butter

Summary

Summary: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Lichtenstein A, Erkkilä A, Lamarche B, Schwab U, Jalbert S, Ausman L. Influence of hydrogenated fat and butter on CVD risk factors: remnant-like particles, glucose and insulin, blood pressure and C-reactive protein. Atherosclerosis. 2003;171:97-107 pubmed
    ..source of fat: soybean oil, semi-liquid margarine, soft margarine, shortening, traditional stick margarine or butter. Plasma fatty acid profiles reflected diet, with triglyceride and phospholipid subfractions affected to a greater ..
  2. Hurtaud C, Peyraud J. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5134-45 pubmed
    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties...
  3. Rombaut R, Dejonckheere V, Dewettinck K. Microfiltration of butter serum upon casein micelle destabilization. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:1915-25 pubmed
    The gross composition of butter serum, the aqueous phase of butter, is comparable to that of buttermilk, except that it has a higher content of material derived from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM)...
  4. Weiss J, Papke O, Bergman A. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter. Ambio. 2005;34:589-97 pubmed
    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (..
  5. Gagliardi A, Maranhao R, de Sousa H, Schaefer E, Santos R. Effects of margarines and butter consumption on lipid profiles, inflammation markers and lipid transfer to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:1141-9 pubmed publisher
    Our purpose was to examine the effects of daily servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine and plant sterol margarine, within recommended amounts, on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos), biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial ..
  6. Jimenez Gomez Y, Lopez Miranda J, Blanco Colio L, Marin C, Perez Martinez P, Ruano J, et al. Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:e70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..12-h fast, volunteers were given a breakfast with a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets-butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA)...
  7. Mallia S, Escher F, Dubois S, Schieberle P, Schlichtherle Cerny H. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation...
  8. Biong A, Muller H, Seljeflot I, Veierød M, Pedersen J. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Br J Nutr. 2004;92:791-7 pubmed
    ..aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Jarlsberg cheese (a Norwegian variety of Swiss cheese) with butter on serum lipoproteins, haemostatic variables and homocysteine...
  9. Battu R, Singh B, Kang B. Contamination of liquid milk and butter with pesticide residues in the Ludhiana district of Punjab state, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004;59:324-31 pubmed
    ..Similarly, analysis of 40 samples of butter showed the presence of DDT and HCH in 28 and 8 samples, respectively...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Palomäki A, Pohjantähti Maaroos H, Wallenius M, Kankkunen P, Aro H, Husgafvel S, et al. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:137 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome...
  2. Schecter A, Smith S, Colacino J, Malik N, Opel M, Paepke O, et al. Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:151-4 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs...
  3. Maijala R, Lyytikainen O, Autio T, Aalto T, Haavisto L, Honkanen Buzalski T. Exposure of Listeria monocytogenes within an epidemic caused by butter in Finland. Int J Food Microbiol. 2001;70:97-109 pubmed
    ..Between June 1998 and April 1999, an outbreak caused by L. monocytogenes serotype 3a in butter occurred in Finland...
  4. Muller J, Prange J, Gaus C, Moore M, Papke O. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in butter from different states in Australia. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2001;8:7-10 pubmed
    Nine samples of butter from producers in various states of Australia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)...
  5. Lamothe S, Robitaille G, St Gelais D, Britten M. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution. J Dairy Res. 2008;75:439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum...
  6. Prättälä R, Groth M, Oltersdorf U, Roos G, Sekula W, Tuomainen H. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries: a case of contrasting educational differences. Eur J Public Health. 2003;13:124-32 pubmed
    This paper aims to analyse socioeconomic variation in the use of cheese and butter in Europe by reviewing existing dietary surveys...
  7. Nestel P, Cehun M, Pomeroy S, Abbey M, Weldon G. Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:1084-90 pubmed
    ..2. The LDL cholesterol-raising effect of butter fat could be countered by including sterol esters. 3...
  8. Raff M, Tholstrup T, Basu S, Nonboe P, Sørensen M, Straarup E. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men. J Nutr. 2008;138:509-14 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation...
  9. Motard Bélanger A, Charest A, Grenier G, Paquin P, Chouinard Y, Lemieux S, et al. Study of the effect of trans fatty acids from ruminants on blood lipids and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:593-9 pubmed
  10. Denke M, Adams Huet B, Nguyen A. Individual cholesterol variation in response to a margarine- or butter-based diet: A study in families. JAMA. 2000;284:2740-7 pubmed
    ..One regimen used butter only and the other used margarine only. Mean LDL-C levels during the last 2 weeks of each dietary period...
  11. Lacroix E, Charest A, Cyr A, Baril Gravel L, Lebeuf Y, Paquin P, et al. Randomized controlled study of the effect of a butter naturally enriched in trans fatty acids on blood lipids in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of a butter naturally enriched in rTFAs, of which vaccenic acid is the predominant isomer, on plasma lipid concentrations ..
  12. Judd J, Baer D, Clevidence B, Muesing R, Chen S, Weststrate J, et al. Effects of margarine compared with those of butter on blood lipid profiles related to cardiovascular disease risk factors in normolipemic adults fed controlled diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:768-77 pubmed
    Effects of butter and 2 types of margarine on blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were compared in a controlled diet study with 23 men and 23 women. Table spreads, added to a common basal diet, provided 8.3% of energy as fat...
  13. Malisch R. Increase of the PCDD/F-contamination of milk, butter and meat samples by use of contaminated citrus pulp. Chemosphere. 2000;40:1041-53 pubmed
    ..However, for milk and butter, this trend was gradually reversed beginning in September 1997: From summer 1997 to February 1998 the average PCDD/..
  14. Tholstrup T, Høy C, Andersen L, Christensen R, Sandström B. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently?. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23:169-76 pubmed
    To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response...
  15. Mekki N, Charbonnier M, Borel P, Leonardi J, Juhel C, Portugal H, et al. Butter differs from olive oil and sunflower oil in its effects on postprandial lipemia and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins after single mixed meals in healthy young men. J Nutr. 2002;132:3642-9 pubmed
    ..Our goal was to evaluate the effects of test meals containing a common edible fat source of saturated (butter), monounsaturated (olive oil) or (n-6) polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) fatty acids on postprandial lipid and ..
  16. Bauman D, Barbano D, Dwyer D, Griinari J. Technical note: production of butter with enhanced conjugated linoleic acid for use in biomedical studies with animal models. J Dairy Sci. 2000;83:2422-5 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to naturally produce a CLA-enhanced butter for use in biomedical studies with animal models...
  17. Malisch R, Bruns Weller E, Knoll A, Furst P, Mayer R, Wiesmüller T. Results of an "emergency quality control study" as confirmation of a PCDD/PCDF-contamination of milk and butter samples. Chemosphere. 2000;40:1033-40 pubmed
    Elevated PCDD/F levels in four butter samples and one milk sample had to be confirmed under considerable time pressure...
  18. Sausenthaler S, Kompauer I, Borte M, Herbarth O, Schaaf B, Berg A, et al. Margarine and butter consumption, eczema and allergic sensitization in children. The LISA birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006;17:85-93 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dietary intake of margarine and butter with eczema and allergic sensitization in 2-yr-old children...
  19. Matthan N, Welty F, Barrett P, Harausz C, Dolnikowski G, Parks J, et al. Dietary hydrogenated fat increases high-density lipoprotein apoA-I catabolism and decreases low-density lipoprotein apoB-100 catabolism in hypercholesterolemic women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1092-7 pubmed
    ..Two-thirds of the fat was soybean oil (unsaturated fat), stick margarine (hydrogenated fat), or butter (saturated fat). Total and LDL-C levels were highest after the saturated diet (P<0...
  20. Desroches S, Chouinard P, Galibois I, Corneau L, Delisle J, Lamarche B, et al. Lack of effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids naturally incorporated into butter on the lipid profile and body composition of overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:309-19 pubmed
    ..We compared the effects on plasma lipoproteins and body composition of the consumption of a modified butter naturally enriched with CLA (CLA-B: 4...
  21. Nestel P, Chronopulos A, Cehun M. Dairy fat in cheese raises LDL cholesterol less than that in butter in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:1059-63 pubmed
    To determine whether dairy fat in cheese raises low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as much as in butter, since epidemiology suggests a different impact on cardiovascular disease...
  22. Tholstrup T, Raff M, Basu S, Nonboe P, Sejrsen K, Straarup E. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:237-43 pubmed
    ..The objective was to investigate the effect of butter with a naturally high content of vaccenic acid and a concomitantly higher content of monounsaturated FAs on ..
  23. Beattie R, Bell S, Borgaard C, Fearon A, Moss B. Multivariate prediction of clarified butter composition using Raman spectroscopy. Lipids. 2004;39:897-906 pubmed
    ..Raman spectra of the melted butter samples could also be used to predict bulk parameters calculated from standard analyzes, such as iodine value (R2 =..
  24. Waliszewski S, Villalobos Pietrini R, Gomez Arroyo S, Infanzon R. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20:361-7 pubmed
    ..The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico...
  25. Bellido C, Lopez Miranda J, Blanco Colio L, Perez Martinez P, Muriana F, Martin Ventura J, et al. Butter and walnuts, but not olive oil, elicit postprandial activation of nuclear transcription factor kappaB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1487-91 pubmed
    ..7% alpha-linolenic acid], butter meal (38% SFAs, 22% MUFAs, 4% PUFAs, and 0...
  26. Santillo D, Fernandes A, Stringer R, Alcock R, Rose M, White S, et al. Butter as an indicator of regional persistent organic pollutant contamination: further development of the approach using polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Food Addit Contam. 2003;20:281-90 pubmed
    The potential for use of butter as a widely available, relatively uniform lipid-rich matrix for the determination of spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants has already been demonstrated...
  27. Malisch R, Dilara P. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in butter samples from new European Union member states and a candidate country: analytical quality control, results and certain PCB-specific aspects. Chemosphere. 2007;67:S79-89 pubmed
    ..about to join the European Union in 2004 or later, a study for evaluation of dioxin and levels of PCBs in 16 butter samples from eight countries (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia) ..
  28. Taylor R, Dunn M, Ogden L, Jefferies L, Eggett D, Steele F. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:2754-64 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter...
  29. Aycicek H, Yarsan E, Sarimehmetoglu B, Cakmak O. Aflatoxin M1 in white cheese and butter consumed in Istanbul, Turkey. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44:295-6 pubmed
    We studied the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 183 sample of white cheese and butter in Istanbul, Turkey in 2001. The incidence of AFM1 in white cheese and butter samples was as high as 65 and 81, respectively...
  30. Penedo L, Nunes J, Gama M, Leite P, Quirico Santos T, Torres A. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:2144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day)...
  31. Hjerpsted J, Leedo E, Tholstrup T. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..to increase plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations when compared with an equivalent intake of fat from butter. This effect may be due to the high calcium content of cheese, which results in a higher excretion of fecal fat...
  32. Fujiyama Y, Hokari R, Miura S, Watanabe C, Komoto S, Oyama T, et al. Butter feeding enhances TNF-alpha production from macrophages and lymphocyte adherence in murine small intestinal microvessels. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1838-45 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the effect of butter feeding on lymphocyte migration in intestinal mucosa and the changes in adhesion molecules and cytokines involved ..
  33. Lozano P, Miracle E, Krause A, Drake M, Cadwallader K. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:7840-6 pubmed
    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE)...
  34. Porsgaard T, Overgaard J, Krogh A, Jensen M, Guo Z, Mu H. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:7615-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification...
  35. Couvreur S, Hurtaud C, Lopez C, Delaby L, Peyraud J. The linear relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the cow diet, milk fatty acid composition, and butter properties. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:1956-69 pubmed
    Fresh grass in the cow diet improves the rheological and nutritional properties of butter. However, the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and these properties is still unknown...
  36. Kalantzi O, Alcock R, Johnston P, Santillo D, Stringer R, Thomas G, et al. The global distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in butter. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:1013-8 pubmed
    In this study we explored the use of butter as a sampling matrix to reflect the regional and global scale distribution of PCBs and selected organochlorine pesticides/metabolites in air...
  37. Lock A, Horne C, Bauman D, Salter A. Butter naturally enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid alters tissue fatty acids and improves the plasma lipoprotein profile in cholesterol-fed hamsters. J Nutr. 2005;135:1934-9 pubmed
    b>Butter, which is naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (rumenic acid; RA) and vaccenic acid (VA), has been shown to be an effective anticarcinogen in studies with animal models; however, there has been no ..
  38. Ortiz Gonzalez G, Jimenez Flores R, Bremmer D, Clark J, DePeters E, Schmidt S, et al. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5018-31 pubmed
    ..The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) ..
  39. Franceschi S, Favero A, Conti E, Talamini R, Volpe R, Negri E, et al. Food groups, oils and butter, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. Br J Cancer. 1999;80:614-20 pubmed
    ..trends of increasing risk with increasing intake emerged for soups, eggs, processed meats, cakes and desserts, and butter. Risk was approximately halved in the highest compared to the lowest intake quintile for coffee and tea, white ..
  40. Mattes R. Oral exposure to butter, but not fat replacers elevates postprandial triacylglycerol concentration in humans. J Nutr. 2001;131:1491-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated the TAG response after oral exposure to butter and selected fat replacers. At 2200 h, 17 healthy adults consumed 80 g of almonds and fasted until 0700 h...
  41. Svensson J, Rosenquist A, Ohlsson L. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: a randomized crossover trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:106 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in ..
  42. Meshref A. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef governorate-Egypt. Afr Health Sci. 2010;10:193-8 pubmed
    Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing...
  43. Poppitt S, Keogh G, Mulvey T, McArdle B, MacGibbon A, Cooper G. Lipid-lowering effects of a modified butter-fat: a controlled intervention trial in healthy men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:64-71 pubmed
    To investigate the lipid-lowering potential of a butter-fat modified through manipulations in bovine feeding to increase the unsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio. Double-blind, randomised, cross-over intervention trial...
  44. Calvani M, Alessandri C, Sopo S, Panetta V, Pingitore G, Tripodi S, et al. Consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy and development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring: role of maternal atopy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006;17:94-102 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy might influence the development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring...
  45. Chardigny J, Destaillats F, Malpuech Brugère C, Moulin J, Bauman D, Lock A, et al. Do trans fatty acids from industrially produced sources and from natural sources have the same effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy subjects? Results of the trans Fatty Acids Collaboration (TRANSFACT) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:558-66 pubmed
    ..The mechanism underlying the observed sex- and isomer-specific effects warrants further investigation. ..
  46. Shahin A, McGuire M, Anderson N, Williams J, McGuire M. Effects of margarine and butter consumption on distribution of trans-18:1 fatty acid isomers and conjugated linoleic acid in major serum lipid classes in lactating women. Lipids. 2006;41:141-7 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted as part of an investigation designed to test the influence of butter (B), "low TFA" margarine (LT), and regular margarine (RM) on milk fat content...
  47. Mathews J, Watson S, Snyder R, Burgess J, Morgan D. Reaction of the butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) with N-α-acetylarginine: a model for epitope formation with pulmonary proteins in the etiology of obliterative bronchiolitis. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:12761-8 pubmed publisher
    The butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is implicated in causing obliterative bronchiolitis in microwave popcorn plant workers...
  48. Yamazaki T, Shiraishi S, Kishimoto K, Miura S, Ezaki O. An increase in liver PPAR?2 is an initial event to induce fatty liver in response to a diet high in butter: PPAR?2 knockdown improves fatty liver induced by high-saturated fat. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..C57BL/6J mice were fed butter or safflower oil as a high-fat (HF) diet (40% fat calories) for 2, 4, 10, or 17 weeks...
  49. Ohlsson L, Burling H, Nilsson A. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Am J Clin Nutr. 2006). This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy ..
  50. Rolland V, Roseau S, Fromentin G, Nicolaidis S, Tome D, Even P. Body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese Zucker rats fed soybean oil or butter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:21-30 pubmed
    ..body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese rats fed a diet in which fat was in the form of either butter or soybean oil...
  51. Lindstrom G, Haug L, Nicolaysen T, Dybing E. Comparability of world-wide analytical data of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in samples of chicken, butter and salmon. Chemosphere. 2002;47:139-46 pubmed
    ..Samples of chicken, butter and salmon, collected in Norway, where sent to 42 laboratories and analysed for 20 PCDDs/PCDFs/non-ortho PCBs...
  52. Hu S, Wei H, Guo S, Li L, Hou Y. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor. Anim Sci J. 2011;82:122-6 pubmed publisher
    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions...
  53. Lessard L, Hill C. Production of lipolyzed butteroil by a calf pregastric esterase immobilized in a hollow fiber reactor: III. Effect of glycerol. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002;79:323-33 pubmed
    Lipolysis of butter oil in a hollow fiber reactor containing an immobilized calf pregastric esterase was studied at 40 degrees C, a pH of 6.0, and glycerol concentrations of 0, 150, and 500 g/L in the buffer solution...