Summary: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Kramer M, Litman R, Hough D, Lane R, Lim P, Liu Y, et al. Paliperidone palmitate, a potential long-acting treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13:635-47 pubmed publisher
    ..PP (50 and 100 mg eq. doses) administered as a gluteal intramuscular injection was efficacious and generally tolerated in these patients with acute symptomatic schizophrenia. ..
  2. Little J, Madeira J, Klegeris A. The saturated fatty acid palmitate induces human monocytic cell toxicity toward neuronal cells: exploring a possible link between obesity-related metabolic impairments and neuroinflammation. J Alzheimers Dis. 2012;30 Suppl 2:S179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) reduces this neurotoxicity. Therefore, elevated saturated fatty acids may induce neuroinflammation through pathways involving JNK activation. ..
  3. Pandina G, Lane R, Gopal S, Gassmann Mayer C, Hough D, Remmerie B, et al. A double-blind study of paliperidone palmitate and risperidone long-acting injectable in adults with schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..4 [-1.62;2.38], per-protocol analysis set [primary analysis]). The tolerability and safety of PP was generally similar to RIS-LAI with no new safety or tolerability findings. ..
  4. Komiya K, Uchida T, Ueno T, Koike M, Abe H, Hirose T, et al. Free fatty acids stimulate autophagy in pancreatic ?-cells via JNK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Considered together, our study suggested that FFA stimulated functional autophagy possibly through the PKR-JNK1 pathway independent of ER or oxidative stress. ..
  5. Oberbach A, Schlichting N, Bluher M, Kovacs P, Till H, Stolzenburg J, et al. Palmitate induced IL-6 and MCP-1 expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells provides a link between diabetes and urinary tract infections. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10882 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of IL-6 in human bladder smooth muscle cells by fatty acids may represent a pathogenetic factor underlying the higher frequency and persistence of urinary tract infections in patients with metabolic diseases. ..
  6. Hough D, Gopal S, Vijapurkar U, Lim P, Morozova M, Eerdekens M. Paliperidone palmitate maintenance treatment in delaying the time-to-relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Schizophr Res. 2010;116:107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection site tolerability was comparable between groups. Paliperidone palmitate significantly delayed time-to-relapse compared with placebo and presented no new safety signals. ..
  7. Gaidhu M, Anthony N, Patel P, Hawke T, Ceddia R. Dysregulation of lipolysis and lipid metabolism in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes by high-fat diet: role of ATGL, HSL, and AMPK. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C961-71 pubmed publisher
  8. El Assaad W, Joly E, Barbeau A, Sladek R, Buteau J, Maestre I, et al. Glucolipotoxicity alters lipid partitioning and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, cholesterol, and ceramide deposition and reactive oxygen species production in INS832/13 ss-cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3061-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also suggest that the early promotion of lipid esterification processes is instrumental in the Gltox process. ..
  9. Thorn K, Bergsten P. Fatty acid-induced oxidation and triglyceride formation is higher in insulin-producing MIN6 cells exposed to oleate compared to palmitate. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:497-507 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Koutsari C, Basu R, Rizza R, Nair K, Khosla S, Jensen M. Nonoxidative free fatty acid disposal is greater in young women than men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the sex-specific interaction between adipose tissue lipolysis and peripheral FFA removal will help to discover new approaches to treat FFA-induced abnormalities. ..
  2. Blachnio Zabielska A, Persson X, Koutsari C, Zabielski P, Jensen M. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring the in vivo incorporation of plasma free fatty acids into intramyocellular ceramides in humans. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:1134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..LC/MS/MS can be used to detect the incorporation of plasma palmitate into muscle ceramides in humans, in vivo. ..
  3. Pandina G, Lindenmayer J, Lull J, Lim P, Gopal S, Herben V, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of 3 doses of paliperidone palmitate in adults with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:235-44 pubmed publisher
    ..6% vs 0.0%), and myalgia (1.0% vs 0.0%). The paliperidone palmitate treatment was efficacious and generally tolerated across the dose range (25, 100, or 150 mg eq.) in adult patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. ..
  4. Nasrallah H, Gopal S, Gassmann Mayer C, Quiroz J, Lim P, Eerdekens M, et al. A controlled, evidence-based trial of paliperidone palmitate, a long-acting injectable antipsychotic, in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:2072-82 pubmed publisher
    ..All doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate were efficacious and generally tolerated, both locally and systemically. Paliperidone palmitate offers the potential to improve outcomes in adults with symptomatic schizophrenia. ..
  5. Thomas G, Hayashi T, Chiu S, Chen C, Huganir R. Palmitoylation by DHHC5/8 targets GRIP1 to dendritic endosomes to regulate AMPA-R trafficking. Neuron. 2012;73:482-96 pubmed publisher
  6. Hoppa M, Collins S, Ramracheya R, Hodson L, Amisten S, Zhang Q, et al. Chronic palmitate exposure inhibits insulin secretion by dissociation of Ca(2+) channels from secretory granules. Cell Metab. 2009;10:455-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In both mouse and human islets, the palmitate-induced secretion defect was reversed when the beta cell action potential was pharmacologically prolonged...
  7. Piro S, Maniscalchi E, Monello A, Pandini G, Mascali L, Rabuazzo A, et al. Palmitate affects insulin receptor phosphorylation and intracellular insulin signal in a pancreatic alpha-cell line. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that the chronic elevation of fatty acids contribute to alpha-cell dysregulation frequently observed in type 2 diabetes. ..
  8. Sargsyan E, Bergsten P. Lipotoxicity is glucose-dependent in INS-1E cells but not in human islets and MIN6 cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:115 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional effects of glucose are prominent in INS-1E but not in MIN6 cells and intact control human islets, which are able to efficiently oxidize fatty acids at high glucose and in this way avoid glucolipotoxicity. ..
  9. Gopal S, Gassmann Mayer C, Palumbo J, Samtani M, Shiwach R, Alphs L. Practical guidance for dosing and switching paliperidone palmitate treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide practical guidance to clinicians on how to use paliperidone palmitate in adult patients with schizophrenia. ..
  10. Gopal S, Hough D, Xu H, Lull J, Gassmann Mayer C, Remmerie B, et al. Efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate in adult patients with acutely symptomatic schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..than placebo (>or=5% difference) were headache, vomiting, extremity pain, and injection site pain. Treatment with paliperidone palmitate (100 mg eq.) was efficacious and all doses tested were tolerable. ..
  11. Samtani M, Gopal S, Gassmann Mayer C, Alphs L, Palumbo J. Dosing and switching strategies for paliperidone palmitate: based on population pharmacokinetic modelling and clinical trial data. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:829-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Population PK modelling presented in this review has helped provide practical guidance for administering this novel LAI antipsychotic. ..
  12. Jennings B, Nadolski M, Ling Y, Baker M, Harrison M, Deschenes R, et al. 2-Bromopalmitate and 2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzylidene)-benzo[b]thiophen-3-one inhibit DHHC-mediated palmitoylation in vitro. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of palmitoyltransferase activity by CV was reversible, whereas 2BP inhibition was irreversible. ..
  13. Prziborowski J, Hartrumpf M, Stock U, Kuehnel R, Albes J. Is bonewax safe and does it help?. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:1002-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, positive effects such as a reduction of blood product substitution were also not observed. Using bonewax on sternal edges is obviously safe but not particularly beneficial. ..
  14. Dey D, Mukherjee M, Basu D, Datta M, Roy S, Bandyopadhyay A, et al. Inhibition of insulin receptor gene expression and insulin signaling by fatty acid: interplay of PKC isoforms therein. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005;16:217-28 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests one of the pathways through which fatty acid can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cell. ..
  15. Plaisance V, Perret V, Favre D, Abderrahmani A, Yang J, Widmann C, et al. Role of the transcriptional factor C/EBPbeta in free fatty acid-elicited beta-cell failure. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;305:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a potential involvement of C/EBPbeta as mediator of the deleterious effects of unsaturated free fatty acids on beta-cell function. ..
  16. Fontes G, Semache M, Hagman D, Tremblay C, Shah R, Rhodes C, et al. Involvement of Per-Arnt-Sim Kinase and extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 in palmitate inhibition of insulin gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2009;58:2048-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the PASK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways mediate palmitate inhibition of insulin gene expression. These findings identify PASK as a novel mediator of glucolipotoxicity on the insulin gene in pancreatic beta-cells. ..
  17. Barma P, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya A, Kundu R, Dasgupta S, Biswas A, et al. Lipid induced overexpression of NF-kappaB in skeletal muscle cells is linked to insulin resistance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Since NF-kappaB p65 is linked to several diseases, including type2 diabetes, this report may be important in understanding the pathogenicity of these diseases. ..
  18. Lovis P, Roggli E, Laybutt D, Gattesco S, Yang J, Widmann C, et al. Alterations in microRNA expression contribute to fatty acid-induced pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Diabetes. 2008;57:2728-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that at least part of the detrimental effects of palmitate on beta-cells is caused by alterations in the level of specific miRNAs. ..
  19. Hodson L, McQuaid S, Karpe F, Frayn K, Fielding B. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The marked rapid incorporation of linoleate from a single meal into blood PL fractions may have functional consequences such as maintenance of membrane fluidity and may explain why linoleate is a useful biomarker of dietary intake. ..
  20. Huang K, El Husseini A. Modulation of neuronal protein trafficking and function by palmitoylation. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2005;15:527-35 pubmed
    ..The recent discovery of enzymes that palmitoylate specific subsets of synaptic proteins suggests that this process is tightly controlled in neurons. ..
  21. Yang X, Zhou Y, Jin R, Chan C. Reconstruct modular phenotype-specific gene networks by knowledge-driven matrix factorization. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:2236-43 pubmed publisher
  22. Sol E, Sargsyan E, Akusjarvi G, Bergsten P. Glucolipotoxicity in INS-1E cells is counteracted by carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 over-expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:517-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, apoptosis was alleviated and ER-stress markers p-eIF2alpha and CHOP were decreased in cells over-expressing CPT1. We conclude that regulated over-expression of CPT1 is beneficial for glucolipotoxic beta-cells. ..
  23. Olofsson C, Collins S, Bengtsson M, Eliasson L, Salehi A, Shimomura K, et al. Long-term exposure to glucose and lipids inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion downstream of granule fusion with plasma membrane. Diabetes. 2007;56:1888-97 pubmed
    ..We conclude that glucose and FFAs reduce insulin secretion by interference with the exit of insulin via the fusion pore. ..
  24. Teeranachaideekul V, Souto E, Junyaprasert V, Muller R. Cetyl palmitate-based NLC for topical delivery of Coenzyme Q(10) - development, physicochemical characterization and in vitro release studies. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2007;67:141-8 pubmed
    ..The NLC release patterns were defined by an initial fast release in comparison to the release of NE followed by a prolonged release, which was dependent on the oil content. ..
  25. Salehi A, Flodgren E, Nilsson N, Jimenez Feltstrom J, Miyazaki J, Owman C, et al. Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA(1)R/GPR40) and its involvement in fatty-acid-stimulated insulin secretion. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;322:207-15 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that FFA(1)R/GPR40 is inhibited by the CPT-1 inhibitor, 2BrP, and confirm that FFA(1)R/GPR40 is indeed necessary, at least in part, for fatty-acid-stimulated insulin release. ..
  26. Lee J, Pinnamaneni S, Eo S, Cho I, Pyo J, Kim C, et al. Saturated, but not n-6 polyunsaturated, fatty acids induce insulin resistance: role of intramuscular accumulation of lipid metabolites. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:1467-74 pubmed
    ..Diets rich in n-6 PUFA appear to prevent insulin resistance by directing fat into TAG, rather than other lipid metabolites. ..
  27. Hoehn K, Hohnen Behrens C, Cederberg A, Wu L, Turner N, Yuasa T, et al. IRS1-independent defects define major nodes of insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2008;7:421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that while insulin resistance is associated with multiple deficiencies, the most deleterious defects and the origin of insulin resistance occur independently of IRS. ..
  28. Greaves J, Chamberlain L. Dual role of the cysteine-string domain in membrane binding and palmitoylation-dependent sorting of the molecular chaperone cysteine-string protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4748-59 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a dual function of the cysteine-string domain: initial membrane binding and palmitoylation-dependent sorting. ..
  29. Zhou F, Xue Y, Yao X, Xu Y. CSS-Palm: palmitoylation site prediction with a clustering and scoring strategy (CSS). Bioinformatics. 2006;22:894-6 pubmed
    ..CSS-Palm is implemented in PHP/PERL+MySQL and can be freely accessed at; Supplementary data are available at Bionformatics online. ..
  30. Buglino J, Resh M. Hhat is a palmitoylacyltransferase with specificity for N-palmitoylation of Sonic Hedgehog. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22076-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes Hhat as a bona fide Shh PAT and serves as a model for understanding how secreted morphogens are modified by distinct PATs. ..
  31. Wellisz T, Armstrong J, Cambridge J, Fisher T. Ostene, a new water-soluble bone hemostasis agent. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:420-5 pubmed
    ..Ostene provides the clinician a water-soluble bone hemostasis material that does not demonstrate the adverse tissue response or the interference with bone healing seen with the use of bone wax. ..
  32. Diakogiannaki E, Dhayal S, Childs C, Calder P, Welters H, Morgan N. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions of saturated versus monounsaturated long-chain fatty acids in pancreatic beta-cells. J Endocrinol. 2007;194:283-91 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that monounsaturated fatty acids can promote cell viability and mitogenesis by a mechanism that does not require their metabolism and is independent of alterations in TAG formation. ..
  33. Mikic I, Planey S, Zhang J, Ceballos C, Seron T, von Massenbach B, et al. A live cell, image-based approach to understanding the enzymology and pharmacology of 2-bromopalmitate and palmitoylation. Methods Enzymol. 2006;414:150-87 pubmed
    ..Using this system we determined the residence half-life of palmitate on the dipalmitoyl substrate peptide from GAP43 as well as the EC(50) for 2-bromopalmitate, a common inhibitor of palmitoylation. ..
  34. Kumar V, Chandrasekar D, Ramakrishna S, Kishan V, Rao Y, Diwan P. Development and evaluation of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influence of wax and glyceride lipids on plasma pharmacokinetics. Int J Pharm. 2007;335:167-75 pubmed
    ..The obtained results are indicative of solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for improving the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs such as nitrendipine by minimizing first pass metabolism. ..
  35. Palanivel R, Fang X, Park M, Eguchi M, Pallan S, De Girolamo S, et al. Globular and full-length forms of adiponectin mediate specific changes in glucose and fatty acid uptake and metabolism in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;75:148-57 pubmed
    ..These results clearly demonstrate that gAd and fAd mediate distinct and time-dependent effects on cardiomyocyte energy metabolism via AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. ..
  36. Goodwin J, Drake K, Rogers C, Wright L, Lippincott Schwartz J, Philips M, et al. Depalmitoylated Ras traffics to and from the Golgi complex via a nonvesicular pathway. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:261-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that a cycle of depalmitoylation and repalmitoylation regulates the time course and sites of Ras signaling by allowing the protein to be released from the cell surface and rapidly redistributed to intracellular membranes. ..
  37. Borradaile N, Buhman K, Listenberger L, Magee C, Morimoto E, Ory D, et al. A critical role for eukaryotic elongation factor 1A-1 in lipotoxic cell death. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:770-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our observations of oxidative stress, ER stress, and induction of eEF1A-1 expression in a mouse model of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy implicate this cellular response in the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. ..
  38. Garcia Roves P, Huss J, Han D, Hancock C, Iglesias Gutierrez E, Chen M, et al. Raising plasma fatty acid concentration induces increased biogenesis of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10709-13 pubmed
    ..We interpret our results as evidence that raising FFA induces an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle by activating PPARdelta. ..
  39. Nakamura S, Takamura T, Matsuzawa Nagata N, Takayama H, Misu H, Noda H, et al. Palmitate induces insulin resistance in H4IIEC3 hepatocytes through reactive oxygen species produced by mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14809-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mitochondria-derived ROS induced by palmitate may be major contributors to JNK activation and cellular insulin resistance. ..
  40. Kato T, Shimano H, Yamamoto T, Yokoo T, Endo Y, Ishikawa M, et al. Granuphilin is activated by SREBP-1c and involved in impaired insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Cell Metab. 2006;4:143-54 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data provide evidence that activation of the SREBP-1c/granuphilin pathway is a potential mechanism for impaired insulin secretion in diabetes, contributing to beta cell lipotoxicity. ..
  41. Radin M, Sinha S, Bhatt B, Dedousis N, O Doherty R. Inhibition or deletion of the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor-4 confers partial protection against lipid-induced insulin resistance in rodent skeletal muscle. Diabetologia. 2008;51:336-46 pubmed
    ..Importantly, inhibition of the NFkappaB pathway in myotubes downstream of TLR-4 also protects against lipid-induced insulin resistance, suggesting a mechanism by which reduced TLR-4 activity confers beneficial effects on insulin action. ..
  42. Jeffrey K, Alejandro E, Luciani D, Kalynyak T, Hu X, Li H, et al. Carboxypeptidase E mediates palmitate-induced beta-cell ER stress and apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, carboxypeptidase E degradation contributes to palmitate-induced beta-cell ER stress and apoptosis. CPE is a major link between hyperlipidemia and beta-cell death pathways in diabetes. ..
  43. Davis J, Gabler N, Walker Daniels J, Spurlock M. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates the induction of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by palmitate and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 ligands in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, activation of JNK also appeared to be essential to Tlr2-, as well as Tlr4-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress. ..
  44. Lee Y, Lee M, Kim S, Jung T. Full-length adiponectin protects hepatocytes from palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase. FEBS J. 2009;276:2278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that adiponectin is an important determinant of saturated fatty acid-induced apoptosis in liver cells and may have implications for fatty acid-mediated liver cell injury in adiponectin-deficient individuals. ..
  45. Chong M, Fielding B, Frayn K. Mechanisms for the acute effect of fructose on postprandial lipemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1511-20 pubmed
    ..The contribution of de novo lipogenesis to fructose-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia is small, but its effect on altering the partitioning of fatty acids toward esterification may be considerable. ..
  46. Chisari M, Saini D, Kalyanaraman V, GAUTAM N. Shuttling of G protein subunits between the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24092-8 pubmed
  47. Franch Marro X, Wendler F, Griffith J, Maurice M, Vincent J. In vivo role of lipid adducts on Wingless. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, this mutant has poor signalling activity, suggesting that palmitoleic acid contributes significantly to signalling. We suggest that the overall level of lipidation affects signalling activity. ..
  48. Watson M, Coghlan M, Hundal H. Modulating serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) expression and activity unveils a crucial role in lipid-induced insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle cells. Biochem J. 2009;417:791-801 pubmed publisher
  49. Hong J, Chen L, Jeppesen P, Nordentoft I, Hermansen K. Stevioside counteracts the alpha-cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E416-22 pubmed
    ..This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  50. Cui M, Ahn H, Kim J, Shin H, Lee D, Kim H, et al. Bioelectrical impedance may predict cell viability during ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..BEI may be a good tool for monitoring I/R during liver surgery. The liver is relatively tolerant to ischemia, however after reperfusion, liver cells may be damaged depending upon the duration of ischemia. ..
  51. Li H, Song Y, Zhang L, Li F, Gu Y, Zhang J, et al. Cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector b (Cideb) is present in pancreatic beta-cells and involved in palmitate induced beta-cell apoptosis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;28:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that increased Cideb expression upon palmitate exposure may be involved in beta cell lipoapoptosis through its influence on conversion of FFAs to lipid esters in lipid droplets. ..
  52. Lohse I, Reilly P, Zaugg K. The CPT1C 5'UTR contains a repressing upstream open reading frame that is regulated by cellular energy availability and AMPK. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21486 pubmed publisher
  53. Xi H, Cun D, Wang Z, Shang L, Song W, Mu L, et al. Effect of the stability of hydrogen-bonded ion pairs with organic amines on transdermal penetration of teriflunomide. Int J Pharm. 2012;436:857-61 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that, for most studied organic amines, the longer the ion-pair lifetime, the higher the flux of skin permeation. The stability of TEF ion pairs was a pivotal factor influencing the skin permeation of TEF. ..