palmitic acids


Summary: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.

Top Publications

  1. Izzo A, Piscitelli F, Capasso R, Marini P, Cristino L, Petrosino S, et al. Basal and fasting/refeeding-regulated tissue levels of endogenous PPAR-alpha ligands in Zucker rats. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in PEA levels might be relevant to the inflammatory state of Zucker rats. ..
  2. Murillo Rodriguez E, Vázquez E, Millán Aldaco D, Palomero Rivero M, Drucker Colín R. Effects of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 on the sleep-wake cycle, c-Fos expression and dopamine levels of the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;562:82-91 pubmed
    ..Alternative approaches to treat sleep disorders such as excessive somnolence might consider the use of the URB597, oleoylethanolamide or palmitoylethanolamide since all compounds enhance waking. ..
  3. De Filippis D, Luongo L, Cipriano M, Palazzo E, Cinelli M, De Novellis V, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide reduces granuloma-induced hyperalgesia by modulation of mast cell activation in rats. Mol Pain. 2011;7:3 pubmed publisher
  4. D Agostino G, La Rana G, Russo R, Sasso O, Iacono A, Esposito E, et al. Central administration of palmitoylethanolamide reduces hyperalgesia in mice via inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear signalling in dorsal root ganglia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;613:54-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results add further support to the broad-spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects induced by PPAR-alpha agonists, suggesting a centrally mediated component for these drugs in controlling inflammatory pain. ..
  5. Schreiber D, Harlfinger S, Nolden B, Gerth C, Jaehde U, Schömig E, et al. Determination of anandamide and other fatty acyl ethanolamides in human serum by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2007;361:162-8 pubmed
    ..025-25 pmol and for standard PEA and OEA over the range of 0.1-500 pmol. This method provides a time-saving and sensitive alternative to existing methods for the analysis of FAEs in biological samples. ..
  6. Eberlein B, Eicke C, Reinhardt H, Ring J. Adjuvant treatment of atopic eczema: assessment of an emollient containing N-palmitoylethanolamine (ATOPA study). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced use of topical corticosteroids is important in view of safety and pharmacoeconomic implications in the treatment of atopic eczema. ..
  7. Petrosino S, Iuvone T, Di Marzo V. N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine: Biochemistry and new therapeutic opportunities. Biochimie. 2010;92:724-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Indraccolo U, Barbieri F. Effect of palmitoylethanolamide-polydatin combination on chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis: preliminary observations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;150:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of these findings we have initiated a multi-centre pilot study to verify the effectiveness of this treatment in controlling the chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. ..
  9. Genovese T, Esposito E, Mazzon E, Di Paola R, Meli R, Bramanti P, et al. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on signaling pathways implicated in the development of spinal cord injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;326:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results indicate that PEA reduces inflammation and tissue injury associated with SCI and suggest a regulatory role for endogenous PPAR-alpha signaling in the inflammatory response associated with spinal cord trauma. ..

More Information


  1. De Filippis D, D Amico A, Cinelli M, Esposito G, Di Marzo V, Iuvone T. Adelmidrol, a palmitoylethanolamide analogue, reduces chronic inflammation in a carrageenin-granuloma model in rats. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:1086-95 pubmed publisher
    ..g. iNOS, chymase and metalloproteinase MMP-9), and mediators (e.g. nitric oxide and TNF-alpha). The results indicate that adelmidrol, given locally, may represent a potential therapeutic tool in controlling chronic inflammation...
  2. Sasso O, La Rana G, Vitiello S, Russo R, D Agostino G, Iacono A, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide modulates pentobarbital-evoked hypnotic effect in mice: involvement of allopregnanolone biosynthesis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20:195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further strengthen our previous data on the role of PPAR-alpha in PEA's actions and could provide a new framework to understand its role in the CNS. ..
  3. Smotrys J, Linder M. Palmitoylation of intracellular signaling proteins: regulation and function. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004;73:559-87 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the function and regulation of protein palmitoylation, focusing on intracellular proteins that participate in cell signaling or protein trafficking. ..
  4. Tsuboi K, Hilligsmann C, Vandevoorde S, Lambert D, Ueda N. N-cyclohexanecarbonylpentadecylamine: a selective inhibitor of the acid amidase hydrolysing N-acylethanolamines, as a tool to distinguish acid amidase from fatty acid amide hydrolase. Biochem J. 2004;379:99-106 pubmed
    ..Thus the inhibitor may be a useful tool to distinguish the acid amidase from FAAH in various tissues and cells and to elucidate the physiological role of the enzyme. ..
  5. Franklin A, Parmentier Batteur S, Walter L, Greenberg D, Stella N. Palmitoylethanolamide increases after focal cerebral ischemia and potentiates microglial cell motility. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7767-75 pubmed
  6. Costa B, Comelli F, Bettoni I, Colleoni M, Giagnoni G. The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, has anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in a murine model of neuropathic pain: involvement of CB(1), TRPV1 and PPARgamma receptors and neurotrophic factors. Pain. 2008;139:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings presented here, in addition to prove the beneficial effects of PEA in chronic pain, identify new potential targets for analgesic medicine. ..
  7. Matias I, Wang J, Moriello A, Nieves A, Woodward D, Di Marzo V. Changes in endocannabinoid and palmitoylethanolamide levels in eye tissues of patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;75:413-8 pubmed
    ..5-fold) was observed. The tissue- and disease-selective nature of the changes observed suggests that the compounds analyzed here may play different roles in the control of eye function under different pathological conditions. ..
  8. Garcia M, Adler Graschinsky E, Celuch S. Enhancement of the hypotensive effects of intrathecally injected endocannabinoids by the entourage compound palmitoylethanolamide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;610:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..t. administered endocannabinoids. The facilitative action of palmitoylethanolamide affects the vanilloid TRPV1 as well as the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor-mediated effects of endocannabinoids on the blood pressure control. ..
  9. Melis M, Pillolla G, Luchicchi A, Muntoni A, Yasar S, Goldberg S, et al. Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons through nuclear receptors. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate for the first time that the anorexic lipids OEA and PEA possess neuromodulatory properties as endogenous ligands of PPAR-alpha in the brain and provide a potential new target for the treatment of nicotine addiction. ..
  10. Solorzano C, Zhu C, Battista N, Astarita G, Lodola A, Rivara S, et al. Selective N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase inhibition reveals a key role for endogenous palmitoylethanolamide in inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20966-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The PEA-hydrolyzing amidase NAAA may provide a previously undescribed target for antiinflammatory medicines. ..
  11. D Agostino G, Russo R, Avagliano C, Cristiano C, Meli R, Calignano A. Palmitoylethanolamide protects against the amyloid-?25-35-induced learning and memory impairment in mice, an experimental model of Alzheimer disease. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:1784-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data disclose novel findings about the therapeutic potential of PEA, unrevealing a previously unknown therapeutic possibility to treat memory deficits associated with AD. ..
  12. Gao M, Ma Y, Liu D. Rutin suppresses palmitic acids-triggered inflammation in macrophages and blocks high fat diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in mice. Pharm Res. 2013;30:2940-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Both in vitro and in vivo approaches were taken in evaluating the effects of rutin on palmitic acids-triggered inflammation in cultured macrophages, and on weight gain and development of fatty liver of mice fed ..
  13. De Filippis D, D Amico A, Cipriano M, Petrosino S, Orlando P, Di Marzo V, et al. Levels of endocannabinoids and palmitoylethanolamide and their pharmacological manipulation in chronic granulomatous inflammation in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2010;61:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that chronic inflammation might develop also because of endocannabinoid and palmitoylethanolamide tissue concentration impairment, the correction of which might be exploited to develop new anti-inflammatory drugs. ..
  14. Esposito E, Paterniti I, Mazzon E, Genovese T, Di Paola R, Galuppo M, et al. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on release of mast cell peptidases and neurotrophic factors after spinal cord injury. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:1099-112 pubmed publisher
  15. Ambrosino P, Soldovieri M, Russo C, Taglialatela M. Activation and desensitization of TRPV1 channels in sensory neurons by the PPAR? agonist palmitoylethanolamide. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:1430-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential involvement of the transcription factor PPAR? and of TRPV1 channels in PEA-induced effects was also studied...
  16. Paterniti I, Impellizzeri D, Di Paola R, Navarra M, Cuzzocrea S, Esposito E. A new co-ultramicronized composite including palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin to prevent neuroinflammation in spinal cord injury. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:91 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of co-ultraPEALut (in the respective fixed doses of 10:1 in mass) in both an ex vivo organotypic spinal cord culture model and an in vivo model of SCI...
  17. Sasso O, Russo R, Vitiello S, Raso G, D Agostino G, Iacono A, et al. Implication of allopregnanolone in the antinociceptive effect of N-palmitoylethanolamide in acute or persistent pain. Pain. 2012;153:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new information about the involvement of de novo neurosteroid synthesis in the modulation of pain behavior by PEA. ..
  18. Muccioli G, Stella N. Microglia produce and hydrolyze palmitoylethanolamide. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:16-22 pubmed
    ..This enzyme expressed by microglia constitutes a promising target for controlling the propagation of neuroinflammation. ..
  19. LoVerme J, La Rana G, Russo R, Calignano A, Piomelli D. The search for the palmitoylethanolamide receptor. Life Sci. 2005;77:1685-98 pubmed
    ..Here we outline the history of PEA, starting with its initial discovery in the 1950s, and discuss the pharmacological properties of this compound, particularly in regards to its ability to activate PPAR-alpha. ..
  20. Ho W, Barrett D, Randall M. 'Entourage' effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide and N-oleoylethanolamide on vasorelaxation to anandamide occur through TRPV1 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;155:837-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The congeners also induce vasorelaxation per se, suggesting a function for the N-acylethanolamides in vascular control. ..
  21. Esposito E, Impellizzeri D, Mazzon E, Paterniti I, Cuzzocrea S. Neuroprotective activities of palmitoylethanolamide in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41880 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that PEA protects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and the ensuing functional deficits even when administered once the insult has been initiated...
  22. Scuderi C, Esposito G, Blasio A, Valenza M, Arietti P, Carnuccio R, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide counteracts reactive astrogliosis induced by ?-amyloid peptide. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:2664-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PEA exhibits anti-inflammatory properties able to counteract A?-induced astrogliosis, and suggest novel treatment for neuroinflammatory/ neurodegenerative processes...
  23. Paterniti I, Impellizzeri D, Crupi R, Morabito R, Campolo M, Esposito E, et al. Molecular evidence for the involvement of PPAR-? and PPAR-? in anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of palmitoylethanolamide after spinal cord trauma. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:20 pubmed publisher
  24. Ahmad A, Crupi R, Impellizzeri D, Campolo M, Marino A, Esposito E, et al. Administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) protects the neurovascular unit and reduces secondary injury after traumatic brain injury in mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:1310-21 pubmed publisher
    ..PEA inhibited the TBI-mediated decrease in the expression of pJNK and NF-?B. PEA-treated injured animals improved neurobehavioral functions as evaluated by behavioral tests...
  25. Cerrato S, Brazis P, della Valle M, Miolo A, Puigdemont A. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on immunologically induced histamine, PGD2 and TNFalpha release from canine skin mast cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:9-15 pubmed publisher
  26. Hara T, Hirasawa A, Sun Q, Sadakane K, Itsubo C, Iga T, et al. Novel selective ligands for free fatty acid receptors GPR120 and GPR40. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies identified a selective GPR40 agonist and several GPR120 partial agonists. These compounds would be useful probes to further investigate the physiological and pharmacological functions of GPR40 and GPR120. ..
  27. Hamtiaux L, Masquelier J, Muccioli G, Bouzin C, Feron O, Gallez B, et al. The association of N-palmitoylethanolamine with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 impairs melanoma growth through a supra-additive action. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:92 pubmed publisher
    ..This may contribute to the improvement of long-term palliation or cure of melanoma. ..
  28. Cerrato S, Brazis P, Della Valle M, Miolo A, Petrosino S, Di Marzo V, et al. Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory response in Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs. Vet J. 2012;191:377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PEA might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic inflammatory skin diseases in companion animals. ..
  29. Roy S, Plowman S, Rotblat B, Prior I, Muncke C, Grainger S, et al. Individual palmitoyl residues serve distinct roles in H-ras trafficking, microlocalization, and signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6722-33 pubmed
    ..Finally we show that the plasma membrane affinity of monopalmitoylated anchors is absolutely dependent on cholesterol, identifying a new role for cholesterol in promoting interactions with the raft and nonraft plasma membrane. ..
  30. Hansen H. Palmitoylethanolamide and other anandamide congeners. Proposed role in the diseased brain. Exp Neurol. 2010;224:48-55 pubmed publisher
  31. Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S. Palmitoylethanolamide in homeostatic and traumatic central nervous system injuries. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013;12:55-61 pubmed
    ..The diverse signaling mechanisms are also summarized...
  32. Raso G, Esposito E, Vitiello S, Iacono A, Santoro A, D Agostino G, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide stimulation induces allopregnanolone synthesis in C6 Cells and primary astrocytes: involvement of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-?. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:591-600 pubmed publisher
  33. Chen J, Matias I, Dinh T, Lu T, Venezia S, Nieves A, et al. Finding of endocannabinoids in human eye tissues: implications for glaucoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;330:1062-7 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that these endogenous compounds may have a role in this disease, particularly with respect to regulation of IOP. ..
  34. Caraceni P, Viola A, Piscitelli F, Giannone F, Berzigotti A, Cescon M, et al. Circulating and hepatic endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related molecules in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Int. 2010;30:816-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The upregulation of the endocannabinoid-related molecules, OEA and PEA, is even greater than that of AEA, prompting pharmacological studies on these compounds. ..
  35. Hill M, Miller G, Carrier E, Gorzalka B, Hillard C. Circulating endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines are differentially regulated in major depression and following exposure to social stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:1257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The magnitude of these responses did not differ between depressed and control subjects. These are the first data to demonstrate that the peripheral endocannabinoid/NAE system is responsive to exposure to stress. ..
  36. Hayashi T, Rumbaugh G, Huganir R. Differential regulation of AMPA receptor subunit trafficking by palmitoylation of two distinct sites. Neuron. 2005;47:709-23 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that regulated palmitoylation of AMPA receptor subunits modulates receptor trafficking and may be important for synaptic plasticity. ..
  37. Ambrosini A, Zolese G, Ambrosi S, Bertoli E, Mantero F, Boscaro M, et al. Idiopathic infertility: effect of palmitoylethanolamide (a homologue of anandamide) on hyperactivated sperm cell motility and Ca2+ influx. J Androl. 2005;26:429-36 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data indicated that PEA modulated certain physiological sperm functions that are involved in fertilization; in particular, we showed that PEA modulated for HA in men with low sperm kinematic parameters. ..
  38. Koch M, Kreutz S, Böttger C, Benz A, Maronde E, Ghadban C, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide protects dentate gyrus granule cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. Neurotox Res. 2011;19:330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to classical endocannabinoids, PEA-mediated PPAR-alpha activation represents a possible target for therapeutic interventions to mitigate symptoms of secondary neuronal damage. ..
  39. Dalle Carbonare M, Del Giudice E, Stecca A, Colavito D, Fabris M, D Arrigo A, et al. A saturated N-acylethanolamine other than N-palmitoyl ethanolamine with anti-inflammatory properties: a neglected story. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20 Suppl 1:26-34 pubmed publisher
  40. Lo Verme J, Fu J, Astarita G, La Rana G, Russo R, Calignano A, et al. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of palmitoylethanolamide. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:15-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that PPAR-alpha mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PEA and suggest that this fatty-acid ethanolamide may serve, like its analog OEA, as an endogenous ligand of PPAR-alpha. ..
  41. Citraro R, Russo E, Scicchitano F, Van Rijn C, Cosco D, Avagliano C, et al. Antiepileptic action of N-palmitoylethanolamine through CB1 and PPAR-? receptor activation in a genetic model of absence epilepsy. Neuropharmacology. 2013;69:115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'New Targets and Approaches to the Treatment of Epilepsy'...
  42. Zolese G, Bacchetti T, Ambrosini A, Wozniak M, Bertoli E, Ferretti G. Increased plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous fatty acid amide, affect oxidative damage of human low-density lipoproteins: an in vitro study. Atherosclerosis. 2005;182:47-55 pubmed
    ..1 microM), while the pro-oxidative effect is obtained at a higher PEA concentration (1 microM). Fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicate that the effect of PEA occurs mainly by affecting the conformational features of ApoB-100. ..
  43. Gillum M, Zhang D, Zhang X, Erion D, Jamison R, Choi C, et al. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, a gut- derived circulating factor induced by fat ingestion, inhibits food intake. Cell. 2008;135:813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, chronic NAPE infusion results in a reduction of both food intake and body weight, suggesting that NAPE and long-acting NAPE analogs may be novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity. ..
  44. Lombardi G, Miglio G, Varsaldi F, Minassi A, Appendino G. Oxyhomologation of the amide bond potentiates neuroprotective effects of the endolipid N-palmitoylethanolamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;320:599-606 pubmed
  45. De Petrocellis L, Bisogno T, Ligresti A, Bifulco M, Melck D, Di Marzo V. Effect on cancer cell proliferation of palmitoylethanolamide, a fatty acid amide interacting with both the cannabinoid and vanilloid signalling systems. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2002;16:297-302 pubmed
    ..These 'entourage' effects of PEA might be attributable to modulation of VR1 activity, and could underlie the enhancement by PEA, described here for the first time, of the antiproliferative effects of VR1 receptor agonists. ..
  46. Vandevoorde S, Jonsson K, Fowler C, Lambert D. Modifications of the ethanolamine head in N-palmitoylethanolamine: synthesis and evaluation of new agents interfering with the metabolism of anandamide. J Med Chem. 2003;46:1440-8 pubmed
  47. Truini A, Biasiotta A, Di Stefano G, La Cesa S, Leone C, Cartoni C, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide restores myelinated-fibre function in patients with chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011;10:916-20 pubmed
    ..In a severe condition such as painful neuropathy associated with multiple myeloma and chemotherapy, a safe substance such as PEA provides significant restoration of nerve function. ..
  48. Re G, Barbero R, Miolo A, Di Marzo V. Palmitoylethanolamide, endocannabinoids and related cannabimimetic compounds in protection against tissue inflammation and pain: potential use in companion animals. Vet J. 2007;173:21-30 pubmed
  49. Petrosino S, Cristino L, Karsak M, Gaffal E, Ueda N, Tuting T, et al. Protective role of palmitoylethanolamide in contact allergic dermatitis. Allergy. 2010;65:698-711 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that PEA is an endogenous protective agent against DNFB-induced keratinocyte inflammation and could be considered for therapeutic use against CAD. ..
  50. Facci L, Dal Toso R, Romanello S, Buriani A, Skaper S, Leon A. Mast cells express a peripheral cannabinoid receptor with differential sensitivity to anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3376-80 pubmed
  51. Costa B, Conti S, Giagnoni G, Colleoni M. Therapeutic effect of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, in rat acute inflammation: inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase systems. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;137:413-20 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of COX activity and of NO and free radical production at the site of inflammation might account for this activity. ..
  52. El Husseini A, Craven S, Chetkovich D, Firestein B, Schnell E, Aoki C, et al. Dual palmitoylation of PSD-95 mediates its vesiculotubular sorting, postsynaptic targeting, and ion channel clustering. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:159-72 pubmed
    ..These data imply that PSD-95 is an itinerant vesicular protein; initial targeting of PSD-95 to an intracellular membrane compartment may participate in postsynaptic ion channel clustering by PSD-95. ..
  53. Christgau S, Aanstoot H, Schierbeck H, Begley K, Tullin S, Hejnaes K, et al. Membrane anchoring of the autoantigen GAD65 to microvesicles in pancreatic beta-cells by palmitoylation in the NH2-terminal domain. J Cell Biol. 1992;118:309-20 pubmed
    ..The hydrophobic modifications and consequent membrane anchoring of GAD65 to microvesicles that store its product GABA may be of functional importance and, moreover, significant for its selective role as an autoantigen. ..