glasgow outcome scale


Summary: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.

Top Publications

  1. Kosty J, Macyszyn L, Lai K, McCroskery J, Park H, Stein S. Relating quality of life to Glasgow outcome scale health states. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:1322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..quality-of-life (QOL) values are available for intermediate outcomes, such as those described by the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Our objective was therefore to determine QOL for the health states described by the GOSE...
  2. Andriessen T, Horn J, Franschman G, van der Naalt J, Haitsma I, Jacobs B, et al. Epidemiology, severity classification, and outcome of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter study. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:2019-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirm that TBI epidemiology and injury patterns have changed in recent years whereas case fatality rates remain high. ..
  3. Peterković V, Trkulja V, Kutlesa M, Krajinovic V, Lepur D. Dexamethasone for adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis: 20 years of experience in daily practice. J Neurol. 2012;259:225-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Adjusted relative risks [RR, dexamethasone vs. no dexamethasone (control)] of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) = 1 (death) and GOS = 5 (full recovery) at discharge/end of specific treatment were estimated ..
  4. Mondello S, Gabrielli A, Catani S, D Ippolito M, Jeromin A, Ciaramella A, et al. Increased levels of serum MAP-2 at 6-months correlate with improved outcome in survivors of severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2012;26:1629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Physical and cognitive outcomes were assessed, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCFS), respectively...
  5. Shukla D, Devi B, Agrawal A. Outcome measures for traumatic brain injury. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011;113:435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A few, commonly used are Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) with or without extended scores, Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM)..
  6. Dalla Libera A, Regner A, de Paoli J, Centenaro L, Martins T, Simon D. IL-6 polymorphism associated with fatal outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2011;25:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..031). The findings indicate that genetic variation regarding inflammatory response has significant impact on the short-term outcome for patients after acute severe TBI. ..
  7. Marquardt G, Wolff R, Janzen R, Seifert V. Basal ganglia haematomas in non-comatose patients: subacute stereotactic aspiration improves long-term outcome in comparison to purely medical treatment. Neurosurg Rev. 2005;28:64-9 pubmed
    ..Compared with medical patients, the median Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 1 point higher (P<0...
  8. Morris P, Wilson J, Dunn L. Anxiety and depression after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2004;54:47-52; discussion 52-4 pubmed
    ..Anxiety is a significant and lasting problem for approximately 40% of survivors of SAH. It is suggested that measures taken to prevent or treat such anxiety among survivors of SAH may serve to significantly improve functional outcome. ..
  9. Perel P, Edwards P, Shakur H, Roberts I. Use of the Oxford Handicap Scale at hospital discharge to predict Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months in patients with traumatic brain injury. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8:72 pubmed publisher
    ..The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is the most widely used outcome measure in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in TBI patients...

More Information


  1. LeGrand S, Hindman B, Dexter F, Moss L, Todd M. Reliability of a telephone-based Glasgow Outcome Scale assessment using a structured interview in a heterogenous population of patients and examiners. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:1437-46 pubmed
    A reliable telephone-based Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) assessment would be advantageous to both patients and investigators...
  2. Holtslag H, van Beeck E, Lindeman E, Leenen L. Determinants of long-term functional consequences after major trauma. J Trauma. 2007;62:919-27 pubmed
    ..Between 12 and 18 months after trauma, outcome was assessed by means of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), EuroQol (EQ-5D), and cognitive complaints...
  3. Amirjamshidi A, Abouzari M, Rashidi A. Glasgow Coma Scale on admission is correlated with postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale in chronic subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:1240-1 pubmed
    To evaluate the correlation between admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH)...
  4. Shore P, Berger R, Varma S, Janesko K, Wisniewski S, Clark R, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers versus glasgow coma scale and glasgow outcome scale in pediatric traumatic brain injury: the role of young age and inflicted injury. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:75-86 pubmed
    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) are widely used clinical scoring systems to measure the severity of neurologic injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but have recognized limitations in infants and small ..
  5. Hernandez A, Steyerberg E, Butcher I, Mushkudiani N, Taylor G, Murray G, et al. Adjustment for strong predictors of outcome in traumatic brain injury trials: 25% reduction in sample size requirements in the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma. 2006;23:1295-303 pubmed
    ..The primary outcome was the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months (favorable/unfavorable)...
  6. Hudak A, Caesar R, Frol A, Krueger K, Harper C, Temkin N, et al. Functional outcome scales in traumatic brain injury: a comparison of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (Extended) and the Functional Status Examination. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22:1319-26 pubmed
    ..The most widely used of these measures, the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and the GOS-Extended (GOS-E), have been criticized as suffering from ceiling effects...
  7. Vles W, Steyerberg E, Essink Bot M, van Beeck E, Meeuwis J, Leenen L. Prevalence and determinants of disabilities and return to work after major trauma. J Trauma. 2005;58:126-35 pubmed
    ..Health status was measured by the EuroQol-5D instrument, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Additional questions were asked about cognitive functioning and return-to-work rates...
  8. Suehiro E, Fujisawa H, Akimura T, Ishihara H, Kajiwara K, Kato S, et al. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood in association with activation of interleukin-6 after traumatic brain injury: influence of hypothermic therapy. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21:1706-11 pubmed
    ..The elevation of MMP-9 is associated with inflammatory events following TBI. Hypothermic intervention may suppress the elevation of MMP-9 with suppression of the inflammatory response, affording neuroprotection in TBI. ..
  9. Murray G, Barer D, Choi S, Fernandes H, Gregson B, Lees K, et al. Design and analysis of phase III trials with ordered outcome scales: the concept of the sliding dichotomy. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22:511-7 pubmed
    ..The approach raises issues of clinical, statistical, and regulatory importance, and we initiate what we believe needs to become a widespread debate amongst the community involved in clinical research in head injury and stroke. ..
  10. King J, Carlier P, Marion D. Early Glasgow Outcome Scale scores predict long-term functional outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22:947-54 pubmed
    ..We examined the association between Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) assessed at 3 months and long-term outcomes at 12 months after TBI...
  11. Hukkelhoven C, Steyerberg E, Habbema J, Farace E, Marmarou A, Murray G, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and validation of a prognostic score based on admission characteristics. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22:1025-39 pubmed
    ..evaluated mortality and unfavorable outcome, that is, death, and vegetative or severe disability on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), at 6 months post-injury...
  12. Pang B, Kuralmani V, Joshi R, Hongli Y, Lee K, Ang B, et al. Hybrid outcome prediction model for severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:136-46 pubmed
    ..Combining both logistic regression and decision tree models, a hybrid prediction model was then developed. This hybrid model would more accurately predict the 6-month post-severe head injury outcome using baseline admission parameters...
  13. Vespa P, McArthur D, Miller C, O PHELAN K, Frazee J, Kidwell C, et al. Frameless stereotactic aspiration and thrombolysis of deep intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with reduction of hemorrhage volume and neurological improvement. Neurocrit Care. 2005;2:274-81 pubmed
  14. Yuh E, Cooper S, Ferguson A, Manley G. Quantitative CT improves outcome prediction in acute traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:735-46 pubmed publisher
    ..than qualitative, CT features results in a significant improvement in prediction of the 6-month Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) score over a wide spectrum of injury severity...
  15. von Steinbuechel N, Wilson L, Gibbons H, Muehlan H, Schmidt H, Schmidt S, et al. QOLIBRI overall scale: a brief index of health-related quality of life after traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:1041-7 pubmed publisher
    ..87). Moderate to strong relationships were found among the QOLIBRI-OS and the extended glasgow outcome scale, short-form-36, and hospital anxiety and depression scale (r=0.54 to -0.76)...
  16. Renner C, Hummelsheim H, Kopczak A, Steube D, Schneider H, Schneider M, et al. The influence of gender on the injury severity, course and outcome of traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2012;26:1360-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Outcome was measured by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), employment status and living situation post-injury...
  17. Muroi C, Seule M, Sikorski C, Dent W, Keller E. Systemic interleukin-6 levels reflect illness course and prognosis of patients with spontaneous nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2013;115:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with pmSAH had a significantly more favorable outcome, defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale 5...
  18. Pradat Diehl P, Joseph P, Beuret Blanquart F, Luaute J, Tasseau F, Remy Neris O, et al. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: adults with severe traumatic brain injury. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2012;55:546-56 pubmed publisher
  19. Sigurtà A, Zanaboni C, Canavesi K, Citerio G, Beretta L, Stocchetti N. Intensive care for pediatric traumatic brain injury. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric head injury is associated with a high incidence of intracranial hypertension. Early surgical treatment and intensive care may achieve favorable outcome in the majority of cases. ..
  20. Reis H, Almeida M, Silva M, Rocha M. Extubation failure influences clinical and functional outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. J Bras Pneumol. 2013;39:330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..96; 95% CI, 1.86-13.22). In patients with TBI, extubation failure appears to lengthen hospital stays; to increase the frequency of tracheostomy and of pulmonary complications; to worsen functional outcomes; and to increase mortality. ..
  21. Lowprukmanee N. Clinical outcome of the patients treated surgically for spontaneous intracerebral hematoma at Sawanpracharak Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013;96:669-77 pubmed
  22. Klein A, Howell K, Straube A, Pfefferkorn T, Bender A. Rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe and prolonged disorders of consciousness after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:2136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..It is interesting to note that in our study population, the beginning of clinical improvement took up to 6 months after aSAH. ..
  23. Dinc C, Iplikcioglu A, Ozek E. Pineal epidermoid tumors: report of five cases. Turk Neurosurg. 2013;23:446-50 pubmed publisher
    ..One patient died at the first postoperative month due to ventriculitis. Total removal of epidermoid tumors may provide good clinical recovery and may reduce the possibility of tumor recurrence and shunt placement. ..
  24. Bertisch H, Krellman J, Bergquist T, Dreer L, Ellois V, Bushnik T. Characteristics of Firearm Brain Injury Survivors in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database: A Comparison of Assault and Self-Inflicted Injury Survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;98:2288-2294 pubmed publisher
    ..Not applicable. Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, race, marital status), injury-related/acute care ..
  25. Xiao F, Liao C, Huang K, Chiang I, Wong J. Automated assessment of midline shift in head injury patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, automated MLS was accurate and predicted outcome as well as that measured manually. This approach might be useful in constructing a fully automated computer-assisted diagnosis system. ..
  26. Zweifel C, Castellani G, Czosnyka M, Helmy A, Manktelow A, Carrera E, et al. Noninvasive monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity with near infrared spectroscopy in head-injured patients. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27:1951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..THx may be of diagnostic value to optimize therapy oriented toward restoration and continuity of cerebrovascular reactivity, especially in patients for whom direct ICP monitoring is not feasible. ..
  27. Nanda A, Javalkar V. Microneurosurgical management of ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery aneurysms: single-surgeon operative experience from Louisiana State University, Shreveport. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:355-70; discussion 370-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 80 patients, 76 were assessable for clinical outcome. At the last follow-up, 5 patients had a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 1, 4 had a GOS score of 3, 10 had a GOS score of 4, and 57 had a GOS score of 5...
  28. Mendez M, Owens E, Reza Berenji G, Peppers D, Liang L, Licht E. Mild traumatic brain injury from primary blast vs. blunt forces: post-concussion consequences and functional neuroimaging. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;32:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..A disturbance of a right parietal-frontal attentional network is one potential explanation for these findings. ..
  29. Enger T, Philipp A, Lubnow M, Fischer M, Camboni D, Lunz D, et al. Long-Term Survival in Adult Patients With Severe Acute Lung Failure Receiving Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:1718-1725 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower Glasgow Outcome Scale at hospital discharge and the University Hospital Regensburg pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation score ..
  30. Gudina E, Tesfaye M, Adane A, Lemma K, Shibiru T, Wieser A, et al. Adjunctive dexamethasone therapy in unconfirmed bacterial meningitis in resource limited settings: is it a risk worth taking?. BMC Neurol. 2016;16:153 pubmed publisher
    ..38; 95 % CI 1.87-6.12, p?<?0.001) and low Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge (AOR?=?4.46 (95 % CI 1.98-10.08)...
  31. Lingappa L, Konanki R, Patel R, Vooturi S, Jayalakshmi S. Clinical profile and outcome of refractory convulsive status epilepticus in older children from a developing country. Seizure. 2016;36:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..31; p=0.004). Acute symptomatic etiology was the commonest cause of CSE among older children from developing country and increased the odds of progressing to RSE. RSE was significantly associated with disability at 1 year from discharge. ..
  32. Kuo L, Huang A, Yang C, Tsai S, Tu Y, Huang S. Clinical outcome of mild head injury with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27:1959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..studies ruled out other possible causes of oculomotor palsy was assessed during follow-up using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE)...
  33. Feng Y, Li S, Zhang P, Xin T, Meng Q, Tang W, et al. Clip-on-wrapping with dura mater to treat intracranial aneurysm neck avulsion: case reports and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115:2284-7 pubmed publisher
  34. Huang S, Ho H, Yang C. Longitudinal outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study. Brain Inj. 2010;24:1606-15 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 327 TBI patients were recruited retrospectively in this longitudinal study and the score of Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was then documented as an indicator of the clinical outcomes...
  35. Bohman L, Pisapia J, Sanborn M, Frangos S, Lin E, Kumar M, et al. Response of brain oxygen to therapy correlates with long-term outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2013;19:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..005). Response to PbtO2-directed intervention is associated with improved long-term functional outcome in aSAH patients. ..
  36. Lippert Grüner M. Early rehabilitation of comatose patients after traumatic brain injury. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2010;44:475-80 pubmed
    ..One-year outcome was assessed by means of the Glasgow Outcome Scale, Barthel Index, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and need of care...
  37. McCauley S, Wilde E, Moretti P, Macleod M, Pedroza C, Drever P, et al. Neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury: III. Criterion-related validity and sensitivity to change in the NABIS hypothermia-II clinical trial. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:1506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and predictive), Spearman's rank-order correlations were calculated between the NOS-TBI and the glasgow outcome scale (GOS), GOS-extended (GOS-E), disability rating scale (DRS), and neurobehavioral rating scale-revised (NRS-..
  38. Tang Z, Shi Y, Yin X, Xu J, Zhang S, Wang W. Modifying the details of aspiration operation may contribute to the improvement of prognosis of patients with ICH. Turk Neurosurg. 2012;22:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..5±23.2) were significantly higher than that in group A (69.2±23.9), (P < 0.05). Our data suggested that modifying details of aspiration operation may contribute to the improved prognosis of ICH patients. ..
  39. Chotai S, Ahn S, Moon H, Kim J, Chung H, Chung Y, et al. Prediction of outcomes in young adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2013;53:157-62 pubmed
    ..The effect of clinical and prognostic factors on the outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores and the predictors of unfavorable outcomes were analyzed in young adults with aneurysmal SAH...
  40. Leonardi M, Sattin D, Raggi A. An Italian population study on 600 persons in vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Brain Inj. 2013;27:473-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease duration was similar for both conditions and 2.6% of VS and 4.8% of MCS patients survived for more than 10 years. Finally care and treatment needs are similar and not related to diagnosis. ..
  41. Nataraj A, Mohamed M, Gholkar A, Vivar R, Watkins L, Aspoas R, et al. Multimodality treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. World Neurosurg. 2014;82:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing age, Spetzler-Martin grade, and rehemorrhage were correlated with a poorer Glasgow Outcome Scale score (P < 0.05). These data suggest a higher risk of hemorrhage after partial obliteration of AVM...
  42. von Vogelsang A, Burstrom K, Wengstrom Y, Svensson M, Forsberg C. Health-related quality of life 10 years after intracranial aneurysm rupture: a retrospective cohort study using EQ-5D. Neurosurgery. 2013;72:397-405; discussion 405-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the aneurysm sample, HRQoL was most affected in respondents with worse Glasgow outcome scale values at hospital discharge, respondents with comorbidities, and respondents with low perceived recovery...
  43. Wong G, Chan M, Gin T, Poon W. Intravenous magnesium sulfate after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: current status. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;110:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..398, 95% CI 0.131-1.211. Favorable outcome (Good recovery and moderate disability, as defined by Glasgow Outcome Scale) was achieved in 20 of 30 (67%) patients receiving magnesium sulfate infusion and 16 of 30 (53%) patients ..
  44. Yi W, Liu R, Chen J, Tao S, Humphrey O, Bergenheim A. Trauma infant neurologic score predicts the outcome of traumatic brain injury in infants. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2010;46:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..8 ± 2.5. The total clinical outcome, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), was: 37 (77.1%) good recovery, 4 (8.3%) moderately disabled, 1 (2.1%) vegetative and 6 (12.5%) dead...
  45. Woodrome S, Yeates K, Taylor H, Rusin J, Bangert B, Dietrich A, et al. Coping strategies as a predictor of post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury versus mild orthopedic injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011;17:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that coping may play an important role in accounting for children's perceptions of post-concussive symptoms after mild TBI. ..
  46. Otani N, Takasato Y, Masaoka H, Hayakawa T, Yoshino Y, Yatsushige H, et al. Clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute subdural hematoma undergoing decompressive craniectomy. World Neurosurg. 2011;75:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge showed good recovery in five patients (41.7%), severe disability in four (33...
  47. Bouwes A, Binnekade J, Kuiper M, Bosch F, Zandstra D, Toornvliet A, et al. Prognosis of coma after therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective cohort study. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:206-12 pubmed publisher
  48. Visser Meily J, Rinkel G, Vergouwen M, Passier P, van Zandvoort M, Post M. Post-traumatic stress disorder in patients 3 years after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;36:126-30 pubmed publisher or SAH characteristics (clinical condition on admission, complication, location of aneurysm, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at 3 months) were seen between participants and drop-outs...
  49. Jussen D, Marticorena S, Sandow N, Vajkoczy P, Horn P. Ultra-early decompressive hemicraniectomy in aneurysmal intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study. Minerva Anestesiol. 2015;81:398-404 pubmed
    ..Outcome interviews were conducted as Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E)...
  50. Beran O, Dzupova O, Holub M. Cortisol kinetics in cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:1001-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation II score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Glasgow Coma Scale score and the Glasgow Outcome Scale score...
  51. McMillan T, Teasdale G, Stewart E. Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 12-14 year follow-up of a prospective cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012;83:1086-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants were assessed using structured and validated measures of disability (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended), psychological well being, alcohol use and health status...
  52. Zhang L, Li R, Zhao X, Zhang Q, Luo X. Increased Transfusion of Fresh Frozen Plasma is Associated with Mortality or Worse Functional Outcomes After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Study. World Neurosurg. 2017;104:381-389 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary outcomes were mortality and survival, as well as worse outcomes (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score ?3) and better outcomes (GOS score ?4)...
  53. Jackson D, Patel A, Darracott R, Hanel R, Freeman W, Hanley D. Safety of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) thrombolysis based on CT localization of external ventricular drain (EVD) fenestrations and analysis of EVD tract hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2013;19:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..IVH volumetrics were assessed by the Le Roux score and outcomes by Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale. Twenty-seven patients received rt-PA for IVH. Median dose was 2 mg (range 0...