iodide peroxidase


Summary: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC

Top Publications

  1. Ferrara A, Liao X, Gil Ibáñez P, Marcinkowski T, Bernal J, Weiss R, et al. Changes in thyroid status during perinatal development of MCT8-deficient male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to identify that the ontogenesis of TH abnormalities in Mct8-deficient mice manifests with TH excess in the perinatal period...
  2. Faam B, Daneshpour M, Azizi F, Salehi M, Hedayati M. Association between TPO gene polymorphisms and Anti-TPO level in Tehranian population: TLGS. Gene. 2012;498:116-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene variations are one cause of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the T1936C, T2229C and A2257C polymorphisms of the TPO gene and Anti-TPO level...
  3. Dentice M. Hedgehog-mediated regulation of thyroid hormone action through iodothyronine deiodinases. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2011;15:493-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction may be relevant in other tissues and situations in which the two signaling pathways participate. Deciphering these mechanisms constitutes an exciting field for future research. ..
  4. Williams G, Bassett J. Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase. J Endocrinol. 2011;209:261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which DIO2 controls intracellular T(3) availability and action. ..
  5. Arrojo e Drigo R, Bianco A. Type 2 deiodinase at the crossroads of thyroid hormone action. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the cellular and molecular aspects of D2 regulation and the current models of D2-mediated thyroid hormone signaling. ..
  6. Männistö T, Hartikainen A, Vääräsmäki M, Bloigu A, Surcel H, Pouta A, et al. Smoking and early pregnancy thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid antibody levels in euthyroid mothers of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Thyroid. 2012;22:944-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreases in fT4 levels among smokers might predispose to hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy. Despite these changes in thyroid function, smoking did not increase the woman's risk of subsequent hypothyroidism. ..
  7. Marsili A, Tang D, Harney J, Singh P, Zavacki A, Dentice M, et al. Type II iodothyronine deiodinase provides intracellular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine to normal and regenerating mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E818-24 pubmed publisher
  8. Barca Mayo O, Liao X, Alonso M, Di Cosmo C, Hernandez A, Refetoff S, et al. Thyroid hormone receptor ? and regulation of type 3 deiodinase. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the absence of TR? results in decreased clearance of TH by D3 and contributes to the TH hypersensitivity. ..
  9. Hernandez A, Morte B, Belinchon M, Ceballos A, Bernal J. Critical role of types 2 and 3 deiodinases in the negative regulation of gene expression by T?in the mouse cerebral cortex. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..It also suggests that negatively and positively regulated genes do not have the same physiological significance or that their regulation by thyroid hormone obeys different paradigms at the molecular or cellular levels...

More Information


  1. Charalambous M, Hernandez A. Genomic imprinting of the type 3 thyroid hormone deiodinase gene: regulation and developmental implications. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:3946-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Thyroid hormone signalling. ..
  2. Sittig L, Shukla P, Herzing L, Redei E. Strain-specific vulnerability to alcohol exposure in utero via hippocampal parent-of-origin expression of deiodinase-III. FASEB J. 2011;25:2313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding implies that phenotypic heterogeneity in human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder can be linked to genetic vulnerability in affected brain regions. ..
  3. Altomare M, La Vignera S, Asero P, Recupero D, Condorelli R, Scollo P, et al. High prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013;36:407-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. This prospective study evaluates the prevalence of these disorders in pregnant women...
  4. Patel J, Landers K, Li H, Mortimer R, Richard K. Delivery of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2011;22:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses new information about mechanisms of transplacental delivery of T(4) to the fetus, providing insight into complex processes that are vitally important for normal fetal development. ..
  5. Liao X, Di Cosmo C, Dumitrescu A, Hernandez A, van Sande J, St Germain D, et al. Distinct roles of deiodinases on the phenotype of Mct8 defect: a comparison of eight different mouse genotypes. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1180-91 pubmed publisher
  6. Piechotta M, Kedves K, Araujo M, Hoeflich A, Metzger F, Heppelmann M, et al. Hepatic mRNA expression of acid labile subunit and deiodinase 1 differs between cows selected for high versus low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 in late pregnancy. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:3737-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, other endocrine end points (e.g., insulin and thyroid hormones) differed between the 2 groups. ..
  7. Dentice M, Luongo C, Ambrosio R, Sibilio A, Casillo A, Iaccarino A, et al. ?-Catenin regulates deiodinase levels and thyroid hormone signaling in colon cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1037-47 pubmed publisher
  8. Potlukova E, Potluka O, Jiskra J, Limanova Z, Telicka Z, Bartáková J, et al. Is age a risk factor for hypothyroidism in pregnancy? An analysis of 5223 pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1945-52 pubmed publisher
  9. Bremner A, Feddema P, Leedman P, Brown S, Beilby J, Lim E, et al. Age-related changes in thyroid function: a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In cross-sectional studies, serum TSH concentrations increase with age. This has not been examined longitudinally, and it is uncertain whether the TSH increase reflects healthy aging or occult thyroid failure...
  10. Tüzün E, Erdağ E, Durmus H, Brenner T, Türkoglu R, Kürtüncü M, et al. Autoantibodies to neuronal surface antigens in thyroid antibody-positive and -negative limbic encephalitis. Neurol India. 2011;59:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that acute idiopathic encephalitis patients with Thy-Abs should be closely monitored for ion-channel antibodies and it should not be assumed that they have HE. ..
  11. Ramadan W, Marsili A, Larsen P, Zavacki A, Silva J. Type-2 iodothyronine 5'deiodinase (D2) in skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6 mice. II. Evidence for a role of D2 in the hypermetabolism of thyroid hormone receptor alpha-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3093-102 pubmed publisher
  12. Castillo M, Hall J, Correa Medina M, Ueta C, Kang H, Cohen D, et al. Disruption of thyroid hormone activation in type 2 deiodinase knockout mice causes obesity with glucose intolerance and liver steatosis only at thermoneutrality. Diabetes. 2011;60:1082-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, upon minimization of thermal stress, high-fat feeding reveals the defective capacity of D2KO mice for diet-induced thermogenesis, provoking a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of the thyroid hormone in metabolism. ..
  13. Dentice M, Salvatore D. Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local impact of thyroid hormone inactivation. J Endocrinol. 2011;209:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..It summarizes the intriguing evidence that D3 plays a pivotal role in defining local TH concentration in the developing fetus and in several conditions in adult life. ..
  14. Lavado Autric R, Calvo R, de Mena R, de Escobar G, Obregon M. Deiodinase activities in thyroids and tissues of iodine-deficient female rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that LID induces changes in deiodinase activities, especially in the thyroid, to counteract the low T(4) synthesis and secretion, contributing to maintain the local T(3) concentrations in the tissues with D2 activity...
  15. Barca Mayo O, Liao X, Dicosmo C, Dumitrescu A, Moreno Vinasco L, Wade M, et al. Role of type 2 deiodinase in response to acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TH metabolism in the lung is linked to the response to inflammatory injury and speculate that D2 exerts its protective effect by making more TH available to the injured lung tissue. ..
  16. Bianco A. Minireview: cracking the metabolic code for thyroid hormone signaling. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3306-11 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, induction of D3 in myocardium and brain during ischemia and hypoxia decreases energy expenditure as part of a homeostatic mechanism to slow down cell metabolism in the face of limited O(2) supply. ..
  17. Jiskra J, Bartáková J, Holinka S, Limanova Z, Springer D, Fait T, et al. Low concordance between positive antibodies to thyroperoxidase and thyroid ultrasound autoimmune pattern in pregnant women. Endocr J. 2011;58:849-59 pubmed
    ..028). In conclusion, nearly half of the TPOAb-positive pregnant women did not have an autoimmune pattern in TUS. Normal TUS image in TPOAb-positive pregnant women might be a protective factor for preterm delivery. ..
  18. St Germain D, Galton V, Hernandez A. Minireview: Defining the roles of the iodothyronine deiodinases: current concepts and challenges. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1097-107 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will briefly assess these functional roles and others proposed for the deiodinases and examine some of the current challenges in expanding our knowledge of these important components of the thyroid homeostatic system. ..
  19. Di Cosmo C, Liao X, Dumitrescu A, Weiss R, Refetoff S. A thyroid hormone analog with reduced dependence on the monocarboxylate transporter 8 for tissue transport. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4450-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential clinical utility of this analog to patients with MCT8 mutations requires further studies. ..
  20. Dentice M, Luongo C, Huang S, Ambrosio R, Elefante A, Mirebeau Prunier D, et al. Sonic hedgehog-induced type 3 deiodinase blocks thyroid hormone action enhancing proliferation of normal and malignant keratinocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14466-71 pubmed
    ..This previously unrecognized functional cross-talk between Shh/Gli2 and thyroid hormone in keratinocytes is a pathway by which Shh produces its proliferative effects and offers a potential therapeutic approach to BCC. ..
  21. Mebis L, Langouche L, Visser T, Van den Berghe G. The type II iodothyronine deiodinase is up-regulated in skeletal muscle during prolonged critical illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3330-3 pubmed
    ..Reduced D2 activity does not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of the low T(3) syndrome of critical illness. ..
  22. Ng L, Hernandez A, He W, Ren T, Srinivas M, Ma M, et al. A protective role for type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-inactivating enzyme, in cochlear development and auditory function. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1952-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The auditory system illustrates the considerable extent to which tissues can autoregulate their developmental response to thyroid hormone through both type 2 and 3 deiodinases. ..
  23. Grozovsky R, Ribich S, Rosene M, Mulcahey M, Huang S, Patti M, et al. Type 2 deiodinase expression is induced by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists in skeletal myocytes. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1976-83 pubmed publisher
  24. Simmen F, Mercado C, Zavacki A, Huang S, Greenway A, Kang P, et al. Soy protein diet alters expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid and thyroid hormone metabolism in the male rat. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:1106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of the regulation, by genistein and soy protein, of iodothyronine deiodinase synthesis has potential applications for treatment and prevention of fatty liver disease and obesity. ..
  25. Männistö T, Vääräsmäki M, Pouta A, Hartikainen A, Ruokonen A, Surcel H, et al. Perinatal outcome of children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction or antibodies: a prospective population-based cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:772-9 pubmed publisher
    ..First-trimester antibody positivity is a risk factor for perinatal death but not thyroid hormone status as such. Thyroid dysfunction early in pregnancy seems to affect fetal and placental growth. ..
  26. Surks M, Hollowell J. Age-specific distribution of serum thyrotropin and antithyroid antibodies in the US population: implications for the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4575-82 pubmed
    ..TSH distribution progressively shifts toward higher concentrations with age. The prevalence of SCH may be significantly overestimated unless an age-specific range for TSH is used. ..
  27. Olivares E, Marassi M, Fortunato R, da Silva A, Costa e Sousa R, Araujo I, et al. Thyroid function disturbance and type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase induction after myocardial infarction in rats a time course study. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4786-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the acute decrease in serum T(4) and T(3) after INF is due to increased thyroid hormone catabolism from ectopic D3 expression in the heart. ..
  28. Nielsen C, Brix T, Leslie R, Hegedus L. A role for autoantibodies in enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to a self-antigen, thyroid peroxidase. Clin Immunol. 2009;133:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..0002-0.05). The data indicate that TPO-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from phagocytic cells and T-cell responses to TPO are promoted by TPOAbs...
  29. Goswami R, Marwaha R, Gupta N, Tandon N, Sreenivas V, Tomar N, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with thyroid autoimmunity in Asian Indians: a community-based survey. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies in vitamin D-sufficient populations with wider range of serum 25(OH)D levels are required to substantiate the findings of the current study. ..
  30. Spencer C, Hollowell J, Kazarosyan M, Braverman L. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-thyroperoxidase antibody relationships demonstrate that TSH upper reference limits may be skewed by occult thyroid dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4236-40 pubmed
    ..TSH upper reference limits may be skewed by TPOAb-negative individuals with occult autoimmune thyroid dysfunction. ..
  31. Piekielko Witkowska A, Master A, Wojcicka A, Boguslawska J, Brozda I, Tanski Z, et al. Disturbed expression of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase splice variants in human renal cancer. Thyroid. 2009;19:1105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the expression and alternative splicing of DIO1 mRNA is disturbed in renal cancer, possibly due to changes in expression of splicing factors SF2/ASF and hnRNPA1. ..
  32. Herwig A, Wilson D, Logie T, Boelen A, Morgan P, Mercer J, et al. Photoperiod and acute energy deficits interact on components of the thyroid hormone system in hypothalamic tanycytes of the Siberian hamster. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data point to a mechanism whereby energy deprivation can interact with an SD photoperiod on hypothalamic tanycytes to regulate components of the thyroid hormone system involved in photoperiodic regulation of seasonal physiology...
  33. Feki M, Omar S, Menif O, Tanfous N, Slimane H, Zouari F, et al. Thyroid disorders in pregnancy: frequency and association with selected diseases and obstetrical complications in Tunisian women. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:927-31 pubmed publisher
    ..TDs are common in Tunisian pregnant women and are associated with autoimmune diseases and poor gestational outcomes. These data support the benefit of thyroid testing in pregnant women, especially those with these conditions. ..
  34. Dumitrescu A, Refetoff S. Novel biological and clinical aspects of thyroid hormone metabolism. Endocr Dev. 2007;10:127-39 pubmed
    ..Opposite thyroid test abnormalities are found in mutations of the TH transporter MCT8, and appear to be caused by the resulting increases in D2 and D1 activities. ..
  35. Dentice M, Marsili A, Ambrosio R, Guardiola O, Sibilio A, Paik J, et al. The FoxO3/type 2 deiodinase pathway is required for normal mouse myogenesis and muscle regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:4021-30 pubmed publisher
  36. Ng L, Lyubarsky A, Nikonov S, Ma M, Srinivas M, Kefas B, et al. Type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid-hormone-inactivating enzyme, controls survival and maturation of cone photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that type 3 deiodinase limits hormonal exposure of the cone to levels that safeguard both cone survival and the patterning of opsins that is required for cone function. ..
  37. Ono H, Hoshino Y, Yasuo S, Watanabe M, Nakane Y, Murai A, et al. Involvement of thyrotropin in photoperiodic signal transduction in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin-dependent regulation of thyroid hormone levels in the MBH appears to involve TSH in mammals...
  38. Morte B, Ceballos A, Diez D, Grijota Martinez C, Dumitrescu A, Di Cosmo C, et al. Thyroid hormone-regulated mouse cerebral cortex genes are differentially dependent on the source of the hormone: a study in monocarboxylate transporter-8- and deiodinase-2-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, positive or negative regulation of genes by thyroid hormone is sensitive to the source of T(3) because Dio2 inactivation selectively affects the expression of negatively regulated genes. ..
  39. Yasuo S, Yoshimura T, Ebihara S, Korf H. Temporal dynamics of type 2 deiodinase expression after melatonin injections in Syrian hamsters. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that melatonin is involved in the signal transduction mechanisms controlling the photoperiodic response of gonads by acting on Dio2 expression rather rapidly through indirect pathways...
  40. Abbassi Ghanavati M, Casey B, Spong C, McIntire D, Halvorson L, Cunningham F. Pregnancy outcomes in women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this increase in placental abruption does not currently warrant routine antithyroid antibody screening during pregnancy. II. ..
  41. Fekete C, Freitas B, Zeöld A, Wittmann G, Kádár A, Liposits Z, et al. Expression patterns of WSB-1 and USP-33 underlie cell-specific posttranslational control of type 2 deiodinase in the rat brain. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4865-74 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data indicate that changes in WSB-1 and USP-33 expression are not part of the brain homeostatic response to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. ..
  42. Fekete C, Lechan R. Negative feedback regulation of hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synthesizing neurons: role of neuronal afferents and type 2 deiodinase. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2007;28:97-114 pubmed
  43. Master A, Wojcicka A, Piekiełko Witkowska A, Bogusławska J, Popławski P, Tanski Z, et al. Untranslated regions of thyroid hormone receptor beta 1 mRNA are impaired in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:995-1005 pubmed publisher
  44. Hall J, Ribich S, Christoffolete M, Simovic G, Correa Medina M, Patti M, et al. Absence of thyroid hormone activation during development underlies a permanent defect in adaptive thermogenesis. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery highlights the importance of deiodinase-controlled thyroid hormone signaling in BAT development, where it has important metabolic repercussions for energy homeostasis in adulthood. ..
  45. Bassett J, Boyde A, Howell P, Bassett R, Galliford T, Archanco M, et al. Optimal bone strength and mineralization requires the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in osteoblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:7604-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal an essential role for D2 in osteoblasts in the optimization of bone strength and mineralization. ..
  46. Capelo L, Beber E, Huang S, Zorn T, Bianco A, Gouveia C. Deiodinase-mediated thyroid hormone inactivation minimizes thyroid hormone signaling in the early development of fetal skeleton. Bone. 2008;43:921-30 pubmed publisher
  47. Köhrle J, Gärtner R. Selenium and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23:815-27 pubmed publisher
  48. Strieder T, Tijssen J, Wenzel B, Endert E, Wiersinga W. Prediction of progression to overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in female relatives of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease using the Thyroid Events Amsterdam (THEA) score. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1657-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our goal was to develop a simple predictive score that has broad applicability and is easily calculated at presentation for progression to overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism within 5 years in female relatives of patients with AITD...
  49. Anguiano B, Aranda N, Delgado G, Aceves C. Epididymis expresses the highest 5'-deiodinase activity in the male reproductive system: kinetic characterization, distribution, and hormonal regulation. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to analyze the possible physiological relevance of 5'-D in the male reproductive system. ..
  50. Gereben B, Zeöld A, Dentice M, Salvatore D, Bianco A. Activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone by deiodinases: local action with general consequences. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:570-90 pubmed
    ..These new mechanisms involved in deiodinase regulation indicate that local thyroid hormone activation and inactivation play a much broader role than previously thought. ..
  51. Dora J, Machado W, Rheinheimer J, Crispim D, Maia A. Association of the type 2 deiodinase Thr92Ala polymorphism with type 2 diabetes: case-control study and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were confirmed by a meta-analysis including 11 033 individuals, and support a role for intracellular T(3) concentration in skeletal muscle on DM2 pathogenesis. ..
  52. Tierney K, Delpachitra P, Grossmann M, Onwude J, Sikaris K, Wallace E, et al. Thyroid function and autoantibody status among women who spontaneously deliver under 35 weeks of gestation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:892-5 pubmed publisher
    ..1). Free T3 and T4 levels were also similar in both groups. Thyroid function and thyroid autoantibody status among women who have a spontaneous preterm delivery before 35 weeks gestation are not different from women delivering at term. ..
  53. da Rocha S, Edwards C, Ito M, Ogata T, Ferguson Smith A. Genomic imprinting at the mammalian Dlk1-Dio3 domain. Trends Genet. 2008;24:306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the function and regulation of imprinting at this domain. ..