mupirocin

Summary

Summary: A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.

Top Publications

  1. Ridenour G, Lampen R, Federspiel J, Kritchevsky S, Wong E, Climo M. Selective use of intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine bathing and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection among intensive care unit patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:1155-61 pubmed
    To determine whether the use of chlorhexidine bathing and intranasal mupirocin therapy among patients colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) would decrease the incidence of MRSA colonization and infection among ..
  2. Trautmann M, Stecher J, Hemmer W, Luz K, Panknin H. Intranasal mupirocin prophylaxis in elective surgery. A review of published studies. Chemotherapy. 2008;54:9-16 pubmed
    b>Mupirocin is a natural antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens which is available as a 2% ointment...
  3. Patel J, Gorwitz R, Jernigan J. Mupirocin resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, it is possible that there will be increased use of mupirocin for nasal decolonization of MRSA...
  4. Hammond A, Miller K, Kruczek C, Dertien J, Colmer Hamood J, Griswold J, et al. An in vitro biofilm model to examine the effect of antibiotic ointments on biofilms produced by burn wound bacterial isolates. Burns. 2011;37:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mupirocin and triple antibiotic ointments significantly reduced biofilms produced by the Staphylococcus aureus and ..
  5. Gadepalli R, Dhawan B, Mohanty S, Kapil A, Das B, Chaudhry R, et al. Mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in an Indian hospital. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;58:125-7 pubmed
    Two hundred Staphylococcus aureus strains collected from an Indian hospital were tested for mupirocin susceptibility using disc diffusion method and E-test...
  6. Konvalinka A, Errett L, Fong I. Impact of treating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers on wound infections in cardiac surgery. J Hosp Infect. 2006;64:162-8 pubmed
    ..Treatment with mupirocin can eradicate the organism in the short term, and prophylactic treatment of colonized patients may prevent ..
  7. Reiss S, Pane Farre J, Fuchs S, Francois P, Liebeke M, Schrenzel J, et al. Global analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus response to mupirocin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:787-804 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we analyzed the response of S. aureus to mupirocin, the drug of choice for nasal decolonization...
  8. Lee A, Macedo Viñas M, Francois P, Renzi G, Schrenzel J, Vernaz N, et al. Impact of combined low-level mupirocin and genotypic chlorhexidine resistance on persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage after decolonization therapy: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:1422-30 pubmed publisher
    The clinical importance of low-level mupirocin resistance and genotypic chlorhexidine resistance remains unclear...
  9. Gurney R, Thomas C. Mupirocin: biosynthesis, special features and applications of an antibiotic from a gram-negative bacterium. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:11-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Mupirocin is a polyketide antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The biosynthetic cluster encodes 6 type I polyketide synthase multifunctional proteins and 29 single function proteins...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kalmeijer M, Coertjens H, van Nieuwland Bollen P, Bogaers Hofman D, de Baere G, Stuurman A, et al. Surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery: the effect of mupirocin nasal ointment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:353-8 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine whether use of mupirocin nasal ointment for perioperative eradication of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is effective in preventing the development of surgical site infections (SSIs)...
  2. Bode L, Kluytmans J, Wertheim H, Bogaers D, Vandenbroucke Grauls C, Roosendaal R, et al. Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at increased risk for health care-associated infections with this organism. Decolonization of nasal and extranasal sites on hospital admission may reduce this risk...
  3. Rist T, Parish L, Capin L, Sulica V, Bushnell W, Cupo M. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of mupirocin cream and cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected eczema. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002;27:14-20 pubmed
    The efficacy and safety of mupirocin calcium cream were compared with those of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected eczema...
  4. Pérez Roth E, Claverie Martin F, Batista N, Moreno A, Mendez Alvarez S. Mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in a Spanish hospital. Co-application of multiplex PCR assay and conventional microbiology methods. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;43:123-8 pubmed
    ..Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); sixteen of these isolates (3, 2 and 11, respectively) were detected as highly mupirocin-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MMRSA)...
  5. Moreau J, Conerly L, Hume E, Dajcs J, Girgis D, Cannon B, et al. Effectiveness of mupirocin and polymyxin B in experimental Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens keratitis. Cornea. 2002;21:807-11 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mupirocin and polymyxin B, alone and in combination, in vitro and in vivo using rabbit models of, and keratitis...
  6. Huang S, Septimus E, Kleinman K, Moody J, Hickok J, Avery T, et al. Targeted versus universal decolonization to prevent ICU infection. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:2255-65 pubmed publisher
  7. Ha K, Psaltis A, Butcher A, Wormald P, Tan L. In vitro activity of mupirocin on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its potential implications in chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:535-40 pubmed
    ..This study investigates the effectiveness of mupirocin and two other antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, on established in vitro biofilms of Staphylococcus ..
  8. Kallen A, Wilson C, Larson R. Perioperative intranasal mupirocin for the prevention of surgical-site infections: systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26:916-22 pubmed
    To review the evidence evaluating perioperative intranasal mupirocin for the prevention of surgical-site infections according to type of surgical procedure. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical trials...
  9. Laupland K, Conly J. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and prophylaxis for infection with topical intranasal mupirocin: an evidence-based review. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:933-8 pubmed
    ..We critically appraised the published evidence regarding the efficacy of intranasal mupirocin for eradication of S. aureus nasal carriage and for prophylaxis of infection...
  10. Simor A, Stuart T, Louie L, Watt C, Ofner Agostini M, Gravel D, et al. Mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Canadian hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3880-6 pubmed
    b>Mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly being reported in many parts of the world. This study describes the epidemiology and laboratory characterization of mupirocin-resistant methicillin-resistant S...
  11. Ammerlaan H, Kluytmans J, Berkhout H, Buiting A, De Brauwer E, van den Broek P, et al. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: effectiveness of a national guideline. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..distinguishes complicated (defined as the presence of MRSA infection, skin lesions, foreign-body material, mupirocin resistance and/or exclusive extranasal carriage) and uncomplicated carriage (not meeting criteria for ..
  12. McNeil J, Hulten K, Kaplan S, Mason E. Mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus causing recurrent skin and soft tissue infections in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:2431-3 pubmed publisher
    Staphylococcus aureus resistance to mupirocin is often caused by acquisition of a novel isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase encoded on the plasmid gene mupA. We tested S...
  13. Woodford N, Afzal Shah M, Warner M, Livermore D. In vitro activity of retapamulin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates resistant to fusidic acid and mupirocin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:766-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the UK, including many resistant to fusidic acid and/or highly resistant to mupirocin. MICs were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar in accordance with the CLSI guidelines...
  14. Miller L, Tan J, Eells S, Benitez E, Radner A. Prospective investigation of nasal mupirocin, hexachlorophene body wash, and systemic antibiotics for prevention of recurrent community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1084-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We prospectively evaluated 31 patients with recurrent CA-MRSA skin infections who received nasal mupirocin, topical hexachlorophene body wash, and an oral anti-MRSA antibiotic...
  15. Hansen D, Patzke P, Werfel U, Benner D, Brauksiepe A, Popp W. Success of MRSA eradication in hospital routine: depends on compliance. Infection. 2007;35:260-4 pubmed
    ..wanted to assess the effectiveness of MRSA eradication procedures--especially octenidine whole body washings and mupirocin nasal ointment--under conditions of everyday life...
  16. Kaur S, Kanwar A. Folliculitis decalvans: successful treatment with a combination of rifampicin and topical mupirocin. J Dermatol. 2002;29:180-1 pubmed
  17. Deshpande L, Fix A, Pfaller M, Jones R. Emerging elevated mupirocin resistance rates among staphylococcal isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000): correlations of results from disk diffusion, Etest and reference dilution methods. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;42:283-90 pubmed
    ..b>Mupirocin is a potent topical anti-staphylococcal compound, but its effectiveness has been compromised by emerging ..
  18. Courville X, Tomek I, Kirkland K, Birhle M, Kantor S, Finlayson S. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative nasal mupirocin treatment in preventing surgical site infection in patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33:152-9 pubmed publisher
    To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate preoperative use of mupirocin in patients with total joint arthroplasty (TJA).
  19. Hothersall J, Murphy A, Iqbal Z, Campbell G, Stephens E, Wu J, et al. Manipulation of quorum sensing regulation in Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 10586 to increase mupirocin production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    Transcription of the 74 kb Pseudomonas fluorescens mupirocin [pseudomonic acid (PA)] biosynthesis cluster depends on quorum sensing-dependent regulation via the LuxI/LuxR homologues MupI/MupR...
  20. Yun H, Lee S, Yoon G, Kim S, Choi S, Lee Y, et al. Prevalence and mechanisms of low- and high-level mupirocin resistance in staphylococci isolated from a Korean hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:619-23 pubmed
    b>Mupirocin has been used against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, and is a specific inhibitor of bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase...
  21. Coates T, Bax R, Coates A. Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin: strengths, weaknesses and future prospects. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..UK guidelines recommend the use of mupirocin for nasal decolonization in certain groups of patients colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)...
  22. Wilcox M, Hall J, Pike H, Templeton P, Fawley W, Parnell P, et al. Use of perioperative mupirocin to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) orthopaedic surgical site infections. J Hosp Infect. 2003;54:196-201 pubmed
    ..surgery involving insertion of metal prostheses and/or fixation, received perioperative prophylaxis with nasal mupirocin for five days, and a shower or bath with 2% (v/v) triclosan before surgery (PPNMT)...
  23. Paulander W, Maisnier Patin S, Andersson D. Multiple mechanisms to ameliorate the fitness burden of mupirocin resistance in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1038-48 pubmed
    We examined how the fitness costs of mupirocin resistance caused by mutations in the chromosomal isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase gene (ileS) can be ameliorated...
  24. Gao X, Hall D. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of a potent thiomarinol antibiotic. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:1628-9 pubmed
    ..This key operation provides a rare example of an enantioselective HDA reaction involving acyclic 2-substituted enol ethers, and it featured an unusual but fortuitous kinetic selection that favored the requisite Z-dienophile...
  25. Hothersall J, Wu J, Rahman A, Shields J, Haddock J, Johnson N, et al. Mutational analysis reveals that all tailoring region genes are required for production of polyketide antibiotic mupirocin by pseudomonas fluorescens: pseudomonic acid B biosynthesis precedes pseudomonic acid A. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15451-61 pubmed
    The Pseudomonas fluorescens mupirocin biosynthetic cluster encodes six proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis and 26 single polypeptides proposed to perform largely tailoring functions...
  26. Udo E, Al Sweih N, Noronha B. A chromosomal location of the mupA gene in Staphylococcus aureus expressing high-level mupirocin resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:1283-6 pubmed
    To investigate the genetic location of the mupA gene in high-level mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Antibiotic resistance was detected by disc diffusion. The Etest was used to determine mupirocin MIC...
  27. Udo E, Sarkhoo E. Genetic analysis of high-level mupirocin resistance in the ST80 clone of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:193-9 pubmed publisher
    Four community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates expressing high-level mupirocin resistance (MIC >1024 mg l(-1)) were isolated from four sites of a diabetic patient and characterized for the ..
  28. Roche E, Renick P, Tetens S, Carson D. A model for evaluating topical antimicrobial efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in superficial murine wounds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4508-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Common topical antimicrobial agents had reduced efficacy when treatment was initiated 24 h after inoculation compared to 4 h after inoculation. This model provides a rapid in vivo test for new agents to treat wound biofilm infections. ..
  29. Pastagia M, Euler C, Chahales P, Fuentes Duculan J, Krueger J, Fischetti V. A novel chimeric lysin shows superiority to mupirocin for skin decolonization of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:738-44 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus. Unlike the standard topical antibacterial agent mupirocin, ClyS eradicated a significantly greater number of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and -resistant S...
  30. Wertheim H, Vos M, Ott A, Voss A, Kluytmans J, Vandenbroucke Grauls C, et al. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:419-25 pubmed
    ..aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections...
  31. Hurler J, Berg O, Skar M, Conradi A, Johnsen P, Skalko Basnet N. Improved burns therapy: liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system for mupirocin. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:3906-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mupirocin-in-liposomes-in-hydrogels were proposed as advanced delivery system for improved burn therapy...
  32. Garcia A, Villa M, Escudero M, Gomez P, Vélez M, Múnera M, et al. [Use of nasal mupirocin for Staphylococcus aureus: effect on nasal carriers and nosocomial infections]. Biomedica. 2003;23:173-9 pubmed
    ..Topical calcium mupirocin is an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus aureus recommended to eradicate nasal and hand colonization in ..
  33. Pérez Roth E, López Aguilar C, Alcoba Florez J, Mendez Alvarez S. High-level mupirocin resistance within methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pandemic lineages. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3207-11 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the emergence of high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mup(r))...
  34. Cooper S, Laosripaiboon W, Rahman A, Hothersall J, El Sayed A, Winfield C, et al. Shift to Pseudomonic acid B production in P. fluorescens NCIMB10586 by mutation of mupirocin tailoring genes mupO, mupU, mupV, and macpE. Chem Biol. 2005;12:825-33 pubmed
    b>Mupirocin, a polyketide-derived antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB10586, is a mixture of pseudomonic acids (PA) that target isoleucyl-tRNA synthase...
  35. Van Rijen M, Bonten M, Wenzel R, Kluytmans J. Intranasal mupirocin for reduction of Staphylococcus aureus infections in surgical patients with nasal carriage: a systematic review. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:254-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this review was to assess whether intranasal mupirocin treatment of nasal S. aureus carriers before surgery results in a reduction of the post-operative S...
  36. Thomas C, Hothersall J, Willis C, Simpson T. Resistance to and synthesis of the antibiotic mupirocin. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:281-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mupirocin, a polyketide antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, is used to control the carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on skin and in nasal passages as well as for various skin infections...
  37. Gordon R, Chez N, Jia H, Zeller B, Sobieszczyk M, Brennan C, et al. The NOSE study (nasal ointment for Staphylococcus aureus eradication): a randomized controlled trial of monthly mupirocin in HIV-infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether repeated nasal application of mupirocin ointment would decrease the odds of S. aureus nasal colonization in 100 HELP/PSI patients over an 8-month period...
  38. Caierão J, Berquó L, Dias C, D Azevedo P. Decrease in the incidence of mupirocin resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in carriers from an intensive care unit. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:6-9 pubmed
    ..Decolonization with mupirocin can be used to control its dissemination...
  39. Park S, Kim S, Lee J, Park C, Lee D. Community-genotype strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with high-level mupirocin resistance in a neonatal intensive care unit. Early Hum Dev. 2013;89:661-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypes of mupirocin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MR-MRSA) isolates in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and their potential source...
  40. Hurdle J, O Neill A, Ingham E, Fishwick C, Chopra I. Analysis of mupirocin resistance and fitness in Staphylococcus aureus by molecular genetic and structural modeling techniques. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4366-76 pubmed
    Chromosomal resistance to mupirocin in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus arises from V(588)F or V(631)F mutations in isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IRS)...
  41. Tacconelli E, Carmeli Y, Aizer A, Ferreira G, Foreman M, D Agata E. Mupirocin prophylaxis to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients undergoing dialysis: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1629-38 pubmed
    A systematic review of the English-language literature was performed to determine the overall benefit of mupirocin therapy in reducing the rate of Staphylococcus aureus infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal ..
  42. Paulander W, Andersson D, Maisnier Patin S. Amplification of the gene for isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase facilitates adaptation to the fitness cost of mupirocin resistance in Salmonella enterica. Genetics. 2010;185:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This adaptation process was studied in mupirocin-resistant (Mup(R)) strains of Salmonella enterica...
  43. Dupeyron C, Campillo B, Richardet J, Soussy C. Long-term efficacy of mupirocin in the prevention of infections with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a gastroenterology unit. J Hosp Infect. 2006;63:385-92 pubmed
    ..efficacy (55 months) of eradication of nasal carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by mupirocin was assessed for MRSA infections in a gastroenterology unit receiving patients for long hospital stays...
  44. Perl T, Cullen J, Wenzel R, Zimmerman M, Pfaller M, Sheppard D, et al. Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1871-7 pubmed
    ..Treatment with mupirocin ointment can reduce the rate of nasal carriage and may prevent postoperative S. aureus infections...
  45. Shahsavan S, Emaneini M, Noorazar Khoshgnab B, Khoramian B, Asadollahi P, Aligholi M, et al. A high prevalence of mupirocin and macrolide resistance determinant among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from burnt patients. Burns. 2012;38:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The resistance rate to methicillin, erythromycin and mupirocin were 58.5%, 58% and 40%, respectively...
  46. Wang L, Liu Y, Yang Y, Huang G, Wang C, Deng L, et al. Multidrug-resistant clones of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Chinese children and the resistance genes to clindamycin and mupirocin. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:1240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to identify the genes responsible for clindamycin and mupirocin resistance in S. aureus isolates from paediatric hospitals in mainland China. A total of 435 S...
  47. LaPlante K. In vitro activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:413-8 pubmed
    ..We examined the activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical MRSA (n = 98) isolates. MIC(50) (range) were as follows: lysostaphin, 0...
  48. Gales A, Andrade S, Sader H, Jones R. Activity of mupirocin and 14 additional antibiotics against staphylococci isolated from Latin American hospitals: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. J Chemother. 2004;16:323-8 pubmed
    ..CoNS) strains isolated from 11 Latin American medical centers between 2000 and 2001 were tested against mupirocin and other antimicrobial agents by reference broth microdilution method as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial ..
  49. Farrell D, Robbins M, Rhys Williams W, Love W. Investigation of the potential for mutational resistance to XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, daptomycin, and vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates during a 55-passage study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..55-passage) resistance selection studies in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of XF-73, retapamulin, mupirocin, fusidic acid, and vancomycin against four Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ..
  50. Fujimura S, Watanabe A. Survey of high- and low-level mupirocin-resistant strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 15 Japanese hospitals. Chemotherapy. 2003;49:36-8 pubmed
    The extent of mupirocin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in countries using mupirocin only for the eradication of nasal carriage of MRSA is unknown...
  51. Boyce J. MRSA patients: proven methods to treat colonization and infection. J Hosp Infect. 2001;48 Suppl A:S9-14 pubmed
    ..decolonization regimens that have been tested during the last 60 years, topical intranasal application of mupirocin ointment has proven to be the most effective...
  52. Serafini F, Bottacini F, Viappiani A, Baruffini E, Turroni F, Foroni E, et al. Insights into physiological and genetic mupirocin susceptibility in bifidobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3141-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Mupirocin is an antibiotic commonly used in selective media for the isolation of bifidobacteria. However, little is known about the genetic traits responsible for bifidobacterial resistance to mupirocin...
  53. Decousser J, Pina P, Ghnassia J, Bedos J, Allouch P. First report of clinical and microbiological failure in the eradication of glycopeptide-intermediate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage by mupirocin. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:318-9 pubmed