Oliveira A. Supplementation with commercial mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid in association with vitamin E and the process of lipid autoxidation in rats. Lipids. 2007;42:845-54 pubmed
    ..46 +/- 16.65 pg/ml). It was concluded that the influence of CLA on lipid autoxidation is dependent on supplement type, supplement dosage and chosen indicator, including its tissue and determination methodology. ..
  17. Bergamo P, Maurano F, Rossi M. Phase 2 enzyme induction by conjugated linoleic acid improves lupus-associated oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:71-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion our data indicate that the activation of detoxifying enzymes may be one of the mechanisms whereby dietary CLA down-regulates oxidative stress in MRL/lpr mice. ..
  18. Rist L, Mueller A, Barthel C, Snijders B, Jansen M, Simões Wüst A, et al. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:735-43 pubmed
    ..A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed. ..
  19. Noto A, Zahradka P, Yurkova N, Xie X, Nitschmann E, Ogborn M, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces hepatic steatosis, improves liver function, and favorably modifies lipid metabolism in obese insulin-resistant rats. Lipids. 2006;41:179-88 pubmed
    ..In summary, these results illustrate a strong relationship between the state of insulin resistance and liver lipid metabolism and suggest that CLA acts to favorably modify lipid metabolism in fa/fa Zucker rats. ..
  20. Kennedy A, Overman A, Lapoint K, Hopkins R, West T, Chuang C, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes are attenuated by resveratrol. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that RSV prevents 10,12 CLA-mediated insulin resistance and delipidation in human adipocytes by attenuating inflammation and cellular stress and increasing PPARgamma activity. ..
  21. Miller J, Siripurkpong P, Hawes J, Majdalawieh A, Ro H, McLeod R. The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid decreases adiponectin assembly by PPARgamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent mechanisms. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:550-62 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the t-10, c-12 CLA isomer appears to alter adipocyte adiponectin metabolism through PPARgamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent mechanisms. ..
  22. Thrush A, Chabowski A, Heigenhauser G, McBride B, Or Rashid M, Dyck D. Conjugated linoleic acid increases skeletal muscle ceramide content and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight, non-diabetic humans. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32:372-82 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, mixed-isomer CLA supplementation in overweight non-diabetic humans results in the accumulation of CLA and ceramide in skeletal muscle, and decreases insulin sensitivity. ..
  23. Eder K, Slomma N, Becker K, Brandsch C. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on concentrations of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver phospholipids of rats fed diets containing either an oil rich in conjugated linoleic acids, sunflower oil or high-oleic acid sunflower oil. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2005;89:45-54 pubmed
    ..The results show that feeding the CLA oil reduced the formation of arachidonic acid and eicosanoids but enhanced the formation of long chain (n-3) PUFA and their incorporation into tissue lipids when compared with feeding SFO or HO-SFO. ..
  24. Kim J, Kim J, Kim Y, Oh Y, Kim I, Chee Y, et al. Conjugated linoleic acids produced by Lactobacillus dissociates IKK-gamma and Hsp90 complex in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Lab Invest. 2008;88:541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the role of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) produced by probiotics in interactions of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) ..
  25. Ohashi A, Matsushita Y, Kimura K, Miyashita K, Saito M. Conjugated linoleic acid deteriorates insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice in association with decreased production of adiponectin and leptin. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004;50:416-21 pubmed
    Dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) is known to have some beneficial effects such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects in several animal species, while it also induces insulin resistance and fatty liver, ..
  26. Castro N, Capote J, Martin D, Arguello A. The influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on blood serum and colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration in female goats before and after parturition. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006;90:429-31 pubmed
    ..Before partum, IgG serum blood levels were 15.6 and 9.4 mg/ml (CLA and control, respectively); the time effect was statistically significant. After partum (96 h), the effect of CLA dietary inclusion was statistically significant. ..
  27. Bhattacharya A, Banu J, Rahman M, Causey J, Fernandes G. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:789-810 pubmed
    ..This review also discusses the latest available information from clinical studies in these areas of research. ..
  28. Kelly O, Cashman K. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on calcium absorption and bone metabolism and composition in adult ovariectomised rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004;71:295-301 pubmed
    ..001) lowered by CLA supplementation with 5 and 10, but not 2.5 g/kg diet in OVX rats. In conclusion, CLA supplementation appeared to reduce the rate of bone resorption in adult OVX rats. ..
  29. Ponnampalam E, Mann N, Sinclair A. Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15:21-9 pubmed
    ..Data from the present study show that grain feeding decreases functional lipid components (long chain n-3 FA and CLA) in Australian beef regardless of meat cuts, while increasing total trans 18:1 and saturated FA levels. ..
  30. Naumann E, Carpentier Y, Saebo A, Lassel T, Chardigny J, Sebedio J, et al. Cis-9, trans- 11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) do not affect the plasma lipoprotein profile in moderately overweight subjects with LDL phenotype B. Atherosclerosis. 2006;188:167-74 pubmed
    ..In humans with LDL phenotype B, c9, t11 CLA and t10, c12 CLA do not beneficially change risk factors for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. ..
  31. Song H, Grant I, Rotondo D, Mohede I, Sattar N, Heys S, et al. Effect of CLA supplementation on immune function in young healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:508-17 pubmed
    ..This study was supported by Loders-Croklaan, The Netherlands and SEERAD (Scottish Executive Environmental Rural and Agriculture Department). ..
  32. Lim D, Tyner A, Park J, Lee J, Choi Y, Park J. Inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation by the dietary compound conjugated linoleic acid is mediated by the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205:107-13 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that physiological concentrations of CLA inhibit growth of colon cancer cells with either wild-type or mutant p53, and may have therapeutic benefits in vivo. ..
  33. Tappia P, Mangat R, Gabriel C, Dent M, Aroutiounova N, Weiler H. Gender differences in the cardiac response to dietary conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;84:257-64 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that CLA isomers exert differential effects on heart function and suggest the need for a complete evaluation of the benefits, interactions, and potential side effects of each isomer. ..
  34. Granlund L, Pedersen J, Nebb H. Impaired lipid accumulation by trans10, cis12 CLA during adipocyte differentiation is dependent on timing and length of treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1687:11-22 pubmed
    b>Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in ruminant products, where the predominant isomers are cis9, trans11 (c9,t11) and trans10, cis12 (t10,c12) CLA...
  35. Moore C, Hafliger H, Mendivil O, Sanders S, Bauman D, Baumgard L. Increasing amounts of conjugated linoleic acid progressively reduces milk fat synthesis immediately postpartum. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:1886-95 pubmed
    ..These data clearly indicate RP-CLA can markedly (40 to 50%) induce MFD immediately postpartum without negatively affecting other production parameters. ..
  36. Tricon S, Burdge G, Kew S, Banerjee T, Russell J, Grimble R, et al. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on immune cell function in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1626-33 pubmed
  37. Lee S, Yamaguchi K, Kim J, Eling T, Safe S, Park Y, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:972-81 pubmed
    b>Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), naturally occurring fatty acids in ruminant food products, have anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic properties in animal as well as in vitro models of cancer...
  38. Rahman M, Bhattacharya A, Banu J, Fernandes G. Conjugated linoleic acid protects against age-associated bone loss in C57BL/6 female mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:467-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings suggest that CLA may prevent the loss of bone and muscle mass by modulating markers of inflammation and osteoclastogenic factors. ..
  39. Watras A, Buchholz A, Close R, Zhang Z, Schoeller D. The role of conjugated linoleic acid in reducing body fat and preventing holiday weight gain. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:481-7 pubmed
    ..Although no adverse effects were seen, additional studies should evaluate the effect of prolonged use of CLA. ..
  40. Li G, Barnes D, Butz D, Bjorling D, Cook M. 10t,12c-conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase expression in vitro and in vivo. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2134-42 pubmed
    ..These data suggested that the inhibition of NF-kappaB was one of the mechanisms for the reduced COX-2 expression and PGE(2) release by 10t,12c-CLA. ..
  41. Bhattacharya A, Rahman M, Sun D, Lawrence R, Mejia W, McCarter R, et al. The combination of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and treadmill exercise lowers gain in body fat mass and enhances lean body mass in high fat-fed male Balb/C mice. J Nutr. 2005;135:1124-30 pubmed
    ..b>Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were shown to decrease fat and increase lean mass in several animal studies...
  42. Banu J, Bhattacharya A, Rahman M, O shea M, Fernandes G. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2006;5:7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CLA increases bone mass in both cancellous and cortical bones, and the effects of CLA on bone is not further improved by EX in pure cortical bone of young male mice. ..
  43. Rahman M, Bhattacharya A, Fernandes G. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells by modulating RANKL signaling. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1739-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, CLA may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone diseases associated with enhanced bone resorption by excessive osteoclastogenesis. ..
  44. Tricon S, Burdge G, Kew S, Banerjee T, Russell J, Jones E, et al. Opposing effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on blood lipids in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:614-20 pubmed
    ..Divergent effects of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-10,cis-12 CLA appear on the blood lipid profile in healthy humans: trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases LDL:HDL cholesterol and total:HDL cholesterol, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA decreases them. ..
  45. Loor J, Ueda K, Ferlay A, Chilliard Y, Doreau M. Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in response to dietary forage:concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:2472-85 pubmed
    ..Duodenal flow of total conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) increased by 1.40 (LCO) to 3.01 (HCO) g/d with linseed oil...
  46. Hwang D, Kundu J, Shin J, Lee J, Lee H, Surh Y. cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid down-regulates phorbol ester-induced NF-kappaB activation and subsequent COX-2 expression in hairless mouse skin by targeting IkappaB kinase and PI3K-Akt. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:363-71 pubmed
    ..Taken together, 9Z,11E-CLA inhibits NF-kappaB driven-COX-2 expression by blocking the IKK and PI3K-Akt signaling in TPA-treated hairless mouse skin in vivo, which may account for its previously reported anti-tumor promoting effects. ..
  47. Moloney F, Yeow T, Mullen A, Nolan J, Roche H. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:887-95 pubmed
    ..Whereas CLA had positive effects on HDL metabolism and fibrinogen, a therapeutic nutrient should not be associated with potentially adverse effects on other clinical markers of type 2 diabetes. ..
  48. Cusack S, Jewell C, Cashman K. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the viability and metabolism of human osteoblast-like cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;72:29-39 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a lack of cytotoxic effect of CLA on human osteoblast-like cells and tentatively suggest a possible beneficial effect on bone formation in humans. ..
  49. Graves E, Hitt A, Pariza M, Cook M, McCarthy D. Conjugated linoleic acid preserves gastrocnemius muscle mass in mice bearing the colon-26 adenocarcinoma. Res Nurs Health. 2005;28:48-55 pubmed
    ..CLA preserved gastrocnemius muscle mass and reduced TNF receptors in muscle of tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that CLA may preserve muscle mass by reducing the catabolic effects of TNF on skeletal muscle. ..
  50. Kim H, Kim S, Ahn J, Cho I, Yoon C, Ha T. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid peroxidation by increasing oxidative stability in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005;51:8-15 pubmed
    ..5% CLA group than in other groups. These results suggest that dietary CLA has antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity by increasing oxidative stability in plasma and hepatic membrane in the vitamin E-deficient rats. ..
  51. Hornung E, Krueger C, Pernstich C, Gipmans M, Porzel A, Feussner I. Production of (10E,12Z)-conjugated linoleic acid in yeast and tobacco seeds. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1738:105-14 pubmed
    ..CLA was only detected in seeds in coPAI-transgenic plants. The amount of CLA detected in esterified fatty acids was up to 0.3%, in free fatty acids up to 15%. ..
  52. Degrace P, Moindrot B, Mohamed I, Gresti J, Du Z, Chardigny J, et al. Upregulation of liver VLDL receptor and FAT/CD36 expression in LDLR-/- apoB100/100 mice fed trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:2647-55 pubmed
  53. Riserus U, Vessby B, Arnlov J, Basu S. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:279-83 pubmed
    ..Because c9,t11 CLA occurs in commercial supplements as well as in the diet, the present results should be confirmed in larger studies that also include women. ..