Summary: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.

Top Publications

  1. Malkia A, Pertusa M, Fernandez Ballester G, Ferrer Montiel A, Viana F. Differential role of the menthol-binding residue Y745 in the antagonism of thermally gated TRPM8 channels. Mol Pain. 2009;5:62 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPM8 is activated by voltage, cold and cooling compounds such as menthol. Despite its essential role for cold temperature sensing in mammals, the pharmacology of TRPM8 is still in its ..
  2. Klein A, Sawyer C, Carstens M, Tsagareli M, Tsiklauri N, Carstens E. Topical application of L-menthol induces heat analgesia, mechanical allodynia, and a biphasic effect on cold sensitivity in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2010;212:179-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol is used in analgesic balms and also in foods and oral hygiene products for its fresh cooling sensation...
  3. Connolly G, Behm I, Osaki Y, Wayne G. The impact of menthol cigarettes on smoking initiation among non-smoking young females in Japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:1-14 pubmed publisher
    Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition...
  4. Binder A, Stengel M, Klebe O, Wasner G, Baron R. Topical high-concentration (40%) menthol-somatosensory profile of a human surrogate pain model. J Pain. 2011;12:764-73 pubmed publisher
    Cold hyperalgesia is 1 of the characteristic signs in neuropathic pain. Topical application of menthol has been proposed as model to study cold hyperalgesia...
  5. Rozza A, Hiruma Lima C, Takahira R, Padovani C, Pellizzon C. Effect of menthol in experimentally induced ulcers: pathways of gastroprotection. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;206:272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, this study aimed to characterize the gastroprotective mechanisms of menthol (ME), the major compound of the essential oil from species of the genus Mentha...
  6. Daniels R, Takashima Y, McKemy D. Activity of the neuronal cold sensor TRPM8 is regulated by phospholipase C via the phospholipid phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..have reported that TRPM8 channels also adapt in a calcium-dependent manner when activated by the cooling compound menthol. Additionally, TRPM8 activity is sensitive to the phospholipid phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a ..
  7. Fagan P, Moolchan E, Hart A, Rose A, Lawrence D, Shavers V, et al. Nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers with similar consumptive patterns. Addiction. 2010;105 Suppl 1:55-74 pubmed publisher
    This study examines the associations between usual cigarette brand (i.e. menthol, non-menthol) and markers for nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors.
  8. Yerger V. Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective. Tob Control. 2011;20 Suppl 2:ii29-36 pubmed publisher
    To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence. A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf...
  9. Wondergem R, Ecay T, Mahieu F, Owsianik G, Nilius B. HGF/SF and menthol increase human glioblastoma cell calcium and migration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Menthol stimulated influx of Ca(2+), membrane current, and migration of DBTRG cells...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Wu X, Desai K, Mallery S, Holpuch A, Phelps M, Schwendeman S. Mucoadhesive fenretinide patches for site-specific chemoprevention of oral cancer: enhancement of oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol and menthol. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:937-45 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to enhance oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol (PG) and menthol in fenretinide/Eudragit RL PO mucoadhesive patches...
  2. Squier C, Mantz M, Wertz P. Effect of menthol on the penetration of tobacco carcinogens and nicotine across porcine oral mucosa ex vivo. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:763-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol is a flavored tobacco additive claimed to mask the bitter taste and reduce the harshness of cigarette smoke. (Azzi, C., Zhang, J., Purdon, C. H., Chapman, J. M., Nitcheva, D., Hebert, J. R., et al...
  3. Williams J, Gandhi K, Steinberg M, Foulds J, Ziedonis D, Benowitz N. Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:873-81 pubmed
    This study examined whether smoking menthol cigarettes was associated with increased biochemical measures of smoke intake...
  4. Gordon S, Brinkman M, Meng R, Anderson G, Chuang J, Kroeger R, et al. Effect of cigarette menthol content on mainstream smoke emissions. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011;24:1744-53 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration to study "the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health, including such use among children, African Americans, Hispanics and other ..
  5. Blot W, Cohen S, ALDRICH M, McLaughlin J, Hargreaves M, Signorello L. Lung cancer risk among smokers of menthol cigarettes. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:810-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol cigarettes, preferred by African American smokers, have been conjectured to be harder to quit and to contribute to the excess lung cancer burden among black men in the Unites States...
  6. Dhaka A, Earley T, Watson J, Patapoutian A. Visualizing cold spots: TRPM8-expressing sensory neurons and their projections. J Neurosci. 2008;28:566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Virtually all EGFPf-positive cultured DRG neurons from hemizygous mice (TRPM8(EGFPf/+)) responded to cold and menthol. In contrast, EGFPf-positive DRGs from homozygous mice (TRPM8(EGFPf/EGFPf)) had drastically reduced cold ..
  7. Benowitz N, Dains K, Dempsey D, Havel C, Wilson M, Jacob P. Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:3013-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol cigarettes are smoked by 27% of U.S. smokers, and there are concerns that menthol might enhance toxicity of cigarette smoking by increasing systemic absorption of smoke toxins...
  8. Brody A, Mukhin A, La Charite J, Ta K, Farahi J, Sugar C, et al. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;16:957-66 pubmed publisher
    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes...
  9. Gillis D, House J, Tipton M. The influence of menthol on thermoregulation and perception during exercise in warm, humid conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110:609-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol has recently been added to various cooling products that claim to enhance athletic performance. This study assessed the effect of two such solutions during exercise in warm, humid conditions. Twelve participants (22 ± 2...
  10. Cubbin C, Soobader M, LECLERE F. The intersection of gender and race/ethnicity in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers in the United States. Addiction. 2010;105 Suppl 1:32-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether menthol is related to initiation, quantity or quitting, we examined differences in smoking behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity, and adjusting for age, income and ..
  11. Gonzalez N, Sumano H. Design of two liquid Ibuprofen-poloxamer-limonene or menthol preparations for dermal administration. Drug Deliv. 2007;14:287-93 pubmed
    ..poloxamer-based formulations were prepared, both containing ibuprofen and one of two terpenes: d-limonene and 1-menthol. A rheological characterization of all preparations made allowed their grouping in two modalities: gels and ..
  12. Karashima Y, Damann N, Prenen J, Talavera K, Segal A, Voets T, et al. Bimodal action of menthol on the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1. J Neurosci. 2007;27:9874-84 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate a bimodal sensitivity of TRPA1 to menthol, a widely used cooling agent and known activator of the related cold receptor TRPM8...
  13. Xiao B, Dubin A, Bursulaya B, Viswanath V, Jegla T, Patapoutian A. Identification of transmembrane domain 5 as a critical molecular determinant of menthol sensitivity in mammalian TRPA1 channels. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9640-51 pubmed publisher
    ..TRPA1 activity is also modulated by numerous nonreactive chemicals, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Menthol, a natural nonreactive cooling compound, is best known as an activator of TRPM8, a related TRP ion channel ..
  14. Klein A, Iodi Carstens M, McCluskey T, Blancher G, Simons C, Slack J, et al. Novel menthol-derived cooling compounds activate primary and second-order trigeminal sensory neurons and modulate lingual thermosensitivity. Chem Senses. 2011;36:649-58 pubmed publisher
    We presently investigated 2 novel menthol derivatives GIV1 and GIV2, which exhibit strong cooling effects...
  15. Tajino K, Matsumura K, Kosada K, Shibakusa T, Inoue K, Fushiki T, et al. Application of menthol to the skin of whole trunk in mice induces autonomic and behavioral heat-gain responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R2128-35 pubmed
    ..potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) has been identified in cell bodies of sensory neurons as low-temperature and menthol-activated cation channel...
  16. D Silva J, Boyle R, Lien R, Rode P, Okuyemi K. Cessation outcomes among treatment-seeking menthol and nonmenthol smokers. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:S242-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol cigarettes account for 25% of the market in the U.S. The Food and Drug Administration currently is considering regulatory action on tobacco products, including a ban on menthol cigarettes...
  17. Klasen K, Hollatz D, Zielke S, Gisselmann G, Hatt H, Wetzel C. The TRPM8 ion channel comprises direct Gq protein-activating capacity. Pflugers Arch. 2012;463:779-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigating cascades stimulated downstream of the cold and menthol receptor TRPM8, we found evidence for both, functional and structural interaction of TRPM8 with G?q...
  18. Levy D, Blackman K, Tauras J, Chaloupka F, Villanti A, Niaura R, et al. Quit attempts and quit rates among menthol and nonmenthol smokers in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2011;101:1241-7 pubmed publisher
    We compared quit attempts and quit rates among menthol and nonmenthol cigarette smokers in the United States.
  19. Flühr K, Neddermeyer T, Lotsch J. Capsaicin or menthol sensitization induces quantitative but no qualitative changes to thermal and mechanical pain thresholds. Clin J Pain. 2009;25:128-31 pubmed publisher
  20. Bautista D, Siemens J, Glazer J, Tsuruda P, Basbaum A, Stucky C, et al. The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold. Nature. 2007;448:204-8 pubmed
    ..One such channel--TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) or cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1)--is activated by chemical cooling agents (such as menthol) or when ambient temperatures drop ..
  21. Unger J, Allen B, Leonard E, Wenten M, Cruz T. Menthol and non-menthol cigarette use among Black smokers in Southern California. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:398-407 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol cigarette smoking is more prevalent among Blacks than among other groups in the United States...
  22. Gentry C, Stoakley N, Andersson D, Bevan S. The roles of iPLA2, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in chemically induced cold hypersensitivity. Mol Pain. 2010;6:4 pubmed publisher
    The cooling agents menthol and icilin act as agonists at TRPM8 and TRPA1. In vitro, activation of TRPM8 by icilin and cold, but not menthol, is dependent on the activity of a sub-type of phospholipase A2, iPLA2. Lysophospholipids (e.g...
  23. Zhang X, Jiang P, Gong N, Hu X, Fei D, Xiong Z, et al. A-type GABA receptor as a central target of TRPM8 agonist menthol. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3386 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol is a widely-used cooling and flavoring agent derived from mint leaves. In the peripheral nervous system, menthol regulates sensory transduction by activating TRPM8 channels residing specifically in primary sensory neurons...
  24. Rostron B. NNAL exposure by race and menthol cigarette use among U.S. smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15:950-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Researchers have also suggested that nicotine exposure does not differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In this study, we examine NNAL exposure for U.S...
  25. Journigan V, Zaveri N. TRPM8 ion channel ligands for new therapeutic applications and as probes to study menthol pharmacology. Life Sci. 2013;92:425-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a number of clinical studies have implicated menthol, the natural ligand of TRPM8, in facilitating and maintaining cigarette smoking behavior, possibly through its ..
  26. Moreland Russell S, Harris J, Snider D, Walsh H, Cyr J, Barnoya J. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:4571-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents...
  27. Wise P, Preti G, Eades J, Wysocki C. The effect of menthol vapor on nasal sensitivity to chemical irritation. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13:989-97 pubmed publisher
    Among other effects, menthol added to cigarettes may modulate sensory response to cigarette smoke either by masking "harshness" or contributing to a desirable "impact...
  28. Ashoor A, Nordman J, Veltri D, Yang K, Shuba Y, Al Kury L, et al. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;347:398-409 pubmed publisher
    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  29. Reitzel L, Nguyen N, Cao Y, Vidrine J, Daza P, Mullen P, et al. Race/ethnicity moderates the effect of prepartum menthol cigarette use on postpartum smoking abstinence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13:1305-10 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the influence of prepartum menthol cigarette use on postpartum smoking abstinence or how race/ethnicity might moderate this relationship...
  30. Muilenburg J, Legge J. African American adolescents and menthol cigarettes: smoking behavior among secondary school students. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43:570-5 pubmed publisher
    This paper examines the impact of smoking menthol cigarettes among secondary students, primarily African Americans, across five measures of smoking behavior.
  31. Roberts K, Shenoy R, Anand P. A novel human volunteer pain model using contact heat evoked potentials (CHEP) following topical skin application of transient receptor potential agonists capsaicin, menthol and cinnamaldehyde. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We systematically investigated the sensory effects and interactions of TRP agonists capsaicin (TRPV1), menthol (TRPM8) and cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1) applied topically to the skin in 14 healthy human participants...
  32. Wasner G, Naleschinski D, Binder A, Schattschneider J, McLachlan E, Baron R. The effect of menthol on cold allodynia in patients with neuropathic pain. Pain Med. 2008;9:354-8 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous application of menthol in healthy subjects induces cold allodynia via sensitization of cold-sensitive nociceptors...
  33. Sarria I, Gu J. Menthol response and adaptation in nociceptive-like and nonnociceptive-like neurons: role of protein kinases. Mol Pain. 2010;6:47 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol-sensitive/capsaicin-insensitive neurons (MS/CI) and menthol-sensitive/capsaicin-sensitive neurons (MS/CS) are thought to represent two functionally distinct populations of cold-sensing neurons that use TRPM8 receptors to convey ..
  34. Rock V, Davis S, Thorne S, Asman K, Caraballo R. Menthol cigarette use among racial and ethnic groups in the United States, 2004-2008. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12 Suppl 2:S117-24 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the patterns of menthol cigarette use can be useful in developing and justifying policies designed to prevent and reduce cigarette use and exposure to tobacco smoke...
  35. Fernander A, Rayens M, Hahn E, Zhang M, Adkins S. Menthol smoking, smoke-free policies and cessation services. Addiction. 2010;105 Suppl 1:105-14 pubmed publisher
    This study examined whether menthol cigarette smoking is related to exposure to smoke-free home and work-place policies, availability of cessation services at work and knowledge of cessation resources among current smokers.
  36. Jones M, Apelberg B, Samet J, Navas Acien A. Smoking, menthol cigarettes, and peripheral artery disease in U.S. adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15:1183-9 pubmed publisher
    Cigarette flavorings, with the exception of menthol, have been banned in the United States under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...
  37. Kenia P, Houghton T, Beardsmore C. Does inhaling menthol affect nasal patency or cough?. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:532-7 pubmed publisher
    There is widespread use of menthol in over-the-counter medications, despite scant information on any beneficial effects...
  38. Nonnemaker J, Hersey J, Homsi G, Busey A, Allen J, Vallone D. Initiation with menthol cigarettes and youth smoking uptake. Addiction. 2013;108:171-8 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to assess whether young people who first tried menthol cigarettes were at greater risk of becoming established smokers and dependent on nicotine than young people who started smoking non-menthol cigarettes.
  39. Muscat J, Liu H, Stellman S, Richie J. Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: results from a community-based study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;63:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..There is controversy regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence...
  40. Ma S, G G, Ak V, Jf D, H H. Menthol derivative WS-12 selectively activates transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) ion channels. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2008;21:370-8 pubmed
    ..Known TRPM8 agonists such as menthol and icilin have a relatively low potency and cross-activate nociceptors like TRPA1; thus bearing a limited ..
  41. Gundersen D, Delnevo C, Wackowski O. Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults. Prev Med. 2009;49:553-7 pubmed publisher
    To explore the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation in a nationally representative sample of adults.
  42. King B, Yong H, Borland R, Omar M, Ahmad A, Sirirassamee B, et al. Malaysian and Thai smokers' beliefs about the harmfulness of 'light' and menthol cigarettes. Tob Control. 2010;19:444-50 pubmed publisher
    This study explored the extent to which Malaysian and Thai smokers believe "light" and menthol cigarettes are less harmful than "regular" cigarettes and the correlates of these beliefs.
  43. Wang Y, Wang X, Yang Z, Zhu G, Chen D, Meng Z. Menthol inhibits the proliferation and motility of prostate cancer DU145 cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:903-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, we aimed to investigate whether activating the TRPM8 channel by its selective agonist menthol can inhibit the proliferation and motility of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) with remarkable ..
  44. Gandhi K, Foulds J, Steinberg M, Lu S, Williams J. Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower rates of smoking cessation and higher rates of lung cancer in African American (AA) smokers may be linked to their preference for mentholated cigarettes...
  45. Liu J, Fu S, Wei N, Hou Y, Zhang X, Cui H. The effects of combined menthol and borneol on fluconazole permeation through the cornea ex vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;688:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the control group, 0.05% and 0.1% menthol, as well as menthol combined with borneol were considered as the penetration enhancer significantly promoted the ..
  46. Gardiner P, Clark P. Menthol cigarettes: moving toward a broader definition of harm. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12 Suppl 2:S85-93 pubmed publisher
    The current practice of the tobacco industry of primarily focusing on the extent that menthol cigarettes contribute or do not contribute to excess morbidity and mortality in various diseases does not, in and of itself, fully illuminate ..
  47. O Connor R, Bansal Travers M, Carter L, Cummings K. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand. Addiction. 2012;107:1330-8 pubmed publisher
    The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.
  48. Fu S, Okuyemi K, Partin M, Ahluwalia J, Nelson D, Clothier B, et al. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation during an aided quit attempt. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:457-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Menthol may make cigarettes more addictive and rates of menthol cigarette smoking are disproportionately higher among Black...
  49. Heck J. Smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes exhibit similar levels of biomarkers of smoke exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:622-9 pubmed publisher
    There has been speculation that the addition of menthol to cigarettes may affect the manner in which cigarettes are smoked, potentially influencing smokers' exposures to smoke constituents that have been associated with smoking-related ..
  50. Colvin L, Johnson P, Mitchell R, Fleetwood Walker S, Fallon M. From bench to bedside: a case of rapid reversal of bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain by the TRPM8 activator, menthol. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4519-20 pubmed publisher
  51. Sherkheli M, Vogt Eisele A, Bura D, Beltrán Márques L, Gisselmann G, Hatt H. Characterization of selective TRPM8 ligands and their structure activity response (S.A.R) relationship. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;13:242-53 pubmed
    ..Known TRPM8 agonists like menthol and icilin cross-activate other thermo-TRP channels like TRPV3 and TRPA1 and mutually inhibit TRPM8...
  52. Hans M, Wilhelm M, Swandulla D. Menthol suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functioning in sensory neurons via allosteric modulation. Chem Senses. 2012;37:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (-) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 ?M)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were ..
  53. Pedretti A, Marconi C, Bettinelli I, Vistoli G. Comparative modeling of the quaternary structure for the human TRPM8 channel and analysis of its binding features. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:973-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the proposed model could find fertile applications to further investigate the gating mechanism and to design truly selective ligands able to clarify the pathophysiological roles of the TRPM8 channel...