essential fatty acids


Summary: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Das U. Essential fatty acids: biochemistry, physiology and pathology. Biotechnol J. 2006;1:420-39 pubmed
    b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential for humans, and are freely available in the diet. Hence, EFA deficiency is extremely rare in humans...
  2. Sushchik N. [Role of essential fatty acids in trophometabolic interactions in the freshwater ecosystems (a review)]. Zh Obshch Biol. 2008;69:299-316 pubmed
    ..Despite the great practical importance, the studies focused on production and whole pools of omega3 PUFA in different freshwater ecosystems are still scarce and need to be continued. ..
  3. Jeppesen P, Szkudlarek J, Høy C, Mortensen P. Effect of high-dose growth hormone and glutamine on body composition, urine creatinine excretion, fatty acid absorption, and essential fatty acids status in short bowel patients: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:48-54 pubmed
  4. Kainz M, Telmer K, Mazumder A. Bioaccumulation patterns of methyl mercury and essential fatty acids in lacustrine planktonic food webs and fish. Sci Total Environ. 2006;368:271-82 pubmed
    ..We measured concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) and essential fatty acids (EFAs, key nutrients for aquatic food webs) in four size categories of planktonic organisms - seston (10-..
  5. Rosenberg E, Asbell P. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye. Ocul Surf. 2010;8:18-28 pubmed
    b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs) play many important roles in human biology, affecting organ systems and cellular and intracellular function...
  6. Das U. Biological significance of essential fatty acids. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:309-19 pubmed
    b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs)--linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are critical for human survival. EFAs are readily available in the diet...
  7. Das U. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s)?. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic ..
  8. Lerman R. Essential fatty acids. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12:20-9; quiz 30-1 pubmed
  9. Catala A. A synopsis of the process of lipid peroxidation since the discovery of the essential fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:318-23 pubmed publisher
    Eighty years ago, Burr and Burr, introduced for the first time the concept of essential fatty acids. Now is very well known that requirements for polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs can not be met by de novo metabolic processes within ..

More Information


  1. Messamore E. Relationship between the niacin skin flush response and essential fatty acids in schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:413-9 pubmed flush response is consistent with biochemical data suggesting relative depletion of AA, and other essential fatty acids (EFAs), in a substantial portion of people with SCZ...
  2. Das U. Essential fatty acids and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:RA206-211 pubmed
    ..I propose that essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites could be useful in the prevention and management of AIDS...
  3. Das U. Is metabolic syndrome X a disorder of the brain with the initiation of low-grade systemic inflammatory events during the perinatal period?. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18:701-13 pubmed
  4. Das U. Essential fatty acids and their metabolites could function as endogenous HMG-CoA reductase and ACE enzyme inhibitors, anti-arrhythmic, anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and cardioprotective molecules. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:37 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their long-chain metabolites: gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA (DGLA), arachidonic acid, ..
  5. McCowen K, Bistrian B. Essential fatty acids and their derivatives. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2005;21:207-15 pubmed
    This review will address recent research in metabolism of essential fatty acids and their long chain derivatives...
  6. Das U. Can perinatal supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents schizophrenia in adult life?. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10:HY33-7 pubmed
    ..I suggest that maternal infection perse interferes with the metabolism of essential fatty acids (EFAs) resulting in deficiency of LCPUFAs that are known to have neuroprotective action...
  7. Kettler D. Can manipulation of the ratios of essential fatty acids slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss?. Altern Med Rev. 2001;6:61-77 pubmed
    ..Evidence also points to the possible benefit of gamma-linolenic acid in preserving bone density. ..
  8. Xie L, Innis S. Association of fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphisms with blood lipid essential fatty acids and perinatal depression among Canadian women: a pilot study. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2009;2:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..028, and higher LA and lower ARA in plasma (p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001) and RBC ethanolamine phospholipids (p = 0.007, p = 0.005). We show that SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 are associated with higher blood lipid LA and lower ARA and PPD risk. ..
  9. Das U, Vaddadi K. Essential fatty acids in Huntington's disease. Nutrition. 2004;20:942-7 pubmed
    ..disease and show increased survival rates and decreased neurologic deficits when supplemented with essential fatty acids throughout life...
  10. Burgess J, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:327S-30S pubmed publisher
    ..We are currently testing this relation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention in a population of children with clinically diagnosed ADHD who exhibit symptoms of EFA deficiency. ..
  11. Mostofsky D, Yehuda S, Rabinovitz S, Carasso R. The control of blepharospasm by essential fatty acids. Neuropsychobiology. 2000;41:154-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a favorable prospect for essential fatty acids in general, and SR-3 in particular, to provide an improved therapeutic option for the clinical management ..
  12. Vaddadi K, Hakansson K, Clifford J, Waddington J. Tardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acids. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006;18:133-43 pubmed
    ..b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are important components of neuronal membrane and the EFA content of these membranes can ..
  13. Ziboh V, Cho Y, Mani I, Xi S. Biological significance of essential fatty acids/prostanoids/lipoxygenase-derived monohydroxy fatty acids in the skin. Arch Pharm Res. 2002;25:747-58 pubmed
  14. Yehuda S, Rabinovitz S, Carasso R, Mostofsky D. Long-lasting cognitive, physiological and hematological effects in rehabilitated, early dietary iron-deficiency adult rats, and improvement by treatment with a mixture of essential fatty acids. Nutr Neurosci. 2008;11:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with a mixture of essential fatty acids improved their learning capacity.
  15. Das U. COX-2 inhibitors and metabolism of essential fatty acids. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:RA233-7 pubmed
    ..EPA, DHA, and AA augment eNO formation that has anti-atherosclerotic action. Hence, combining EFAs with COX-2 inhibitors will prevent thrombotic cardiovascular events. ..
  16. Das U. Essential Fatty acids - a review. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006;7:467-82 pubmed
    b>Essential fatty acids (EFAs): cis-linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are essential for humans and their deficiency is rare in humans due to their easy availability in diet...
  17. Poisson J, Dupuy R, Sarda P, Descomps B, Narce M, Rieu D, et al. Evidence that liver microsomes of human neonates desaturate essential fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1167:109-13 pubmed
    delta 6- and delta 5-Desaturation of essential fatty acids of n-6 and n-3 series are required for the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are precursors of eicosanoids and constituents of membrane phospholipids...
  18. Pietrobelli A, Agosti M. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: Ten Practices to Minimize Obesity Emerging from Published Science. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..8) The intake of adequate fat containing essential fatty acids should be promoted...
  19. Quilliot D, Walters E, Bohme P, Lacroix B, Bonte J, Fruchart J, et al. Fatty acid abnormalities in chronic pancreatitis: effect of concomitant diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:496-503 pubmed
    ..The consequences of these deficiencies are not evaluated in this disease. However, correction of the fundamental deficiencies in essential fatty acids and in selenium seems desirable in chronic pancreatitis.
  20. Hammad S, Pu S, Jones P. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease. Lipids. 2016;51:507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are ..
  21. Alves C, Lima D. Cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia. J Bras Pneumol. 2008;34:829-37 pubmed
    ..Since hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, prospective studies will contribute for a better understanding of the natural history of this condition and define how to prevent and treat it. ..
  22. Garcia Contreras C, Vazquez Gomez M, Astiz S, Torres Rovira L, Sanchez Sanchez R, Gomez Fidalgo E, et al. Ontogeny of Sex-Related Differences in Foetal Developmental Features, Lipid Availability and Fatty Acid Composition. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..similar in male and female offspring, but female foetuses showed evidence of higher placental transfer of essential fatty acids and synthesis of non-essential fatty acids in muscle and liver...
  23. Beydoun M, Kaufman J, Ibrahim J, Satia J, Heiss G. Measurement error adjustment in essential fatty acid intake from a food frequency questionnaire: alternative approaches and methods. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2007;7:41 pubmed
    ..We found in many cases that bias in naïve odds ratios was towards the null. RCAL tended to correct for a larger amount of effect bias than SIMEX, particularly for Approach A. ..
  24. Bartelt A, Koehne T, Tödter K, Reimer R, Müller B, Behler Janbeck F, et al. Quantification of Bone Fatty Acid Metabolism and Its Regulation by Adipocyte Lipoprotein Lipase. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..specifically in adipocytes, we show that impaired fatty acid flux leads to reduced amounts of dietary essential fatty acids while there was a profound increase in de novo produced fatty acids in both bone marrow and cortical bone...
  25. Vaddadi K. Essential fatty acids and mental illness. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006;18:81-4 pubmed
  26. Das U. Essential Fatty Acids. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006;7:455 pubmed
  27. Polizzi A, Fouché E, Ducheix S, Lasserre F, Marmugi A, Mselli Lakhal L, et al. Hepatic Fasting-Induced PPAR? Activity Does Not Depend on Essential Fatty Acids. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..The changes were particularly marked in mice fed diets lacking essential fatty acids. However, fasting, rather than specific dietary fatty acids, induced acute PPAR? activity in the liver...
  28. Lett H, Davidson J, Blumenthal J. Nonpharmacologic treatments for depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosom Med. 2005;67 Suppl 1:S58-62 pubmed
    ..John's wort (SJW), essential fatty acids (EFAs), S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), acupuncture, and chromium picolinate (CP)...
  29. Mridha M, Matias S, Paul R, Hussain S, Sarker M, Hossain M, et al. Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect Pregnancy or Childbirth Complications or Cesarean Delivery in Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. J Nutr. 2017;147:1776-1784 pubmed publisher
    ..60 mg Fe + 400 ?g folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and 22 vitamins and minerals...
  30. Rahbeeni F, Hendrikse A, Smuts C, Gelderblom W, Abel S, Blekkenhorst G. The effect of evening primrose oil on the radiation response and blood flow of mouse normal and tumour tissue. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000;76:871-7 pubmed
    ..Daily evening primrose oil supplementation reduced the sensitivity of skin to radiation-induced moist desquamation but did not alter tumour sensitivity to radiation. ..
  31. Rowsey T, Karamichos D. The role of lipids in corneal diseases and dystrophies: a systematic review. Clin Transl Med. 2017;6:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipid-based therapeutics discussed includes cyclooxygenase inhibitors, essential fatty acids, and resolvin analogs...
  32. Adams J, Audhya T, Geis E, Gehn E, Fimbres V, Pollard E, et al. Comprehensive Nutritional and Dietary Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Randomized, Controlled 12-Month Trial. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..with a special vitamin/mineral supplement, and additional treatments were added sequentially, including essential fatty acids, Epsom salt baths, carnitine, digestive enzymes, and a healthy gluten-free, casein-free, soy-free (HGCSF) ..
  33. Stewart M, Webster J, Verkerk G, Schaefer A, Colyn J, Stafford K. Non-invasive measurement of stress in dairy cows using infrared thermography. Physiol Behav. 2007;92:520-5 pubmed
    ..The increases in eye temperature following catheterization however raise the possibility that a cognitive component may be required for an eye temperature response to occur. ..
  34. Khan M, Evans D, Gunna V, Scheffer R, Parikh V, Mahadik S. Reduced erythrocyte membrane essential fatty acids and increased lipid peroxides in schizophrenia at the never-medicated first-episode of psychosis and after years of treatment with antipsychotics. Schizophr Res. 2002;58:1-10 pubmed
    ..These findings may have a significant impact on improving strategies for supplementation of EPUFAs and antioxidants to improve the outcome of schizophrenia. ..
  35. Harrison R, Holt D, Pattison D, Elton P. Who and how many people are taking herbal supplements? A survey of 21,923 adults. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74:183-6 pubmed
    ..The evidence base to support some popular herbal supplements is weak. Large well-designed trials are needed to quantify the value of herbal supplements to health and well-being. ..
  36. Voloski F, Tonello L, Ramires T, Reta G, Dewes C, Iglesias M, et al. Influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf life of buffalo meat. Meat Sci. 2016;116:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..composition of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) meat (high iron content, high biological value proteins and essential fatty acids, low amounts of fat and cholesterol), we evaluated the influence of cutting and deboning operations on the ..
  37. Kabagambe E, Baylin A, Ascherio A, Campos H. The type of oil used for cooking is associated with the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in costa rica. J Nutr. 2005;135:2674-9 pubmed
    ..Dietary intake was assessed with a validated semiquantitative FFQ. Adipose tissue profiles of essential fatty acids were assessed to validate cooking oil intake and found to be consistent with self-reported major oils used ..
  38. Yang D, Huynh H, Wan Y. Milk lipid regulation at the maternal-offspring interface. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2018;81:141-148 pubmed publisher
    Milk lipids provide a large proportion of energy, nutrients, essential fatty acids, and signaling molecules for the newborns, the synthesis of which is a tightly controlled process...
  39. Strijbosch R, Lee S, Arsenault D, Andersson C, Gura K, Bistrian B, et al. Fish oil prevents essential fatty acid deficiency and enhances growth: clinical and biochemical implications. Metabolism. 2008;57:698-707 pubmed publisher
    ..This can presumably be attributed to the fact that fish oil contains not only a small amount of linoleic acid, but also arachidonic acid, which has greater efficiency to meet omega-6 fatty acid requirements. ..
  40. Li K, Zhang X, Chen G, Pei L, Xiao H, Jiang J, et al. Association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss in Chinese women. Food Funct. 2018;9:1179-1186 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the lack of essential fatty acids, high ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3, abnormal eicosanoids metabolism and low content of lysophosphatide and ..
  41. Norberg B, Kleppe L, Andersson E, Thorsen A, Rosenlund G, Hamre K. Effects of dietary arachidonic acid on the reproductive physiology of female Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;250:21-35 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a net accumulation of ARA compared to other essential fatty acids in ovarian tissue that was reflected in a decrease in EPA:ARA ratio...
  42. Myers G, Davidson P. Maternal fish consumption benefits children's development. Lancet. 2007;369:537-8 pubmed
  43. Rosa A, Maxia A, Putzu D, Atzeri A, Era B, Fais A, et al. Chemical composition of Lycium europaeum fruit oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and cell absorption. Food Chem. 2017;230:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Caco-2 cells with a non-toxic oil concentration (100?g/mL) induced a significant intracellular accumulation of essential fatty acids. The results qualify L. europaeum oil as a potential source for food/pharmaceutical applications.
  44. Hatanaka E, Harauma A, Yasuda H, Watanabe J, Nakamura M, Salem N, et al. Essentiality of arachidonic acid intake in murine early development. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016;108:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..D6D-KO male mouse pups were separated from dams within 48 hours and fed artificial milks containing 18-C essential fatty acids (EFAs) (16-17% LA, 3.8-4.1% ALA) with or without 1.2% ARA...
  45. Barreiro R, Regal P, López Racamonde O, Cepeda A, Fente C. Comparison of the fatty acid profile of Spanish infant formulas and Galician women breast milk. J Physiol Biochem. 2018;74:127-138 pubmed publisher
    ..human milk with formulas, it becomes evident that the manufacturers tend to enrich the formulas with essential fatty acids (especially with ?-linolenic acid), but arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid levels are lower than in ..
  46. Friesen R, Innis S. Maternal dietary fat alters amniotic fluid and fetal intestinal membrane essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in the rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G505-10 pubmed
    ..that maternal dietary fat influences amniotic fluid and fetal intestinal membrane structural lipid essential fatty acids. Maternal dietary fat can influence tissue composition by manipulation of amniotic fluid that is swallowed ..
  47. Solanki K, Matnani M, Kale M, Joshi K, Bavdekar A, Bhave S, et al. Transcutaneous absorption of topically massaged oil in neonates. Indian Pediatr. 2005;42:998-1005 pubmed
    ..The fatty acid constituents of the oil can influence the changes in the fatty acid profiles of the massaged babies. ..
  48. Barabino S, Horwath Winter J, Messmer E, Rolando M, Aragona P, Kinoshita S. The role of systemic and topical fatty acids for dry eye treatment. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2017;61:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two groups of essential fatty acids (EFAs): the omega-6 (n-6) family and the omega-3 (n-3) family...
  49. Lupatini A, Colla L, Canan C, Colla E. Potential application of microalga Spirulina platensis as a protein source. J Sci Food Agric. 2017;97:724-732 pubmed publisher
    ..human health owing to its chemical composition, since it has high levels of vitamins, minerals, phenolics, essential fatty acids, amino acids and pigments...
  50. Dutta Roy A. Transport mechanisms for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human placenta. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:315S-22S pubmed publisher
    ..The purified p-FABP(pm) preferentially bound with essential fatty acids (EFAs) and LCPUFAs over nonessential fatty acids...
  51. Michel S, Maqbool A, Hanna M, Mascarenhas M. Nutrition management of pediatric patients who have cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009;56:1123-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews nutrition topics frequently discussed in relationship to CF and presents intriguing new information describing nutrients currently being studied for their impact on overall health of patients who have CF. ..
  52. Puri B. Proton and 31-phosphorus neurospectroscopy in the study of membrane phospholipids and fatty acid intervention in schizophrenia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis) and dyslexia. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2006;18:145-7 pubmed
    ..The application of these techniques to the investigation of membrane phospholipid metabolism in schizophrenia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis or M.E.) and dyslexia is described. ..
  53. Chung S, Kong S, Seong K, Cho Y. Gamma-linolenic acid in borage oil reverses epidermal hyperproliferation in guinea pigs. J Nutr. 2002;132:3090-7 pubmed
    ..With primary dependence on absolute levels, our data demonstrate that the antiproliferative efficacy of GLA in the epidermis is preferably exerted from sn-2 stereospecificity of GLA in BO. ..