farnesol

Summary

Summary: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Forman B, Goode E, Chen J, Oro A, Bradley D, Perlmann T, et al. Identification of a nuclear receptor that is activated by farnesol metabolites. Cell. 1995;81:687-93 pubmed
    ..A screen of candidate ligands identified farnesol and related metabolites as effective activators of this complex...
  2. Pammi M, Liang R, Hicks J, Barrish J, Versalovic J. Farnesol decreases biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and exhibits synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin. Pediatr Res. 2011;70:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated farnesol (FSL), the Candida quorum-sensing molecule, on S. epidermidis biofilms, in vitro and in vivo...
  3. Kloog Y, Cox A. RAS inhibitors: potential for cancer therapeutics. Mol Med Today. 2000;6:398-402 pubmed
  4. Dinamarco T, Pimentel B, Savoldi M, Malavazi I, Soriani F, Uyemura S, et al. The roles played by Aspergillus nidulans apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-like mitochondrial oxidoreductase (AifA) and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases (NdeA-B and NdiA) in farnesol resistance. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:1055-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol (FOH) is a nonsterol isoprenoid produced by dephosphorylation of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a catabolite of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. These isoprenoids inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis...
  5. Tsimberidou A, Rudek M, Hong D, Ng C, Blair J, Goldsweig H, et al. Phase 1 first-in-human clinical study of S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (salirasib) in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;65:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This phase I first-in-human trial evaluated salirasib, an S-prenyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid that competitively blocks RAS signaling...
  6. Hornby J, Kebaara B, Nickerson K. Farnesol biosynthesis in Candida albicans: cellular response to sterol inhibition by zaragozic acid B. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2366-9 pubmed
    The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans produces farnesol as a quorum-sensing molecule that regulates cellular morphology...
  7. Blum R, Jacob Hirsch J, Amariglio N, Rechavi G, Kloog Y. Ras inhibition in glioblastoma down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, causing glycolysis shutdown and cell death. Cancer Res. 2005;65:999-1006 pubmed
    ..Consequently, U87 cell growth was arrested and the cells died. These results show that FTS is a potent down-regulator of HIF-1alpha and might therefore block invasiveness, survival, and angiogenesis in GBM...
  8. Roullet J, Luft U, Xue H, Chapman J, Bychkov R, Roullet C, et al. Farnesol inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:32240-6 pubmed
    Earlier experiments with animal and human arteries have shown that farnesol, a natural 15-carbon (C15) isoprenoid, is an inhibitor of vasoconstriction (Roullet, J.-B., Xue, H., Chapman, J., McDougal, P., Roullet, C. M., and McCarron, D. A...
  9. Charron G, Tsou L, Maguire W, Yount J, Hang H. Alkynyl-farnesol reporters for detection of protein S-prenylation in cells. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This alkynyl-prenylation reporter provides a sensitive tool for biochemical analysis and rapid profiling of prenylated proteins in cells...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Langford M, Hasim S, Nickerson K, Atkin A. Activity and toxicity of farnesol towards Candida albicans are dependent on growth conditions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:940-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol interacts with Candida albicans as both a quorum-sensing molecule and toxic agent, but confusion abounds regarding which conditions promote these distinct responses...
  2. Mor A, Kloog Y, Keren G, George J. Ras inhibition increases the frequency and function of regulatory T cells and attenuates type-1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;616:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Ras inhibition might therefore be worth developing as a new treatment modality in patients with type 1 diabetes...
  3. Funari S, Prades J, Escriba P, Barceló F. Farnesol and geranylgeraniol modulate the structural properties of phosphatidylethanolamine model membranes. Mol Membr Biol. 2005;22:303-11 pubmed
    The biological activity of farnesol (FN) and geranylgeraniol (GG) and their isoprenyl groups is related to membrane-associated processes...
  4. Mor A, Keren G, Kloog Y, George J. N-Ras or K-Ras inhibition increases the number and enhances the function of Foxp3 regulatory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inhibition of the N- or K-Ras isoform triggers an anti-inflammatory effect by up-regulating, via Foxp3 elevation, the numbers and functional suppressive properties of Treg...
  5. Cugini C, Morales D, Hogan D. Candida albicans-produced farnesol stimulates Pseudomonas quinolone signal production in LasR-defective Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Microbiology. 2010;156:3096-107 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans. Farnesol, a signalling molecule produced by C...
  6. Langford M, Atkin A, Nickerson K. Cellular interactions of farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule produced by Candida albicans. Future Microbiol. 2009;4:1353-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule produced by Candida albicans that has many effects, including filament inhibition of this polymorphic fungus. In the past 9 years, the effect of farnesol on C...
  7. Kuroda M, Nagasaki S, Ito R, Ohta T. Sesquiterpene farnesol as a competitive inhibitor of lipase activity of Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;273:28-34 pubmed
    ..We found that a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration of farnesol (1000 mg L(-1)) inhibits this lipase activity on a Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1% Tween substrates...
  8. Ramage G, Saville S, Wickes B, Lopez Ribot J. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation by farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5459-63 pubmed
    b>Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation in Candida albicans. Both filamentation and quorum sensing are deemed to be important factors in C. albicans biofilm development...
  9. Koo H, Pearson S, Scott Anne K, Abranches J, Cury J, Rosalen P, et al. Effects of apigenin and tt-farnesol on glucosyltransferase activity, biofilm viability and caries development in rats. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17:337-43 pubmed
    ..Several compounds, mainly polyphenolics, have been identified in propolis. Apigenin and tt-farnesol demonstrated biological activity against mutans streptococci...
  10. McMahon L, Yue W, Santen R, Lawrence J. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity both in cells and in vitro by promoting dissociation of the mTOR-raptor complex. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:175-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings indicate that FTS represents a new type of mTOR inhibitor, which acts by dissociating the functional mTOR-raptor signaling complex...
  11. Burke Y, Ayoubi A, Werner S, McFarland B, Heilman D, Ruggeri B, et al. Effects of the isoprenoids perillyl alcohol and farnesol on apoptosis biomarkers in pancreatic cancer chemoprevention. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:3127-34 pubmed
    Perillyl alcohol, farnesol and geraniol have chemotherapeutic activity toward pancreatic and other cancers. Perillyl alcohol induces apoptosis and increases expression of the proapoptotic protein Bak in cultured pancreatic tumor cells...
  12. Decanis N, Savignac K, Rouabhia M. Farnesol promotes epithelial cell defense against Candida albicans through Toll-like receptor 2 expression, interleukin-6 and human beta-defensin 2 production. Cytokine. 2009;45:132-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule, regulates virulence and morphogenesis in Candida albicans and is involved in various human pathologies including oral candidiasis...
  13. Westwater C, Balish E, Schofield D. Candida albicans-conditioned medium protects yeast cells from oxidative stress: a possible link between quorum sensing and oxidative stress resistance. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1654-61 pubmed
    ..b>Farnesol, a heat-stable quorum-sensing molecule (QSM) that is insensitive to proteolytic enzymes and is unaffected by pH ..
  14. Song L. A soluble form of phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of converting farnesyl diphosphate into E,E-farnesol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006;128:149-58 pubmed
    ..However, only the second pNPP active peak demonstrated the ability to convert farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into E,E-farnesol. N-terminal sequence analysis of the purified pNPP/FPP phosphatase revealed that it was a truncated form of ..
  15. Joo J, Jetten A. NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation in lung carcinoma cells by farnesol involves p65/RelA(Ser276) phosphorylation via the MEK-MSK1 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:16391-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma H460 cells with farnesol induces the expression of a number of immune response and inflammatory genes, including IL-6, CXCL3, IL-1alpha, and COX-2...
  16. Kim S, Kim C, Han I, Lee S, Kim S, Lee K, et al. Inhibition effect of new farnesol derivatives on all-trans-retinoic acid metabolism. Metabolism. 2001;50:1356-60 pubmed
    ..In this study, farnesol derivatives are proposed as new inhibitors to prevent P450-mediated metabolism...
  17. Gomes F, Teixeira P, Azeredo J, Oliveira R. Effect of farnesol on planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Curr Microbiol. 2009;59:118-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of farnesol, a natural sesquiterpenoid, on Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm cells...
  18. Hisajima T, Maruyama N, Tanabe Y, Ishibashi H, Yamada T, Makimura K, et al. Protective effects of farnesol against oral candidiasis in mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2008;52:327-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol is known as a quorum-sensing molecule for Candida albicans and is recognized to play pathogenic roles in Candida infection. To assess the possible role of farnesol in mucosal C...
  19. Fitzpatrick A, Bhandari J, Crowell D. Farnesol kinase is involved in farnesol metabolism, ABA signaling and flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2011;66:1078-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol, which is toxic to plant cells at high concentrations, is sequentially phosphorylated to farnesyl phosphate and farnesyl diphosphate...
  20. McPherson R, Conaway M, Gregory C, Yue W, Santen R. The novel Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylate, suppresses growth of prostate cancer in vitro. Prostate. 2004;58:325-34 pubmed
    ..The compound farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS), a specific antagonist of the 21 kDa Ras protein, suppresses GF signaling and it might be a useful therapy against advanced PCa...
  21. Aizman E, Mor A, Levy A, George J, Kloog Y. Ras inhibition by FTS attenuates brain tumor growth in mice by direct antitumor activity and enhanced reactivity of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Oncotarget. 2012;3:144-57 pubmed
    ..These results are important as they might explain some of the major beneficial effects of Ras inhibitors. They may provide an experimental framework for examination of the impact of other anticancer drugs on cancer and the immune system...
  22. Hall R, Turner K, Chaloupka J, Cottier F, De Sordi L, Sanglard D, et al. The quorum-sensing molecules farnesol/homoserine lactone and dodecanol operate via distinct modes of action in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1034-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that both farnesol and 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, block hyphal ..
  23. Granshaw T, Tsukamoto M, Brody S. Circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa: farnesol or geraniol allow expression of rhythmicity in the otherwise arrhythmic strains frq10, wc-1, and wc-2. J Biol Rhythms. 2003;18:287-96 pubmed
    ..In this study, it was found that the addition of 10(-4) to 10(-5) M of geraniol or farnesol restored rhythmic banding to strains that lack a circadian rhythm due to mutations in any 1 of these 3 genes...
  24. Khan R, Sultana S. Farnesol attenuates 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic responses in the colon of Wistar rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;192:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Farnesol, an isoprenoid alcohol, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties...
  25. Shapira S, Barkan B, Friedman E, Fridman E, Kloog Y, Stein R. The tumor suppressor neurofibromin confers sensitivity to apoptosis by Ras-dependent and Ras-independent pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:895-906 pubmed
    ..Therefore, besides its Ras-dependent growth inhibition, neurofibromin can exert tumor suppression via a proapoptotic effect...
  26. Hemmerlin A, Reents R, Mutterer J, Feldtrauer J, Waldmann H, Bach T. Monitoring farnesol-induced toxicity in tobacco BY-2 cells with a fluorescent analog. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;448:93-103 pubmed
    ..123 (2000) 1257-1268), we have demonstrated that above a critical concentration, treatment with all-trans-farnesol induces cell-death in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cells...
  27. Gomes F, Leite B, Teixeira P, Cerca N, Azeredo J, Oliveira R. Farnesol as antibiotics adjuvant in Staphylococcus epidermidis control in vitro. Am J Med Sci. 2011;341:191-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol is a sesquiterpenoid that has been described as impairing bacterial growth...
  28. Colabardini A, de Castro P, De Gouvêa P, Savoldi M, Malavazi I, Goldman M, et al. Involvement of the Aspergillus nidulans protein kinase C with farnesol tolerance is related to the unfolded protein response. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:1259-79 pubmed publisher
    ..that the Aspergillus nidulans calC2 mutation in protein kinase C pkcA was able to confer tolerance to farnesol (FOH), an isoprenoid that has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis...
  29. Enjalbert B, Whiteway M. Release from quorum-sensing molecules triggers hyphal formation during Candida albicans resumption of growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1203-10 pubmed
    ..of hyphal repression caused by quorum-sensing molecules in the growth medium of stationary-phase cells, and farnesol has a strong but incomplete role in this process...
  30. Laheru D, Shah P, Rajeshkumar N, McAllister F, Taylor G, Goldsweig H, et al. Integrated preclinical and clinical development of S-trans, trans-Farnesylthiosalicylic Acid (FTS, Salirasib) in pancreatic cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:2391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the activity, safety, and toxicity of salirasib in preclinical models and patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  31. Rivera Pérez C, Nouzova M, Clifton M, Garcia E, Leblanc E, Noriega F. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 converts farnesal into farnesoic acid in the corpora allata of mosquitoes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..assay utilizing fluorescent tags, we demonstrated that AaALDH3 activity, as well as the concentrations of farnesol, farnesal and FA were different in CA of sugar and blood-fed females...
  32. Tschantz W, Digits J, Pyun H, Coates R, Casey P. Lysosomal prenylcysteine lyase is a FAD-dependent thioether oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2321-4 pubmed
    ..These surprising findings indicate that prenylcysteine lyase utilizes a novel oxidative mechanism to cleave thioether bonds and provide insight into the unique role this enzyme plays in the cellular metabolism of prenylcysteines...
  33. Goto T, Kim Y, Funakoshi K, Teraminami A, Uemura T, Hirai S, et al. Farnesol, an isoprenoid, improves metabolic abnormalities in mice via both PPAR?-dependent and -independent pathways. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E1022-32 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) control energy homeostasis. In this study, we showed that farnesol, a naturally occurring ligand of PPARs, could ameliorate metabolic diseases...
  34. Zhang L, Chang W, Sun B, Groh M, Speicher A, Lou H. Bisbibenzyls, a new type of antifungal agent, inhibit morphogenesis switch and biofilm formation through upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28953 pubmed publisher
    The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM) secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of ..
  35. Wang C, Yoon S, Shah A, Chung Y, Kim J, Choi E, et al. Farnesol production from Escherichia coli by harnessing the exogenous mevalonate pathway. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;107:421-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol (FOH) production has been carried out in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli...
  36. Inoue Y, Shiraishi A, Hada T, Hirose K, Hamashima H, Shimada J. The antibacterial effects of terpene alcohols on Staphylococcus aureus and their mode of action. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;237:325-31 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that the terpene alcohols, namely, farnesol, nerolidol and plaunotol might act on cell membranes...
  37. Kuroda M, Nagasaki S, Ohta T. Sesquiterpene farnesol inhibits recycling of the C55 lipid carrier of the murein monomer precursor contributing to increased susceptibility to beta-lactams in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:425-32 pubmed
    The sesquiterpene farnesol, a natural plant metabolite, is known to intensify the effect of antimicrobial agents. However, the mode of action of its antimicrobial synergism has remained poorly understood...
  38. Scheper M, Shirtliff M, Meiller T, Peters B, Jabra Rizk M. Farnesol, a fungal quorum-sensing molecule triggers apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells. Neoplasia. 2008;10:954-63 pubmed
    b>Farnesol is a catabolite within the isoprenoid/cholesterol pathway that has exhibited significant antitumor activity. Farnesol was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans...
  39. Hogan D, Vik A, Kolter R. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecule influences Candida albicans morphology. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:1212-23 pubmed
    ..The activity of 3OC12HSL is compared with that of farnesol, a C. albicans-produced molecule also with a C12-backbone. The effects that bacteria have on the morphology of C...
  40. Hogan D, Muhlschlegel F. Candida albicans developmental regulation: adenylyl cyclase as a coincidence detector of parallel signals. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14:682-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, C. albicans secretes an autoregulatory molecule, farnesol, which was recently shown to directly inhibit Cyr1 activity...
  41. Mosel D, Dumitru R, Hornby J, Atkin A, Nickerson K. Farnesol concentrations required to block germ tube formation in Candida albicans in the presence and absence of serum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4938-40 pubmed
    Concentrations of (E,E)-farnesol needed to inhibit germ tube formation were determined for Candida albicans strains A72 and SC5314 by using six different conditions known to trigger germination...
  42. Kebaara B, Langford M, Navarathna D, Dumitru R, Nickerson K, Atkin A. Candida albicans Tup1 is involved in farnesol-mediated inhibition of filamentous-growth induction. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:980-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tup1, a transcriptional repressor, and the signaling molecule farnesol are both capable of negatively regulating the yeast to filamentous conversion...
  43. Clarke H, Kocher H, Khwaja A, Kloog Y, Cook H, Hendry B. Ras antagonist farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) reduces glomerular cellular proliferation and macrophage number in rat thy-1 nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:848-54 pubmed
    ..05). These results show that Ras inhibition can reduce both glomerular cell proliferation and glomerular macrophage cell number in the thy-1 model and justify further study of FTS as a potential therapeutic in proliferative nephritis...
  44. Dichtl K, Ebel F, Dirr F, Routier F, Heesemann J, Wagener J. Farnesol misplaces tip-localized Rho proteins and inhibits cell wall integrity signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1191-204 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol is known for inducing apoptosis in some fungi and mammalian cells. To evaluate its potential role as an antifungal agent, we studied its impact on the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We found that growth of A...
  45. Duncan R, Archer M. Farnesol decreases serum triglycerides in rats: identification of mechanisms including up-regulation of PPARalpha and down-regulation of fatty acid synthase in hepatocytes. Lipids. 2008;43:619-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Farnesol is consumed in the diet as a component of plant products...
  46. Ganguly S, Bishop A, Xu W, Ghosh S, Nickerson K, Lanni F, et al. Zap1 control of cell-cell signaling in Candida albicans biofilms. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..GC-MS) measurements of known organic QS molecules show that the zap1?/? mutant accumulates significantly less farnesol than wild-type or complemented strains and that ZRT2 overexpression does not affect farnesol accumulation...
  47. Gana Weisz M, Halaschek Wiener J, Jansen B, Elad G, Haklai R, Kloog Y. The Ras inhibitor S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid chemosensitizes human tumor cells without causing resistance. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:555-65 pubmed
    ..Such treatment in mice with preexisting Panc-1 tumors provided a synergistic effect of FTS and gemcitabine, leading to enhanced inhibition of tumor growth and a 65% increase in survival rate...
  48. Cao Y, Cao Y, Xu Z, Ying K, Li Y, Xie Y, et al. cDNA microarray analysis of differential gene expression in Candida albicans biofilm exposed to farnesol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:584-9 pubmed
    Candida albicans biofilms are structured microbial communities with high levels of drug resistance. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits hyphal formation in C. albicans, has been found to prevent biofilm formation by C...
  49. Biran A, Brownstein M, Haklai R, Kloog Y. Downregulation of survivin and aurora A by histone deacetylase and RAS inhibitors: a new drug combination for cancer therapy. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:691-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus demonstrate that combination therapy with VPA and FTS might offer a promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of epithelial tumors...
  50. Haklai R, Weisz M, Elad G, Paz A, Marciano D, Egozi Y, et al. Dislodgment and accelerated degradation of Ras. Biochemistry. 1998;37:1306-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that FTS affects docking of Ras in the cell membrane in a rather specific manner, rendering the protein susceptible to proteolytic degradation...
  51. Deveau A, Piispanen A, Jackson A, Hogan D. Farnesol induces hydrogen peroxide resistance in Candida albicans yeast by inhibiting the Ras-cyclic AMP signaling pathway. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:569-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Farnesol, a Candida albicans cell-cell signaling molecule that participates in the control of morphology, has an additional role in protection of the fungus against oxidative stress...
  52. Yu L, Wei X, Ma M, Chen X, Xu S. Possible inhibitory molecular mechanism of farnesol on the development of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans biofilm. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:770-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that farnesol, an endogenous quorum sensing molecule with possible antimicrobial properties which is also the precursor of ..
  53. Yue W, Wang J, Li Y, Fan P, Santen R. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid blocks mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2005;117:746-54 pubmed
    ..These later data provide support for the concept that FTS exerts its effects predominantly by blocking mTOR and to a lesser effect by inhibition of MAP kinase in breast cancer cells...