Summary: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Calder P. Lipids for intravenous nutrition in hospitalised adult patients: a multiple choice of options. Proc Nutr Soc. 2013;72:263-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipids used in parenteral nutrition provide energy, building blocks and essential fatty acids. Traditionally, these lipids have been based on n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils particularly soyabean oil...
  2. Gaebler A, Milan R, Straub L, Hoelper D, Kuerschner L, Thiele C. Alkyne lipids as substrates for click chemistry-based in vitro enzymatic assays. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:2282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the use of alkyne lipids as substrates for in vitro enzymatic assays of lipid modifying enzymes...
  3. Chen Y, Zhang J, Hwang K, Bouton Verville H, Xia S, Newman A, et al. Common tolerance mechanisms, but distinct cross-reactivities associated with gp41 and lipids, limit production of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. J Immunol. 2013;191:1260-75 pubmed publisher
    ..e., and not 4E10 BCR(+) B cells) with those mimicked by its gp41 neutralization epitope. ..
  4. Dong J, Zhang Z, Wang P, Qin L. Effects of high-protein diets on body weight, glycaemic control, blood lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:781-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, high-protein diets (within 6 months) may have some beneficial effects on weight loss, HbA1C levels and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigations are still required to draw a conclusion...
  5. Abdullah L, Evans J, Montague H, Reed J, Moser A, Crynen G, et al. Chronic elevation of phosphocholine containing lipids in mice exposed to Gulf War agents pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013;40:74-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide a new direction for GWI research, which will be useful for developing suitable therapies for treating GWI. ..
  6. Michalski M, Genot C, Gayet C, Lopez C, Fine F, Joffre F, et al. Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:354-73 pubmed publisher
    On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles...
  7. Ren T, Cong L, Wang Y, Tang Y, Tian B, Lin X, et al. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition: current applications and future developments. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2013;10:1533-49 pubmed publisher
    ..As supplements to current parenteral lipids, the new LEs with different therapeutic effects are expected to fit specified subpopulations of patients with ..
  8. Goose J, Sansom M. Reduced lateral mobility of lipids and proteins in crowded membranes. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1003033 pubmed publisher
    ..An asymmetry in the diffusion of annular lipids in the inner and outer leaflets was observed and correlated with an asymmetry in charged residues in the vicinity ..
  9. Chua E, Shui G, Lee I, Lau P, Tan L, Yeo S, et al. Extensive diversity in circadian regulation of plasma lipids and evidence for different circadian metabolic phenotypes in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used targeted lipidomics-based approaches to profile the time course of 263 lipids in blood plasma in 20 healthy individuals...

More Information


  1. Prasad R, Singh A. Lipids of Candida albicans and their role in multidrug resistance. Curr Genet. 2013;59:243-50 pubmed publisher
    Over the years, lipids of non-pathogenic yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been characterized to some details; however, a comparable situation does not exist for the human pathogenic fungi...
  2. Balogun K, Albert C, Ford D, Brown R, Cheema S. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the fatty acid composition of hepatic and plasma bioactive lipids in C57BL/6 mice: a lipidomic approach. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82399 pubmed publisher
    ..lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver...
  3. Bich C, Havelund R, Moellers R, Touboul D, Kollmer F, Niehuis E, et al. Argon cluster ion source evaluation on lipid standards and rat brain tissue samples. Anal Chem. 2013;85:7745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the depth analyses have also shown some variations of the chemical composition as a function of depth, particularly for cholesterol, as well as some possible matrix effects due to the presence or absence of this compound. ..
  4. Munch I, Linneberg A, Larsen M. Precursors of age-related macular degeneration: associations with physical activity, obesity, and serum lipids in the inter99 eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3932-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support that a physically active, heart-healthy lifestyle prevents the earliest manifestation of AMD. ( number, NCT00289237.). ..
  5. Shah V, Castro Perez J, McLaren D, Herath K, Previs S, Roddy T. Enhanced data-independent analysis of lipids using ion mobility-TOFMSE to unravel quantitative and qualitative information in human plasma. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013;27:2195-200 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipids are involved in various biochemical and signaling pathways, cell structure and function, and the pathophysiology of many diseases...
  6. Casellas J, Vidal O, Pena R, Gallardo D, Manunza A, Quintanilla R, et al. Genetics of serum and muscle lipids in pigs. Anim Genet. 2013;44:609-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of identifying the many polymorphisms that shape the variability of lipid phenotypes is so challenging that success can be achieved only under the scope of large international consortia. ..
  7. Li D, Lyons J, Pye V, Vogeley L, Aragao D, Kenyon C, et al. Crystal structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase. Nature. 2013;497:521-4 pubmed publisher
    ..They are, however, at variance with a published solution NMR model in that domain swapping, a key feature of the solution form, is not observed in the crystal structures. ..
  8. Klein Wieringa I, Andersen S, Kwekkeboom J, Giera M, de Lange Brokaar B, van Osch G, et al. Adipocytes modulate the phenotype of human macrophages through secreted lipids. J Immunol. 2013;191:1356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Because adipocytes release many different cytokines, adipokines, and lipids, we have separated the protein and lipid fractions of ACM, to obtain insight into the molecular nature of the ..
  9. Longo L, Nakayasu E, Gazos Lopes F, Vallejo M, Matsuo A, Almeida I, et al. Characterization of cell wall lipids from the pathogenic phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cultivated in the presence or absence of human plasma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63372 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work aimed to characterize cell wall lipids from P. brasiliensis grown in the presence and absence of human plasma...
  10. Wright O, Netzel G, Sakzewski A. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of dried purple carrot on body mass, lipids, blood pressure, body composition, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese adults: the QUENCH trial. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;91:480-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of dried purple carrot on body mass, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory markers, liver function tests, and appetite were investigated in 16 males (aged 53.1 ± 7...
  11. Willer C, Schmidt E, Sengupta S, Peloso G, Gustafsson S, Kanoni S, et al. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1274-1283 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays...
  12. Horn P, Silva J, Anderson D, Fuchs J, Borisjuk L, Nazarenus T, et al. Imaging heterogeneity of membrane and storage lipids in transgenic Camelina sativa seeds with altered fatty acid profiles. Plant J. 2013;76:138-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, these studies point to the importance of resolving the location of metabolites in addition to their quantities within plant tissues. ..
  13. Hirsjärvi S, Sancey L, Dufort S, Belloche C, Vanpouille Box C, Garcion E, et al. Effect of particle size on the biodistribution of lipid nanocapsules: comparison between nuclear and fluorescence imaging and counting. Int J Pharm. 2013;453:594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Optical imaging underestimated LNC quantity especially in dark-colored organs that were observed to capture extensive quantities of the particles by ?-counting (i.e. liver, spleen, and kidney). ..
  14. Marcoux J, Wang S, Politis A, Reading E, Ma J, Biggin P, et al. Mass spectrometry reveals synergistic effects of nucleotides, lipids, and drugs binding to a multidrug resistance efflux pump. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9704-9 pubmed publisher
    ..encapsulates a hydrophobic cavity, accessed by portals in the membrane, that binds cytotoxic compounds as well as lipids and peptides...
  15. Kasimova M, Tarek M, Shaytan A, Shaitan K, Delemotte L. Voltage-gated ion channel modulation by lipids: insights from molecular dynamics simulations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1838:1322-31 pubmed publisher
    Cells commonly use lipids to modulate the function of ion channels. The lipid content influences the amplitude of the ionic current and changes the probability of voltage-gated ion channels being in the active or in the resting states...
  16. Janssens M, Mulder A, Van Smeden J, Pilgram G, Wolterbeek R, Lavrijsen A, et al. Electron diffraction study of lipids in non-lesional stratum corneum of atopic eczema patients. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:1814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The skin barrier is located in the stratum corneum (SC), consisting of corneocytes embedded in lipids. Ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids are the major lipid classes and are crucial for the skin barrier ..
  17. Fitz Simon N, Fletcher T, Luster M, Steenland K, Calafat A, Kato K, et al. Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Epidemiology. 2013;24:569-76 pubmed publisher
    Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8)...
  18. Kind T, Liu K, Lee D, Defelice B, Meissen J, Fiehn O. LipidBlast in silico tandem mass spectrometry database for lipid identification. Nat Methods. 2013;10:755-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show platform independence by using tandem mass spectra from 40 different mass spectrometer types including low-resolution and high-resolution instruments. ..
  19. Schmidt C, Athenstaedt K, Koch B, Ploier B, Daum G. Regulation of the yeast triacylglycerol lipase TGl3p by formation of nonpolar lipids. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:19939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that the activity of Tgl3p is restricted to lipid droplets, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum may serve as a parking lot for this enzyme. ..
  20. Wiklund O, Pirazzi C, Romeo S. Monitoring of lipids, enzymes, and creatine kinase in patients on lipid-lowering drug therapy. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2013;15:397 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lipids should be monitored during titration to targets...
  21. Horvath S, Daum G. Lipids of mitochondria. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:590-614 pubmed publisher
    ..membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin ..
  22. Gotto A, Cannon C, Li X, Vaidya S, Kher U, Brinton E, et al. Evaluation of lipids, drug concentration, and safety parameters following cessation of treatment with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib in patients with or at high risk for coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:76-83 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects on lipids and safety during a 12-week reversal period after 18 months of treatment with anacetrapib...
  23. Lilley J, Linton M, Fazio S. Oral retinoids and plasma lipids. Dermatol Ther. 2013;26:404-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinoic acid derivative action, lipid metabolism, and treatment of incident dyslipidemias are reviewed to empower prescribers in management of adverse lipid effects. ..
  24. Liebisch G, Vizcaino J, Köfeler H, Trötzmüller M, Griffiths W, Schmitz G, et al. Shorthand notation for lipid structures derived from mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:1523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this defined shorthand nomenclature provides a standard methodology for reporting lipid species from mass spectrometric analysis and for constructing databases. ..
  25. Cambier C, Takaki K, Larson R, Hernandez R, Tobin D, Urdahl K, et al. Mycobacteria manipulate macrophage recruitment through coordinated use of membrane lipids. Nature. 2014;505:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This immune evasion is accomplished by using cell-surface-associated phthiocerol dimycoceroserate (PDIM) lipids to mask underlying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
  26. Wu Z, Cui Q, Yethiraj A. Why do arginine and lysine organize lipids differently? Insights from coarse-grained and atomistic simulations. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:12145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..At similar concentrations, mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids display different phases in the presence of these polypeptides, with a bicontinuous phase observed with poly-Arg ..
  27. Goldberg I, Bornfeldt K. Lipids and the endothelium: bidirectional interactions. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2013;15:365 pubmed publisher
    ..has an important part in regulating circulating fatty acids and lipoproteins, and is in turn affected by these lipids/lipoproteins in ways that appear to have important repercussions for atherosclerosis...
  28. Chaudhary H, Brocks D. The single dose poloxamer 407 model of hyperlipidemia; systemic effects on lipids assessed using pharmacokinetic methods, and its effects on adipokines. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16:65-73 pubmed
    ..The hyperlipidemia is also reversible in nature. Here, pharmacokinetic methods were used to assess the P407 dose response on serum lipids, adipokines and cytokines.
  29. Ireland R, Wang R, Alinger J, Small P, Bosio C. Francisella tularensis SchuS4 and SchuS4 lipids inhibit IL-12p40 in primary human dendritic cells by inhibition of IRF1 and IRF8. J Immunol. 2013;191:1276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis are not defined. In this article, we demonstrate that lipids enriched from virulent F...
  30. Lee S, Teslovich T, Boehnke M, Lin X. General framework for meta-analysis of rare variants in sequencing association studies. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:42-53 pubmed publisher
  31. Perry R, Samuel V, Petersen K, Shulman G. The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2014;510:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic approaches based on this mechanism could alleviate the related epidemics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. ..
  32. Grammel M, Hang H. Chemical reporters for biological discovery. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:475-84 pubmed publisher
    ..with bioorthogonal labeling methods can be used to image and retrieve nucleic acids, proteins, glycans, lipids and other metabolites in vitro, in cells as well as in whole organisms...
  33. Young R, Ackerman D, Quinn Z, Mancuso A, Gruber M, Liu L, et al. Dysregulated mTORC1 renders cells critically dependent on desaturated lipids for survival under tumor-like stress. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1115-31 pubmed publisher
    ..mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity renders hypoxic cells dependent on exogenous desaturated lipids, as levels of de novo synthesized unsaturated fatty acids are reduced under low O2...
  34. Wang Q, Zhuang X, Mu J, Deng Z, Jiang H, Zhang L, et al. Delivery of therapeutic agents by nanoparticles made of grapefruit-derived lipids. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1867 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that nanoparticles made of grapefruit-derived lipids, which we call grapefruit-derived nanovectors, can deliver chemotherapeutic agents, short interfering RNA, DNA ..
  35. Sahebkar A. Effects of resveratrol supplementation on plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev. 2013;71:822-35 pubmed publisher
    ..While future large-scale, well-designed trials are warranted, the current evidence suggests that mechanisms other than hypolipidemic effects account for the established cardioprotective properties of resveratrol. ..
  36. Jain M, Ngoy S, Sheth S, Swanson R, Rhee E, Liao R, et al. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;306:E854-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipids are a diverse collection of macromolecules essential for normal physiology, but the tissue distribution and function for many individual lipid species remain unclear...
  37. Rackham M, Brannigan J, Rangachari K, Meister S, Wilkinson A, Holder A, et al. Design and synthesis of high affinity inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax N-myristoyltransferases directed by ligand efficiency dependent lipophilicity (LELP). J Med Chem. 2014;57:2773-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further validate NMT as an exciting drug target in malaria and support 34c as an attractive tool for further optimization. ..
  38. Ellis S, Brown S, in het Panhuis M, Blanksby S, Mitchell T. Surface analysis of lipids by mass spectrometry: more than just imaging. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:329-53 pubmed publisher
    ..forms, mass spectrometry is uniquely capable of resolving the extensive compositional and structural diversity of lipids in biological systems...
  39. Waugh C, Nichols P, Schlabach M, Noad M, Bengtson Nash S. Vertical distribution of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Mar Environ Res. 2014;94:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..contaminants through the blubber mantle may, however, not be homogenous and could reflect any dissemination of lipids and fatty acids (FAs)...
  40. Shekh A, Shrivastava P, Krishnamurthi K, Mudliar S, Devi S, Kanade G, et al. Stress-induced lipids are unsuitable as a direct biodiesel feedstock: a case study with Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bioresour Technol. 2013;138:382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lipids were characterized for detailed fatty acid methyl ester profiling and biodiesel properties like cetane number (CN),..
  41. Rideout T, Marinangeli C, Martin H, Browne R, Rempel C. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study. Nutr J. 2013;12:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Clinical NCT01761955. ..
  42. Minicocci I, Santini S, Cantisani V, Stitziel N, Kathiresan S, Arroyo J, et al. Clinical characteristics and plasma lipids in subjects with familial combined hypolipidemia: a pooled analysis. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:3481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our analysis confirmed that FHBL2 is not associated with adverse clinical sequelae. The possibility that FHBL2 confers lower risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease warrants more detailed investigation. ..
  43. Rolin J, Maghazachi A. Implications of chemokines, chemokine receptors, and inflammatory lipids in atherosclerosis. J Leukoc Biol. 2014;95:575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, inflammatory lipids are biologically active molecules with crucial impacts on the function of various cell types, including immune ..
  44. Gurnev P, Yang S, Melikov K, Chernomordik L, Bezrukov S. Cationic cell-penetrating peptide binds to planar lipid bilayers containing negatively charged lipids but does not induce conductive pores. Biophys J. 2013;104:1933-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the membrane depends strongly on its lipid composition from virtually nonexistent for membranes made of uncharged lipids to very pronounced for membranes containing negatively charged lipids, with charge overcompensation at R9C ..
  45. Redmond J, Gage T, Kiyamu M, Brutsaert T. The effect of intra-uterine growth restriction on blood lipids and response to exercise training. Am J Hum Biol. 2013;25:844-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistent group difference in blood lipid ratios suggests a higher long-term risk of chronic disease in the LOWPI group independent of lifestyle intervention. ..
  46. Zhang F, Xiang H, Fan Y, Ganchuluun T, Kong W, Ouyang Q, et al. The effects of sulfonylureas plus metformin on lipids, blood pressure, and adverse events in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Endocrine. 2013;44:648-58 pubmed publisher
    ..But it had disadvantage of decreasing HDL-C, increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and nervous system side events. ..
  47. Alabi C, Love K, Sahay G, Yin H, Luly K, Langer R, et al. Multiparametric approach for the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles for siRNA delivery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12881-6 pubmed publisher
  48. Miksztowicz V, Schreier L, McCoy M, Lucero D, Fassio E, Billheimer J, et al. Role of SN1 lipases on plasma lipids in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of insulin resistance on the activity of the 3 enzymes determines the lipoprotein alterations observed in these states. ..
  49. Mierzecki A, Kłoda K, Bukowska H, Chełstowski K, Makarewicz Wujec M, Kozłowska Wojciechowska M. Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors. Med Sci Monit. 2013;19:733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the association of low-dose folic acid supplementation with blood lipids concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors...
  50. Karunakaran V, Wickner W. Fusion proteins and select lipids cooperate as membrane receptors for the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) Vam7p. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Acidic lipids allow low concentrations of Vam7p to suffice for fusion; without acidic lipids, the block to fusion is partially ..
  51. Anderson D, Mills D, Spraggins J, Lambert W, Calkins D, Schey K. High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry of lipids in rodent optic nerve tissue. Mol Vis. 2013;19:581-92 pubmed
    ..for generating high spatial resolution (10 µm) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) images of lipids in rodent optic nerve tissue...
  52. Figueiró F, Bernardi A, Frozza R, Terroso T, Zanotto Filho A, Jandrey E, et al. Resveratrol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules treatment reduces in vitro and in vivo glioma growth. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2013;9:516-26 pubmed
  53. Crane D, Ireland R, Alinger J, Small P, Bosio C. Lipids derived from virulent Francisella tularensis broadly inhibit pulmonary inflammation via toll-like receptor 2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacterial component and mechanism of this inhibition are unknown. Here we show that lipids isolated from virulent but not attenuated strains of F...