safflower oil


Summary: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Jucker B, Cline G, Barucci N, Shulman G. Differential effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in skeletal muscle: a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study. Diabetes. 1999;48:134-40 pubmed
    To examine the effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on in vivo intramuscular glucose metabolism and relative pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) versus tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, rats were pair-fed on diets consisting of 1)..
  2. Xu J, Cho H, O MALLEY S, Park J, Clarke S. Dietary polyunsaturated fats regulate rat liver sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 and -2 in three distinct stages and by different mechanisms. J Nutr. 2002;132:3333-9 pubmed
    ..05) in rats fed fish oil or safflower oil, but the amount of precursor SREBP-2 was unaffected...
  3. Kimoto N, Hirose M, Futakuchi M, Iwata T, Kasai M, Shirai T. Site-dependent modulating effects of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil in a rat two-stage carcinogenesis model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Lett. 2001;168:15-21 pubmed
    Modifying effects of dietary administration of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid, on major organs were examined in the post-initiation stage of a two-stage carcinogenesis model in female ..
  4. Hirose M, Masuda A, Ito N, Kamano K, Okuyama H. Effects of dietary perilla oil, soybean oil and safflower oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH)-induced mammary gland and colon carcinogenesis in female SD rats. Carcinogenesis. 1990;11:731-5 pubmed
    ..perilla oil, which contains a large amount of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and n-6 linoleic acid rich soybean and safflower oil supplemented diets on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)- and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced mammary ..
  5. Norris L, Collene A, Asp M, Hsu J, Liu L, Richardson J, et al. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes...
  6. Gustavsson C, Parini P, Ostojic J, Cheung L, Hu J, Zadjali F, et al. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats. Lipids. 2009;44:1011-27 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats...
  7. Yamazaki T, Nakamori A, Sasaki E, Wada S, Ezaki O. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice. Hepatology. 2007;46:1779-90 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice...
  8. Bell J, Griinari J, Kennelly J. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:733-48 pubmed
    ..The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M)...
  9. Pfeuffer M, Fielitz K, Laue C, Winkler P, Rubin D, Helwig U, et al. CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30:19-28 pubmed
    ..Most human studies used olive oil as a reference. This study assessed the effect of CLA as compared with safflower oil on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese men...

More Information


  1. Cheng J, Futakuchi M, Ogawa K, Iwata T, Kasai M, Tokudome S, et al. Dose response study of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil on mammary and colon carcinogenesis pretreated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Lett. 2003;196:161-8 pubmed
    To clarify the chemopreventive effects of conjugated fatty acid derived from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on mammary and colon carcinogenesis, 6 week old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received diet ..
  2. Iwamoto M, Kono M, Kawamoto D, Tomoyori H, Sato M, Imaizumi K. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:141-6 pubmed
    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient ..
  3. Neschen S, Moore I, Regittnig W, Yu C, Wang Y, Pypaert M, et al. Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E395-401 pubmed oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle...
  4. Williams M, Sutherland W, McCormick M, Yeoman D, De Jong S, Walker R. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001;11:147-52 pubmed
    ..of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design...
  5. Sato M, Yoshida S, Nagao K, Imaizumi K. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000;64:1111-7 pubmed
    ..5-fold (p<0.01) and there was no dietary fat effect. The ExHC rats fed on the safflower oil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and ..
  6. Li X, Long R, Yan C, Lee H, Kim Y, Song M. Rumen microbial response in production of CLA and methane to safflower oil in association with fish oil or/and fumarate. Anim Sci J. 2011;82:441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..on production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and methane by rumen microbes was examined when incubated with safflower oil. One hundred and twenty milligrams of safflower oil (SO), safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil (SOFO), safflower ..
  7. Hsu S, Huang C. Reduced fat mass in rats fed a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil diet is associated with changes in expression of hepatic PPARalpha and adipose SREBP-1c-regulated genes. J Nutr. 2006;136:1779-85 pubmed
    ..This study compared a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil (ORSO) diet and a high-butter diet for their effect on adipose mass and expressions of genes regulated by PPAR ..
  8. Koyama N, Suzuki K, Furukawa Y, Arisaka H, Seki T, Kuribayashi K, et al. Effects of safflower seed extract supplementation on oxidation and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggested that individuals with elevated oxidative stress, inflammation, and/or arterial stiffness may receive more benefit from SSE supplementation. ..
  9. Woodend D, Anderson G. Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men. Appetite. 2001;37:185-95 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pure sucrose and safflower oil, isovolumetric beverage preloads, on appetite (measured every 15 minutes by visual analogue scales) and food ..
  10. Minami A, Ishimura N, Sakamoto S, Takishita E, Mawatari K, Okada K, et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester v. oleic acid-rich safflower oil on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model rats with hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Br J Nutr. 2002;87:157-62 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that long-term feeding of EPA might be effective in preventing insulin resistance in diabetes-prone rats, at least in part, due to improving hypertriacylglycerolaemia. ..
  11. Bozan B, Temelli F. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:6354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mg/100g oil and 30.9 mg/100g oil, respectively, while alpha-tocopherol (44.1g/100g oil) was dominant in safflower oil. Only alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were found in the oils...
  12. Rama Rao S, Raju M, Panda A, Poonam N, Shyam Sunder G. Effect of dietary ? -tocopherol concentration on performance and some immune responses in broiler chickens fed on diets containing oils from different sources. Br Poult Sci. 2011;52:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..7. It is concluded that sunflower oil, palm oil and safflower oil can be used as sources of oil for broiler diets without having any effect on performance, immune responses or ..
  13. Martinez N, Sosa M, Higa R, Fornes D, Capobianco E, Jawerbaum A. Dietary treatments enriched in olive and safflower oils regulate seric and placental matrix metalloproteinases in maternal diabetes. Placenta. 2012;33:8-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to determine whether diets supplemented with olive and safflower oil, enriched in natural PPAR ligands, are able to regulate MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the placenta and serum ..
  14. Suh M, Sauve Y, Merrells K, Kang J, Ma D. Supranormal electroretinogram in fat-1 mice with retinas enriched in docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 very long chain fatty acids (C24-C36). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Both wild-type (WT) and fat-1 mice were fed a modified AIN-93G diet containing 10% safflower oil, high in 18:2n-6...
  15. Yamasaki M, Ikeda A, Hirao A, Tanaka Y, Miyazaki Y, Rikimaru T, et al. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the in vivo growth of rat hepatoma dRLh-84. Nutr Cancer. 2001;40:140-8 pubmed
    ..Serum interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were higher in injected than in sham rats. Moreover, these levels were higher in 2% CLA groups than in the respective 0% CLA groups. ..
  16. Manzanares W, Dhaliwal R, Jurewitsch B, Stapleton R, Jeejeebhoy K, Heyland D. Alternative lipid emulsions in the critically ill: a systematic review of the evidence. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:1683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is warranted to confirm these potential positive treatment effects. ..
  17. Tanito M, Brush R, Elliott M, Wicker L, Henry K, Anderson R. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degeneration. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:807-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]...
  18. Pitts S, Thomson C. Analysis and classification of common vegetable oils. J Forensic Sci. 2003;48:1293-7 pubmed
    ..Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the detection limits for canola, corn, olive, peanut and safflower oils were determined to be 0.4 mg/mL or less and 0.2 mg/mL or less for soybean and sunflower oils. ..
  19. Lamping K, Nuno D, Coppey L, Holmes A, Hu S, Oltman C, et al. Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO)...
  20. Watkins B, Feng S, Strom A, DeVitt A, Yu L, Li Y. Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:6870-6 pubmed
    ..Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White ..
  21. Pierre F, Tache S, Petit C, Van der Meer R, Corpet D. Meat and cancer: haemoglobin and haemin in a low-calcium diet promote colorectal carcinogenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1683-90 pubmed
    ..and were then randomized to 11 groups fed with low-calcium (20 micro mol/g) AIN76-based diets, containing 5% safflower oil. Haemin (0.25, 0.5 and 1.5 micro mol/g) or haemoglobin (1...
  22. Pascoe J, Hollern D, Stamateris R, Abbasi M, Romano L, Zou B, et al. Free fatty acids block glucose-induced ?-cell proliferation in mice by inducing cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p18. Diabetes. 2012;61:632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..If FFAs reduce proliferation induced by obesity and insulin resistance, targeting this pathway may lead to new treatment approaches to prevent diabetes. ..
  23. Paterson L, Weselake R, Mir P, Mir Z. Positional distribution of CLA in TAG of lamb tissues. Lipids. 2002;37:605-11 pubmed
    ..21 d prior to weaning) to milk-replacer of pre-ruminating lambs, or (iii) feeding linoleic acid-rich oil (6% safflower oil on a dry matter basis) to weaned ruminating lambs...
  24. Hevener A, Reichart D, Janez A, Olefsky J. Female rats do not exhibit free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2002;51:1907-12 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that female animals are protected from lipid-induced reductions in insulin action. ..
  25. Ciubotaru I, Lee Y, Wander R. Dietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRT. J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14:513-21 pubmed
    ..subjects taking HRT were randomly divided into three groups and supplemented for five weeks with 14 g/day safflower oil (SO), 7 g/day of both safflower oil and fish oil (LFO), or 14 g/day fish oil (HFO)...
  26. Waldron M, Hannah S, Bauer J. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid and ex vivo neutrophil responses are differentially altered in dogs fed fish- and linseed-oil containing diets at the same n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio. Lipids. 2012;47:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Four groups of ten dogs each were fed a low fat basal diet supplemented with safflower oil (SFO), beef tallow (BTO), linseed oil (LSO), or Menhaden fish oil (MHO) for 28 days. Dietary fat provided 40...
  27. Jackson K, Robertson M, Fielding B, Frayn K, Williams C. Measurement of apolipoprotein B-48 in the Svedberg flotation rate (S(f))>400, S(f) 60-400 and S(f) 20-60 lipoprotein fractions reveals novel findings with respect to the effects of dietary fatty acids on triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in postme. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;103:227-37 pubmed
    ..A single-blind randomized within-subject crossover design was used to study the effects of palm oil, safflower oil, a mixture of fish and safflower oil, and olive oil on postprandial apolipoprotein (apo) B-48, retinyl ester ..
  28. Rahamatalla A, Babiker E, Krishna A, El Tinay A. Changes in fatty acids composition during seed growth and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from four safflower cultivars. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2001;56:385-95 pubmed
  29. He M, Armentano L. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:2481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. ..
  30. Stebbins C, Hammel L, Marshal B, Spangenberg E, Musch T. Effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids on the skeletal-muscle blood-flow response to exercise in rats. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010;20:475-86 pubmed
    ..Rats were fed a diet of 5% lipids by weight, of which 20% was DHA and 30% EPA (PUFA group, n = 9), or 5% safflower oil (SO group, n = 8) for 6 wk...
  31. Reich M, Kümmerer K, Al Ahmad A, Hannig C. Fatty acid profile of the initial oral biofilm (pellicle): an in-situ study. Lipids. 2013;48:929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the impact of rinses with safflower oil on the pellicle's FA composition was investigated...
  32. Kim J, Choi N, Park H, Kim I, Lee H, Song M, et al. Utilization of oil by-product from the purification process of conjugated linoleic Acid as feeding supplements for the accumulation of conjugated linoleic acid in the egg yolk. Poult Sci. 2008;87:64-70 pubmed use oil by-product which is obtained during the purification process of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from safflower oil. The CLA by-product (CBP) was fed to the laying hens to accumulate CLA in the egg yolk...
  33. Saitoh M, Ishii T, Takewaki T, Nishimura M. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:653-8 pubmed
    ..We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free ..
  34. Foley J, Stark K, Zajchowski S, Meckling K. Fatty acids and exercise affect glucose transport but not tumour growth in F-344 rats. Can J Appl Physiol. 2004;29:604-22 pubmed
    ..Male Fischer 344 rats were divided into 4 dietary groups and fed for 2 weeks. The diets were 5% (wt/wt) safflower oil, 10% safflower oil, 5% docosahexaenoic acid(DHA)-rich, and 10% DHA-rich...
  35. Ji Y, Sakata Y, Yang Q, Li X, Xu M, Yoder S, et al. Activation of rat intestinal mucosal mast cells by fat absorption. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G1292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings indicate that intestinal MMC are activated and degranulate to release MMC mediators to the circulation during fat absorption. This action of fatty acid is dose and chain length dependent...
  36. Matsuo T, Takeuchi H, Suzuki H, Suzuki M. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;11:302-8 pubmed
    ..Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1)...
  37. Sanchez Otero M, Ruiz López I, Avila Nieto D, Oliart Ros R. Significant improvement of Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11 thermoalkalophilic lipase production using response surface methodology. N Biotechnol. 2011;28:761-6 pubmed publisher
    ..8 g/l and the optimal culture temperature was 39.5°C. The model was experimentally validated, yielding a lipase production of 2283.70 ± 118.36 U/mL which represents a 6.7-fold increase in comparison to the non-optimized medium. ..
  38. Abd S, McCarthy K, Harris L. Impact of storage time and temperature on thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on oil-roasted almonds. J Food Sci. 2012;77:M42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity of Salmonella to oil roasting is demonstrated during typical commercial almond storage times and temperatures. ..
  39. Indart A, Viana M, Grootveld M, Silwood C, Sánchez Vera I, Bonet B. Teratogenic actions of thermally-stressed culinary oils in rats. Free Radic Res. 2002;36:1051-8 pubmed
    ..The aims of this study were to determine whether orally-administered, LOP-containing thermally-stressed safflower oil exerts teratogenic actions in rats, and whether this effect could be prevented by co-administration of alpha-..
  40. Kim Y, Nakajima R, Matsuo T, Inoue T, Sekine T, Komuro M, et al. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet. Metabolism. 1996;45:1080-8 pubmed
    ..the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet...
  41. Sensöz S, Angin D. Pyrolysis of safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed press cake: part 1. The effects of pyrolysis parameters on the product yields. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:5492-7 pubmed
    ..According to the results obtained under the conditions of this study, the effects of pyrolysis temperature and sweep gas flow rate are more significant than the effect of heating rate on the yields. ..
  42. Imaizumi K, Adan Y, Shibata K. Role of dietary lipids in arteriosclerosis in experimental animals. Biofactors. 2000;13:25-8 pubmed
    ..The rats fed on the diet containing DHA or EPA, compared with those fed on the safflower oil (SO) diet, lowered serum cholesterol concentration, prevented platelet aggregation and slowed thickening in ..
  43. Lee Y, Wander R. Reduced effect on apoptosis of 4-hydroxyhexenal and oxidized LDL enriched with n-3 fatty acids from postmenopausal women. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:213-21 pubmed
    ..Thirty healthy postmenopausal women were supplemented with 14 g/day safflower oil (SO), 7 g/day of both fish oil and SO (low dose LFO) or 14 g/day fish oil (high dose HFO) for 5 weeks...
  44. Leone V, Worzalla S, Cook M. Body compositional changes and growth alteration in chicks from hens fed conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids. 2009;44:437-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal CLA feeding resulted in the presence of c9,t11 and t10,c12-CLA in NHC, but only c9,t11 in the TWC. In conclusion, hens fed CLA led to improved fertility and altered body composition at 3 weeks of age. ..
  45. Kraft J, Spiltoir J, Salter A, Lock A. Differential effects of the trans-18:1 isomer profile of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in male F1B hamsters. J Nutr. 2011;141:1819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..partially hydrogenated high-oleic acid sunflower oil (PH-SUN); or 3) partially hydrogenated high-linoleic acid safflower oil (PH-SAF)...
  46. Burton Freeman B, Davis P, Schneeman B. Interaction of fat availability and sex on postprandial satiety and cholecystokinin after mixed-food meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1207-14 pubmed
    ..The satiety response to dietary fat provided in oil or whole food form is influenced by sex and is dependent on the availability of fat to stimulate CCK release in women but not in men. ..
  47. Miles E, Wallace F, Calder P. Dietary fish oil reduces intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and scavenger receptor expression on murine macrophages. Atherosclerosis. 2000;152:43-50 pubmed
    ..were fed on a low fat diet (containing 25 g/kg corn oil) or on high fat diets containing 200 g/kg coconut oil, safflower oil or fish oil...
  48. Ahuja I. Prudent diet and preventive nutrition. Indian Heart J. 2003;55:668; author reply 668 pubmed
  49. Atkinson R, Scholljegerdes E, Lake S, Nayigihugu V, Hess B, Rule D. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:387-96 pubmed
    ..and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM...
  50. Chang C, Seo T, Du C, Accili D, Deckelbaum R. n-3 Fatty acids decrease arterial low-density lipoprotein cholesterol delivery and lipoprotein lipase levels in insulin-resistant mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..n-3 diets diminish arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition in mice with insulin resistance, and this is associated with changes in arterial LpL levels and distribution. ..
  51. Vergara Sánchez J, Silva Martínez S. Degradation of water polluted with used cooking oil by solar photolysis, Fenton and solar photo Fenton. Water Sci Technol. 2010;62:77-84 pubmed publisher
    The degradation of used cooking safflower oil aqueous solutions by photolysis, Fenton, and photo Fenton under solar light is reported. The processes were carried out in a photochemical reactor with recirculation...
  52. Miller M, Engstrom J, Ludher B, Johnston K. Low viscosity highly concentrated injectable nonaqueous suspensions of lysozyme microparticles. Langmuir. 2010;26:1067-74 pubmed publisher
  53. Lu W, Yang Q, Sun W, Woods S, D ALESSIO D, Tso P. Using the lymph fistula rat model to study the potentiation of GIP secretion by the ingestion of fat and glucose. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G1130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude from these studies that the lymph fistula rat is a novel approach to study in vivo GIP secretion in response to nutrient feeding in conscious rats. ..