Summary: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kurata S, Yamaguchi K, Nagai M. Rapid discrimination of fatty acid composition in fats and oils by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Sci. 2005;21:1457-65 pubmed
    ..analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a more conventional method used in the discrimination of fats and oils...
  2. Cepica S, Ovilo C, Masopust M, Knoll A, Fernandez A, Lopez A, et al. Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace × Chinese-European crossbred population. Anim Genet. 2012;43:333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the localization of further QTL for meat quality traits in this region and suggest that there are several genes affecting different meat quality traits...
  3. Bosque Sendra J, Cuadros Rodríguez L, Ruiz Samblás C, de la Mata A. Combining chromatography and chemometrics for the characterization and authentication of fats and oils from triacylglycerol compositional data--a review. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;724:1-11 pubmed publisher
    The characterization and authentication of fats and oils is a subject of great importance for market and health aspects...
  4. Hwang J, Chang Y, Park J, Kim S, Chung H, Shim E, et al. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:184 pubmed publisher
    Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding...
  5. Jenkins T, McGuire M. Major advances in nutrition: impact on milk composition. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:1302-10 pubmed
    ..New protected fats were developed in recent years that were designed to resist biohydrogenation and enhance the concentration of ..
  6. Biermann U, Bornscheuer U, Meier M, Metzger J, Schäfer H. Oils and fats as renewable raw materials in chemistry. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2011;50:3854-71 pubmed publisher
    Oils and fats of vegetable and animal origin have been the most important renewable feedstock of the chemical industry in the past and in the present...
  7. O Rourke E, Soukas A, Carr C, Ruvkun G. C. elegans major fats are stored in vesicles distinct from lysosome-related organelles. Cell Metab. 2009;10:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans, allowing for efficient and accurate genetic and functional genomic screens for genes that control fat accumulation at the organismal level...
  8. Guo Z, Xu X. New opportunity for enzymatic modification of fats and oils with industrial potentials. Org Biomol Chem. 2005;3:2615-9 pubmed
    Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase)-catalyzed glycerolysis of commercial oils and fats to produce monoglycerides (MGs) was investigated using a tetraammonium-based ionic liquid (IL) as a reaction medium...
  9. Viitala S, Szyda J, Blott S, Schulman N, Lidauer M, Mäki Tanila A, et al. The role of the bovine growth hormone receptor and prolactin receptor genes in milk, fat and protein production in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle. Genetics. 2006;173:2151-64 pubmed
    ..In particular, the GHR F279Y has the highest influence on protein percentage and fat percentage while PRLR S18N markedly influences protein and fat yield. Furthermore, an interaction between the two loci is suggested. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Menzel R, Yeo H, Rienau S, Li S, Steinberg C, Sturzenbaum S. Cytochrome P450s and short-chain dehydrogenases mediate the toxicogenomic response of PCB52 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Mol Biol. 2007;370:1-13 pubmed
  2. Mele M, Conte G, Castiglioni B, Chessa S, Macciotta N, Serra A, et al. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene polymorphism and milk fatty acid composition in Italian Holsteins. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:4458-65 pubmed
  3. Kim J, van de Wall E, Laplante M, Azzara A, Trujillo M, Hofmann S, et al. Obesity-associated improvements in metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2621-37 pubmed
    ..These mice therefore represent what we believe is a novel model of morbid obesity associated with an improved metabolic profile. ..
  4. Buttchereit N, Stamer E, Junge W, Thaller G. Evaluation of five lactation curve models fitted for fat:protein ratio of milk and daily energy balance. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:1702-12 pubmed publisher
    ..43). The results support the hypothesis that FPR can serve as a suitable indicator for energy status, at least during the most metabolically stressful stage of lactation. ..
  5. Cohen Zinder M, Seroussi E, Larkin D, Loor J, Everts van der Wind A, Lee J, et al. Identification of a missense mutation in the bovine ABCG2 gene with a major effect on the QTL on chromosome 6 affecting milk yield and composition in Holstein cattle. Genome Res. 2005;15:936-44 pubmed
    ..09% fat, and 0.08% protein (F-value = 394), with partial dominance towards the 581S homozygotes. We therefore propose that Y581S in ABCG2 is the causative site for this QTL. ..
  6. SANCHEZ J, Cladera M, Llopis M, Palou A, Pico C. The different satiating capacity of CHO and fats can be mediated by different effects on leptin and ghrelin systems. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, different effects on the leptin and ghrelin systems can account, at least in part, for the lower satiating capacity of fat compared to CHO. ..
  7. Liang Y, Sarkany N, Cui Y, Blackburn J. Batch stage study of lipid production from crude glycerol derived from yellow grease or animal fats through microalgal fermentation. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:6745-50 pubmed publisher
    ..With 35 g/l, the cellular lipid content was the highest - 73.3% among all the doses tested. Animal fats derived crude glycerol also supported algal growth and lipid production...
  8. Kotronen A, Vehkavaara S, Seppälä Lindroos A, Bergholm R, Yki Jarvinen H. Effect of liver fat on insulin clearance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1709-15 pubmed
    ..40, P = 0.0002). We conclude that increased liver fat is associated with both impaired insulin clearance and hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic insulin sensitivity associates with liver fat content, independent of insulin clearance. ..
  9. Mukhopadhyay A, Pan X, Lambright D, Tissenbaum H. An endocytic pathway as a target of tubby for regulation of fat storage. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:931-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that TUB-1 controls receptor or sensory molecule degradation in neurons by regulating a RAB-7-mediated endocytic pathway. ..
  10. Brooks K, Liang B, Watts J. The influence of bacterial diet on fat storage in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7545 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of peptide transport and the accumulation of a fatty acid product derived from an amino acid suggest that specific peptides or amino acids may provide nutritional signals regulating fat metabolism and fat storage levels. ..
  11. Copley M, Bland H, Rose P, Horton M, Evershed R. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt. Analyst. 2005;130:860-71 pubmed
    ..of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised...
  12. Clark D, Phyn C, Tong M, Collis S, Dalley D. A systems comparison of once- versus twice-daily milking of pastured dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:1854-62 pubmed
    ..Milking once daily is a viable milking option for New Zealand farmers who are prepared to trade-off loss of MS income for increased time to accomplish other non-milking activities. ..
  13. Yan Y, Wang H, Hu M, Jiang L, Wang Y, Liu P, et al. HDAC6 Suppresses Age-Dependent Ectopic Fat Accumulation by Maintaining the Proteostasis of PLIN2 in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2017;43:99-111.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that manipulation of proteostasis could be an alternative approach to the treatment of age-related metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes...
  14. Bargut T, Souza Mello V, Mandarim de Lacerda C, Aguila M. Fish oil diet modulates epididymal and inguinal adipocyte metabolism in mice. Food Funct. 2016;7:1468-76 pubmed publisher
  15. Hingston P, Stea E, Knøchel S, Hansen T. Role of initial contamination levels, biofilm maturity and presence of salt and fat on desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces. Food Microbiol. 2013;36:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..05) increased the bacterium's survival. In conclusion, L. monocytogenes desiccation survival can be greatly reduced by preventing presence of mature biofilms and salty or fatty soils on food contact surfaces. ..
  16. Menendez Buxadera A, Carabaño M, González Recio O, Cue R, Ugarte E, Alenda R. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:4653-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a reaction norm model should allow producers to obtain more robust cows for maintenance of fertility levels along the whole productive life of the cows. ..
  17. Shi X, Zhang X, Song S, Tan C, Jia C, Xia S. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013;913-914:69-76 pubmed publisher
  18. Williams H, Nott K, Barrett D, Ward R, Hardy I, Melia C. Drug release from HPMC matrices in milk and fat-rich emulsions. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100:4823-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show fats can directly influence drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC; Methocel K4M) matrices which are ..
  19. Martel C, Titgemeyer E, Mamedova L, Bradford B. Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:3995-4004 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that molasses may promote mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis in cows fed high-energy rations by moderating ruminal pH and altering ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation pathways. ..
  20. Yang X, Mei S, Gu H, Guo H, Zha L, Cai J, et al. Exposure to excess insulin (glargine) induces type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice fed on a chow diet. J Endocrinol. 2014;221:469-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results show that chronic exposure to excess insulin can induce typical T2DM in normal mice fed on a chow diet. ..
  21. Akin O, Temelli F, Köseoğlu S. Membrane applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2012;52:347-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Coupling of membrane separation and supercritical fluid technologies would combine unique advantages of each process resulting in a novel separation technology offering great potential for the nutraceutical and functional food industry. ..
  22. Shepard L, Miracle R, Leksrisompong P, Drake M. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:5435-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive study established sensory and instrumental properties of sour creams and their relationship to consumer acceptance. ..
  23. Kala A, Joshi V, Gurudutt K. Effect of heating oils and fats in containers of different materials on their trans fatty acid content. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:2227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..present study was undertaken to determine the effect of heating vegetable oils and partially hydrogenated vegetable fats with different initial TFA content in stainless steel, Hindalium (an aluminium alloy), cast iron and glass ..
  24. Qi S, Belton P, McAuley W, Codoni D, Darji N. Moisture uptake of polyoxyethylene glycol glycerides used as matrices for drug delivery: kinetic modelling and practical implications. Pharm Res. 2013;30:1123-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The incorporation of model drugs not only influences the moisture uptake capacity of Gelucire 50/13 but also the solidification behaviour. ..
  25. Kim Y, Hong J, Gil H, Song H, Hong S. Mixtures of glyphosate and surfactant TN20 accelerate cell death via mitochondrial damage-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Throughout this process, TN-20 seems to disrupt the integrity of the cellular barrier to glyphosate uptake, promoting glyphosate-mediated toxicity. ..
  26. Chand A, Eyles H, Ni Mhurchu C. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants. Appetite. 2012;58:227-33 pubmed publisher
  27. Diaz J, Alejandro M, Romero G, Moya F, Peris C. Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:897-905 pubmed publisher
    ..g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. ..
  28. Sassu E, McDermott J, Keys B, Esmaeili M, Keene A, Birnbaum M, et al. Mio/dChREBP coordinately increases fat mass by regulating lipid synthesis and feeding behavior in Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;426:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data implicate a role for Mio in controlling fat accumulation in Drosophila and suggests that it may act as a nutrient sensor in the fat body to coordinate feeding behavior with nutrient availability. ..
  29. Maxa J, Neuditschko M, Russ I, Förster M, Medugorac I. Genome-wide association mapping of milk production traits in Braunvieh cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:5357-5364 pubmed publisher
    ..Described comparison of different criteria for determination of significant principal components can provide important information for similar studies in stratified populations. ..
  30. Lorenzo J, Temperán S, Bermudez R, Purriños L, Franco D. Effect of fat level on physicochemical and sensory properties of dry-cured duck sausages. Poult Sci. 2011;90:1334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Duck sausages with 20% fat content obtained higher scores for sensory traits compared with sausages of 30 and 40% fat content. ..
  31. Kim J, Vanapalli S. Microfluidic production of spherical and nonspherical fat particles by thermal quenching of crystallizable oils. Langmuir. 2013;29:12307-16 pubmed publisher
  32. Marrufo Estrada D, Segura Campos M, Chel Guerrero L, Betancur Ancona D. Defatted Jatropha curcas flour and protein isolate as materials for protein hydrolysates with biological activity. Food Chem. 2013;138:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It is expected that the information collated will facilitate new applications of proteins present in Jatropha plant. ..
  33. Fischmann A, Kaspar S, Reinhardt J, Gloor M, Stippich C, Fischer D. Exercise might bias skeletal-muscle fat fraction calculation from Dixon images. Neuromuscul Disord. 2012;22 Suppl 2:S107-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Trials using quantitative MRI should consider the timing of scanning sessions and physical examinations to avoid bias caused by the influence of exercise on measurements. ..
  34. Weigand E, Boesch Saadatmandi C. Interaction between marginal zinc and high fat supply on lipid metabolism and growth of weanling rats. Lipids. 2012;47:291-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Marginally Zn-deficient diets enriched with sunflower oil as a major energy source cause a greater growth retardation than diets rich in carbohydrates or beef tallow. ..
  35. Yura S, Nobata K, Shima T. Diagnostic accuracy of fat-saturated T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of perforation of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;50:365-8 pubmed publisher
    ..00, p<0.001). The accuracy of diagnosis of perforation of a disc by fat-saturated MRI was therefore the same as that by arthroscopy using an ultra-thin arthroscope. ..
  36. Traore S, Aubry L, Gatellier P, Przybylski W, Jaworska D, Kajak Siemaszko K, et al. Effect of heat treatment on protein oxidation in pig meat. Meat Sci. 2012;91:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, residual glycogen was positively correlated with oxidized myosin, suggesting a possible role of glycogen as a glucose donor. ..
  37. Silva P, Moraes J, Mendonça L, Scanavez A, Nakagawa G, Fetrow J, et al. Effects of weekly regrouping of prepartum dairy cows on metabolic, health, reproductive, and productive parameters. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:4436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..4±0.6, AIAO=34.3±0.7 kg/d). In conditions of adequate feed bunk space, the AIAO treatment did not improve health, metabolic, reproductive, or productive parameters compared with the TRD treatment. ..
  38. Scott C. Glucose and fat oxidation: bomb calorimeter be damned. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:375041 pubmed publisher
  39. de Luis D, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Conde R, Aller R, Izaola O, Primo D. Lack of association of serum resistin levels with metabolic syndrome criteria in obese female patients. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:1280-3 pubmed publisher
    ..006-0.038) for each kg of fat mass in female obese subjects. Only fat mass was associated in an independent way. Serum resistin was not associated with the accumulation of MetS factors or the diagnosis of MetS in obese female subjects. ..
  40. Toral P, Bernard L, Chilliard Y, Glasser F. Short communication: Diet-induced variations in milk fatty acid composition have minor effects on the estimated melting point of milk fat in cows, goats, and ewes: Insights from a meta-analysis. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:1232-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the slight effects of dietary treatments on the calculated melting point of milk FA did not differ between cows, goats, and ewes. ..
  41. Rós P, Castro H, Carvalho A, Soares C, Moraes F, Zanin G. Microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of beef tallow biodiesel. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;39:529-36 pubmed publisher
  42. Knapp M, Knappová J. Measurement of body condition in a common carabid beetle, Poecilus cupreus: a comparison of fresh weight, dry weight, and fat content. J Insect Sci. 2013;13:6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the present study, results provided by both methods differ only slightly. A recommendation on the use of terminology in studies on body condition is introduced. ..
  43. Vasta V, Ventura V, Luciano G, Andronico V, Pagano R, Scerra M, et al. The volatile compounds in lamb fat are affected by the time of grazing. Meat Sci. 2012;90:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These are the first results indicating that the time of the day in which the animals are allowed to graze affects the appearance of VOC in lamb fat. ..
  44. Borges W, Cardoso V, de Resende M. Use of a greasy effluent floater treatment station from the slaughterhouse for biosurfactant production. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2012;59:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa strain ATCC 10145 produced biosurfactant more efficiently than ATCC 9027. After optimizing the variables that were studied, the best fat, BRY, and AN concentrations (in g/L) were found to be 12, 15, and 0, respectively. ..
  45. Tsuchida T, Fukuda S, Aoyama H, Taniuchi N, Ishihara T, Ohashi N, et al. MGAT2 deficiency ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inhibiting intestinal fat absorption in mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MGAT2 has a pivotal role in lipid metabolism in the small intestine, and the inhibition of MGAT2 activity may be a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders. ..
  46. Weber C, Hametner C, Tuchscherer A, Losand B, Kanitz E, Otten W, et al. Hepatic gene expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in transition cows: effects of fat mobilization during early lactation in relation to milk performance and metabolic changes. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:5670-81 pubmed publisher
  47. Gruczynska E, Kowalska D, Kozlowska M, Kowalska M, Kowalski B. Enzymatic interesterification of a lard and rapeseed oil equal-weight blend. J Oleo Sci. 2013;62:187-93 pubmed
    ..The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stabilities, as assessed by Dynamic DSC and Isothermal PDSC ..
  48. Adeola O, Mahan D, Azain M, Baidoo S, Cromwell G, Hill G, et al. Dietary lipid sources and levels for weanling pigs. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:4216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the energy values of soybean oil from the 2012 NRC study used in formulating these diets were fairly accurate. ..
  49. Walczak J, Bocian S, Trziszka T, Buszewski B. Hyphenated Analytical Methods in Determination of Biologically Active Compounds in Hen's Eggs. Crit Rev Anal Chem. 2016;46:201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..needed for the development of the embryo; it is an important source of nutraceutical compounds, such as protein, fats, vitamins, trace metals, and minerals...
  50. Aluwé M, Tuyttens F, Bekaert K, De Smet S, De Brabander D, Millet S. Evaluation of various boar taint detection methods. Animal. 2012;6:1868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The axillary odour score was moderately correlated with the other detection methods (up to 0.32). More research is needed to evaluate the possibilities of axillary odour as a boar taint detection method. ..
  51. He Y, Li Y, Zhang S, Perry B, Zhao T, Wang Y, et al. Radicicol, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, inhibits differentiation and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436:169-74 pubmed publisher
  52. Wang A, Ma Q, Zhao H, Zhou Q, Jiang W, Sun J. A comparative study of the mortality rate of rats receiving a half lethal dose of fat intravenously: under general anaesthesia versus under spinal anaesthesia. Injury. 2012;43:311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The mortality rate of rats was lower when FES was induced under general anaesthesia than under spinal anaesthesia which implies that general anaesthesia is superior to spinal anaesthesia for patients who have a high risk of FES. ..
  53. Thatrimontrichai A, Janjindamai W, Puwanant M. Fat loss in thawed breast milk: comparison between refrigerator and warm water. Indian Pediatr. 2012;49:877-80 pubmed
    ..094 (0.38) g/100 mL (P=0.02). The fat loss of thawed breast milk by refrigeration was significantly less than placing it in warm water. ..