soybean oil


Summary: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.

Top Publications

  1. Zhao L, Chen Y, Cao Y, Kong X, Hua Y. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:9727-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water ..
  2. Meisel J, Le H, de Meijer V, Nose V, Gura K, Mulkern R, et al. Comparison of 5 intravenous lipid emulsions and their effects on hepatic steatosis in a murine model. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:666-673 pubmed publisher
    ..The fish oil-based lipid emulsion Omegaven prevented hepatic steatosis and EFAD in this murine model. ?-3 fatty acids may be efficacious in preventing PNALD and should be explored in the development of novel lipid emulsions. ..
  3. Siqueira J, Smiley D, Newton C, Le N, Gosmanov A, Spiegelman R, et al. Substitution of standard soybean oil with olive oil-based lipid emulsion in parenteral nutrition: comparison of vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory effects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:3207-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions are the only Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid formulation for clinical use in parenteral nutrition (PN)...
  4. Vanek V, Seidner D, Allen P, Bistrian B, Collier S, Gura K, et al. A.S.P.E.N. position paper: Clinical role for alternative intravenous fat emulsions. Nutr Clin Pract. 2012;27:150-92 pubmed publisher
    The currently available, standard soybean oil (SO)-based intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) meet the needs of most parenteral nutrition (PN) patients...
  5. Wang X, Cheng M, Zhao M, Ge A, Guo F, Zhang M, et al. Differential effects of high-fat-diet rich in lard oil or soybean oil on osteopontin expression and inflammation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese rats. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..control group fed standard diet (LF, n = 10) and two high-fat diet groups fed isoenergy diet rich in lard or soybean oil (HL or HS, n = 45 each)...
  6. Ng C, Kamisah Y, Faizah O, Jaarin K. The role of repeatedly heated soybean oil in the development of hypertension in rats: association with vascular inflammation. Int J Exp Pathol. 2012;93:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was to ascertain the role of inflammation in the blood pressure raising effect of heated soybean oil in rats...
  7. Li A, Ha Y, Wang F, Li W, Li Q. Determination of thermally induced trans-fatty acids in soybean oil by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography analysis. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10709-13 pubmed publisher was conducted to investigate the possible formation of trans-fatty acids because of the heat treatment of soybean oil. The types of trans-fatty acids in heated soybean oil are determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier ..
  8. Monteiro J, Li F, Maclennan M, Rabalski A, Moghadasian M, Nakamura M, et al. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:60 pubmed publisher
  9. Umpierrez G, Spiegelman R, Zhao V, Smiley D, Pinzon I, Griffith D, et al. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing soybean oil-based versus olive oil-based lipid emulsions in adult medical-surgical intensive care unit patients requiring parenteral nutrition. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:1792-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism for the high risk of complications is not known but may relate to the proinflammatory effects of soybean oil-based lipid emulsions, the only Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid formulation for clinical use...

More Information


  1. Papazzo A, Conlan X, Lexis L, Lewandowski P. Differential effects of dietary canola and soybean oil intake on oxidative stress in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:98 pubmed publisher
    Canola oil shortens the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats compared with rats fed soybean oil when given as the sole dietary lipid source...
  2. Pradella J, Ienczak J, Delgado C, Taciro M. Carbon source pulsed feeding to attain high yield and high productivity in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production from soybean oil using Cupriavidus necator. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1003-7 pubmed publisher
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biosynthesis from soybean oil by Cupriavidus necator was studied using a bench scale bioreactor...
  3. Le H, de Meijer V, Robinson E, Zurakowski D, Potemkin A, Arsenault D, et al. Parenteral fish-oil-based lipid emulsion improves fatty acid profiles and lipids in parenteral nutrition-dependent children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:749-58 pubmed publisher
    Total parenteral nutrition (PN), including fat administered as a soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SOLE), is a life-saving therapy but may be complicated by PN-induced cholestasis and dyslipidemia...
  4. Nehra D, Le H, Fallon E, Carlson S, WOODS D, White Y, et al. Prolonging the female reproductive lifespan and improving egg quality with dietary omega-3 fatty acids. Aging Cell. 2012;11:1046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, omega-3 fatty acids may provide an effective and practical avenue for delaying ovarian aging and improving oocyte quality at advanced maternal age. ..
  5. Muhammed R, Bremner R, Protheroe S, Johnson T, Holden C, Murphy M. Resolution of parenteral nutrition-associated jaundice on changing from a soybean oil emulsion to a complex mixed-lipid emulsion. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on PN-associated jaundice of changing from a soybean oil-derived lipid to a mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils without reducing ..
  6. Rayyan M, Devlieger H, Jochum F, Allegaert K. Short-term use of parenteral nutrition with a lipid emulsion containing a mixture of soybean oil, olive oil, medium-chain triglycerides, and fish oil: a randomized double-blind study in preterm infants. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012;36:81S-94S pubmed publisher receive at least 7 days of PN containing either an emulsion of MCTs and soybean, olive, and fish oils or a soybean oil emulsion. Target lipid dosage was 1...
  7. Teichert S, Akoh C. Stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid at the sn-2 position by enzymatic interesterification for use as human milk fat analogues. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5692-701 pubmed publisher
    Stearidonic acid (SDA, C18:4n-3) enriched soybean oil may be added to the diet to increase intake of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs)...
  8. Rani R, Kansal V. Study on cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis & expression of cyclooxygenase-2 & peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-? in rats. Indian J Med Res. 2011;133:497-503 pubmed
    ..In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in rat and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and ..
  9. Li R, Hatanaka T, Yu K, Wu Y, Fukushige H, Hildebrand D. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases. Funct Integr Genomics. 2013;13:99-113 pubmed publisher
    ..DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation...
  10. Harris W. Stearidonic acid-enhanced soybean oil: a plant-based source of (n-3) fatty acids for foods. J Nutr. 2012;142:600S-604S pubmed publisher
    ..Stearidonic acid (SDA) is a metabolic precursor of EPA that can be provided by SDA-enhanced soybean oil. Such a product can provide a sustainable source of (n-3) fatty acids that does not endanger fish stocks...
  11. Li A, Yuan B, Li W, Wang F, Ha Y. Thermally induced isomerization of linoleic acid in soybean oil. Chem Phys Lipids. 2013;166:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..C18:2 isomers in soybean oil heated at two temperatures (180 and 220 ° C) were analyzed by GC method...
  12. Pham A, Shannon J, Bilyeu K. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;125:503-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study generated non-transgenic soybeans with the highest oleic acid content and lowest linolenic acid content reported to date, offering a unique alternative to produce a fatty acid profile similar to olive oil. ..
  13. Hirata T, Keto Y, Yamano M, Yokoyama T, Sengoku T, Seki N. Inhibitory effect of ramosetron on corticotropin releasing factor- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27:1505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of ramosetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying of rats, in comparison with anti-diarrheal agent and spasmolytics...
  14. Hevener A, Reichart D, Janez A, Olefsky J. Female rats do not exhibit free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2002;51:1907-12 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that female animals are protected from lipid-induced reductions in insulin action. ..
  15. Camilios Neto D, Bugay C, de Santana Filho A, Joslin T, de Souza L, Sassaki G, et al. Production of rhamnolipids in solid-state cultivation using a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn bran supplemented with glycerol and soybean oil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:1395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..bagasse and corn bran supplemented with an impregnating solution containing 6% (v/v) of each of glycerol and soybean oil. This level is comparable with those of previous studies undertaken in solid-state cultivation; the composition ..
  16. de Lima C, Ribeiro E, Sérvulo E, Resende M, Cardoso V. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in residual soybean oil. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;152:156-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Under these conditions, the biosurfactant production derived from using a mixture of waste frying soybean oil (WFSO) as a carbon source was compared to production when non-used soybean oil (NUSO), or waste soybean oils ..
  17. Nunes E, Peixoto F, Louro T, Sena C, Santos M, Matafome P, et al. Soybean oil treatment impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and changes fatty acid composition of normal and diabetic islets. Acta Diabetol. 2007;44:121-30 pubmed
    We investigated the effect of sub-chronic soybean oil (SO) treatment on the insulin secretion and fatty acid composition of islets of Langerhans obtained from Goto-Kakizaki (GK), a model of type 2 diabetes, and normal Wistar rats...
  18. Yamaguchi M, Yamauchi A, Nishimura M, Ueda N, Naito S. Soybean oil fat emulsion prevents cytochrome P450 mRNA down-regulation induced by fat-free overdose total parenteral nutrition in infant rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:143-7 pubmed oral diet, group 2 received TPN without fat, and group 3 received TPN with 20% of calories from fat (soybean oil emulsion)...
  19. Fantoni L, Simoneau C. European survey of contamination of homogenized baby food by epoxidized soybean oil migration from plasticized PVC gaskets. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20:1087-96 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that an emphasis must be placed for more systematic research with a focus on the parameters for migration. ..
  20. Madland T, Björkkjaer T, Brunborg L, Fröyland L, Berstad A, Brun J. Subjective improvement in patients with psoriatic arthritis after short-term oral treatment with seal oil. A pilot study with double blind comparison to soy oil. J Rheumatol. 2006;33:307-10 pubmed
    ..There was a shift in fatty acid composition in serum toward a putative antiinflammatory profile. Oral treatment with seal oil may have NSAID-like effects in PsA. ..
  21. Suman M, La Tegola S, Catellani D, Bersellini U. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of epoxidized soybean oil in food products. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9879-84 pubmed
    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) is widely used as a plasticizer and stabilizer in such polymers [poly(vinyl chloride) in particular] commonly adopted for manufacturing of gaskets of the lids for glass jars and plastic films for food ..
  22. Wanten G, Calder P. Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1171-84 pubmed
    ..have failed to produce a clear picture of the immunologic characteristics of the most commonly used soybean oil-derived lipid emulsions, although their high content of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) has been considered a ..
  23. Tomsits E, Pataki M, Tölgyesi A, Fekete G, Rischak K, Szollár L. Safety and efficacy of a lipid emulsion containing a mixture of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial in premature infants requiring parenteral nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;51:514-21 pubmed publisher
    Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a novel lipid emulsion containing a mixture of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOFlipid 20%) with reduced n-6 fatty acids (FA), increased monounsaturated and n-3 FA,..
  24. Cober M, Teitelbaum D. Prevention of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: lipid minimization. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2010;15:330-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence over the past decade has suggested soybean oil-based intravenous emulsions are a contributing factor to the development of PNALD...
  25. Song C, Horrobin D. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate, but not soybean oil, attenuates memory impairment induced by central IL-1beta administration. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1112-21 pubmed
    ..Rats were fed with a diet of coconut oil (contained a negligible quantity of fatty acids), soybean oil (contained mainly n-6 fatty acids), or a diet of coconut oil enriched with ethyl-EPA (E-EPA)...
  26. Finch G, Hobbs C, Blair L, Barr E, Hahn F, Jaramillo R, et al. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel. Inhal Toxicol. 2002;14:1017-48 pubmed inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls...
  27. Wanten G, Kusters A, van Emst de Vries S, Tool A, Roos D, Naber T, et al. Lipid effects on neutrophil calcium signaling induced by opsonized particles: platelet activating factor is only part of the story. Clin Nutr. 2004;23:623-30 pubmed
    ..yeast particles under influence of lipid emulsions derived from fish oil (VLCT), olive oil (LCT-MUFA), soybean oil (LCT), and a physical mixture of coconut and soybean oil (LCT-MCT)...
  28. Chang K, Robertson M, Hillmyer M. Phase inversion in polylactide/soybean oil blends compatibilized by poly(isoprene-b-lactide) block copolymers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2009;1:2390-9 pubmed publisher
    Renewable composites were prepared by melt blending of polylactide and soybean oil. The blend morphology was tuned by the addition of poly(isoprene-b-lactide) block copolymers...
  29. Warner K. Effects on the flavor and oxidative stability of stripped soybean and sunflower oils with added pure tocopherols. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9906-10 pubmed
    ..of sunflower oil--high alpha, low gamma, and low delta--were added to purified sunflower oil and to purified soybean oil. Pure tocopherols in the proportion typical of soybean oil--low alpha, high gamma, and high delta--were added ..
  30. Ribeiro Junior R, Fernandes A, Meira E, Batista P, Siman F, Vassallo D, et al. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:53 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling...
  31. Leonardi V, Giubilei M, Federici E, Spaccapelo R, Sasek V, Novotny C, et al. Mobilizing agents enhance fungal degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and affect diversity of indigenous bacteria in soil. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;101:273-85 pubmed publisher
    The impact of several mobilizing agents (MAs) (i.e., soybean oil, Tween-20, Tween-80, olive-oil mill wastewaters, and randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrins) on the degradation performances of the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus and ..
  32. Jacobs A, van Baal J, Smits M, Taweel H, Hendriks W, van Vuuren A, et al. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:874-87 pubmed publisher
    ..7% rapeseed oil as a source of C18:1 cis-9; 2.7% soybean oil as a source of C18:2 cis-9,12; 2.7% linseed oil as a source of C18:3 cis-9,12,15; or 2...
  33. Adam S, Das S, Soelaiman I, Umar N, Jaarin K. Consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil increases the serum parameters related to atherosclerosis in ovariectomized rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;215:219-26 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the protective effect of the soy oil may be lost once it was being repeatedly heated. In conclusion, the consumption of repeatedly heated oil may predispose to atherosclerosis in estrogen-deficient states. ..
  34. Kashyap S, Belfort R, Gastaldelli A, Pratipanawatr T, Berria R, Pratipanawatr W, et al. A sustained increase in plasma free fatty acids impairs insulin secretion in nondiabetic subjects genetically predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:2461-74 pubmed
  35. Maisuthisakul P, Pongsawatmanit R, Gordon M. Antioxidant properties of Teaw (Cratoxylum formosum Dyer) extract in soybean oil and emulsions. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:2719-25 pubmed
    The antioxidant activity of an extract from Teaw (Cratoxylum formosum Dyer) leaves was studied in soybean oil and soybean oil-in-water emulsions...
  36. DiRienzo M, Lemke S, Petersen B, Smith K. Effect of substitution of high stearic low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake. Lipids. 2008;43:451-6 pubmed publisher
    High stearic, low alpha-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing...
  37. Clemente T, Cahoon E. Soybean oil: genetic approaches for modification of functionality and total content. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1030-40 pubmed publisher
  38. List G, Byrdwell W, Steidley K, Adlof R, Neff W. Triacylglycerol structure and composition of hydrogenated soybean oil margarine and shortening basestocks. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:4692-5 pubmed
    The composition and structures of triacylglycerols (TAG) in a commercially prepared hydrogenated soybean oil margarine basestock [iodine value (IV) 65, 39...
  39. Sjaastad A, Svendsen K. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil. Ann Occup Hyg. 2008;52:739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat...
  40. Oliveros L, Videla A, Ramirez D, Gimenez M. Dietary fat saturation produces lipid modifications in peritoneal macrophages of mouse. J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14:370-7 pubmed
    ..assigned to either the experimental diet, containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet, containing soybean oil as fat source. Fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks until sacrifice...
  41. Sirois I, Cheung A, Ward W. Biomechanical bone strength and bone mass in young male and female rats fed a fish oil diet. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;68:415-21 pubmed
    ..The effect of consuming a fish oil diet into later adulthood should be investigated to determine if femur strength is also affected among females. ..
  42. Cano N, Saingra Y, Dupuy A, Lorec Penet A, Portugal H, Lairon D, et al. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition: comparison of olive oil versus soybean oil-based lipid emulsions. Br J Nutr. 2006;95:152-9 pubmed
    ..We assessed the efficacy and tolerance of olive as compared with standard soybean oil-based ILE during intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN)...
  43. Rueda Clausen C, Silva F, Lindarte M, Villa Roel C, Gomez E, Gutierrez R, et al. Olive, soybean and palm oils intake have a similar acute detrimental effect over the endothelial function in healthy young subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17:50-7 pubmed
    ..All the vegetable oils, fresh and deep-fried, produced an increase in the triglyceride plasma levels in healthy subjects. ..
  44. Fasciotti M, Pereira Netto A. Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS. Talanta. 2010;81:1116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..agreement with expected or labeled values was found for a commercial blend containing 15% (w/w) of olive oil in soybean oil and to a 1:1 mixture of both oils, showing the potential of this method in characterizing oil mixtures and ..
  45. Shireen K, Pace R, Mahboob M, Khan A. Effects of dietary vitamin E, C and soybean oil supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in liver and muscles of rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3290-4 pubmed publisher
    The effect of elevated levels of dietary vitamin E, C and a combination of vitamin E and C (E&C) with soybean oil on activities of antioxidant (AOE) enzymes important in the protection against lipid peroxidation was studied in male ..
  46. Mingjie W, Shuhua X, Junjie C, Bin L, Cheng F, Weixia S, et al. Albendazole-soybean oil emulsion for the treatment of human cystic echinococcosis: evaluation of bioavailability and bioequivalence. Acta Trop. 2002;83:177-81 pubmed
    ..albendazole (Abz) in tablet form (AbzT) followed 2 weeks later by an equivalent dose of Abz emulsified in 30% soybean oil (AbzE) was administered orally 2 h after the first morning meal to 7 male adult patients with cystic ..
  47. Lespine A, Fernandez Y, Periquet B, Galinier A, Garcia J, Anglade F, et al. Total parenteral nutrition decreases liver oxidative metabolism and antioxidant defenses in healthy rats: comparative effect of dietary olive and soybean oil. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001;25:52-9 pubmed
    ..the effect of TPN on liver oxidative metabolism and antioxidant defenses in rats, and we compared the effect of soybean oil- and olive oil-based diets. Seven-week-old rats (n = 28) were divided into four groups...
  48. Schmidt H, Kroczynski M, Maddox J, Chen Y, Josephs R, Ostafin A. Antibody-conjugated soybean oil-filled calcium phosphate nanoshells for targetted delivery of hydrophobic molecules. J Microencapsul. 2006;23:769-81 pubmed
    ..Here, calcium phosphate was deposited around 100 nm diameter, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate stabilized soybean oil nanoemulsions using either calcium chloride or NaOH titrations to achieve shell thickness between 20-70 nm...
  49. Dung C, Wu S, Yen G. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress of the mutagenic compounds formed in fumes of heated soybean oil, sunflower oil and lard. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:439-47 pubmed
    ..the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the oil fumes formed from heating three common commercial cooking oils (soybean oil, sunflower oil, and lard) on human lung carcinoma pulmonary type II-like epithelium cell (A-549 cell)...
  50. DiRienzo M, Astwood J, Petersen B, Smith K. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake. Lipids. 2006;41:149-57 pubmed
    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods...
  51. Deshpande G, Simmer K, Mori T, Croft K. Parenteral lipid emulsions based on olive oil compared with soybean oil in preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) neonates: a randomised controlled trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..fatty acid (PUFA) (20% vs 60%) and higher vitamin E content (an antioxidant) compared with traditional soybean oil (SO) emulsions...
  52. Furukawa K. Soybean oil, stress response, and immune function: a clinical study. Nutrition. 2003;19:212 pubmed
  53. Bjørkkjaer T, Brun J, Valen M, Arslan G, Lind R, Brunborg L, et al. Short-term duodenal seal oil administration normalised n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in rectal mucosa and ameliorated bodily pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Lipids Health Dis. 2006;5:6 pubmed
    ..The possibility of a causal relationship between n-6 to n-3 FA ratio in rectal mucosa and bodily pain in IBD-patients warrants further investigations. ..