abbreviated injury scale


Summary: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).

Top Publications

  1. Ringdal K, Skaga N, Hestnes M, Steen P, Røislien J, Rehn M, et al. Abbreviated Injury Scale: not a reliable basis for summation of injury severity in trauma facilities?. Injury. 2013;44:691-9 pubmed publisher
    Injury severity is most frequently classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) as a basis for the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS), which are used for assessment of overall injury severity in ..
  2. Skaga N, Eken T, Hestnes M, Jones J, Steen P. Scoring of anatomic injury after trauma: AIS 98 versus AIS 90--do the changes affect overall severity assessment?. Injury. 2007;38:84-90 pubmed
    Although several changes were implemented in the 1998 update of the abbreviated injury scale (AIS 98) versus the previous AIS 90, both are still used worldwide for coding of anatomic injury in trauma...
  3. Tohira H, Jacobs I, Matsuoka T, Ishikawa K. Impact of the version of the abbreviated injury scale on injury severity characterization and quality assessment of trauma care. J Trauma. 2011;71:56-62 pubmed publisher
    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was updated in 2008 (AIS 2008). We aimed to investigate the impact of AIS 2008 on the characterization of injury severity and quality assessment of trauma care...
  4. Tagliaferri F, Compagnone C, Yoganandan N, Gennarelli T. Traumatic brain injury after frontal crashes: relationship with body mass index. J Trauma. 2009;66:727-9 pubmed publisher
    ..55). Obese passengers are more likely to suffer a more severe head trauma after a frontal collision. Further studies with computational models are needed to determine the precise role of BMI on brain injury-related biomechanical metrics. ..
  5. Richter M, Pape H, Otte D, Krettek C. The current status of road user injuries among the elderly in Germany: a medical and technical accident analysis. J Trauma. 2005;58:591-5 pubmed
    ..1% of the bicyclists and 0.8% of the pedestrians. Serious or severe injuries (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale, >/=2] occurred for 36...
  6. Palmer C, Franklyn M, Read Allsopp C, McLellan S, Niggemeyer L. Development and validation of a complementary map to enhance the existing 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2011;19:29 pubmed publisher
    Many trauma registries have used the Abbreviated Injury Scale 1990 Revision Update 98 (AIS98) to classify injuries...
  7. Sifri Z, Kim H, Lavery R, Mohr A, Livingston D. The impact of obesity on the outcome of emergency intubation in trauma patients. J Trauma. 2008;65:396-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Obesity is not a predictor of postintubation airway complications or mortality. Larger studies are needed to validate these finding in the morbidly obese patients. ..
  8. Kroezen F, Bijlsma T, Liem M, Meeuwis J, Leenen L. Base deficit-based predictive modeling of outcome in trauma patients admitted to intensive care units in Dutch trauma centers. J Trauma. 2007;63:908-13 pubmed
    ..admitted to the intensive care unit and calculated Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Scale, and TRISS and correlated them with the simultaneously determined base deficit value...
  9. Palmer C, Franklyn M. Assessment of the effects and limitations of the 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map using a large population-based dataset. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2011;19:1 pubmed publisher
    Trauma systems should consistently monitor a given trauma population over a period of time. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) are commonly used to quantify injury severities in ..

More Information


  1. Gennarelli T, Wodzin E. AIS 2005: a contemporary injury scale. Injury. 2006;37:1083-91 pubmed
    ..Critical to defining outcomes is the need for a universal language that defines individual injuries. The abbreviated injury scale (AIS) is the only dictionary specifically designed as a system to define the severity of injuries ..
  2. Harwood P, Giannoudis P, Probst C, van Griensven M, Krettek C, Pape H. Which AIS based scoring system is the best predictor of outcome in orthopaedic blunt trauma patients?. J Trauma. 2006;60:334-40 pubmed
    b>Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)-based systems-the Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and AISmax-are used to assess trauma patients. The merits of each in predicting outcome are controversial...
  3. Kilgo P, Osler T, Meredith W. The worst injury predicts mortality outcome the best: rethinking the role of multiple injuries in trauma outcome scoring. J Trauma. 2003;55:599-606; discussion 606-7 pubmed
    ..prediction approaches used many (New Injury Severity Score [NISS]) or all (ICISS and Trauma Registry Abbreviated Injury Scale Score [TRAIS], which use International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] and Abbreviated ..
  4. Meredith J, Evans G, Kilgo P, Mackenzie E, Osler T, McGwin G, et al. A comparison of the abilities of nine scoring algorithms in predicting mortality. J Trauma. 2002;53:621-8; discussion 628-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to compare the abilities of nine Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)- and (ICD-9)-based scoring algorithms in predicting mortality...
  5. Palmer C, Niggemeyer L, Charman D. Double coding and mapping using Abbreviated Injury Scale 1998 and 2005: identifying issues for trauma data. Injury. 2010;41:948-54 pubmed publisher
    The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS05) potentially represents a significant change in injury spectrum classification, due to a substantial increase in the codeset size and alterations to the agreed severity of many ..
  6. Kilgo P, Meredith J, Osler T. Incorporating recent advances to make the TRISS approach universally available. J Trauma. 2006;60:1002-8; discussion 1008-9 pubmed
    ..trauma facilities to compute because it requires 8 to 10 variables and ISS depends on the specialized Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scale rather than the International Classification of Diseases scale (ICD-9)...
  7. Read Allsopp C. Establishing inter-rater reliability scoring in a state trauma system. J Trauma Nurs. 2004;11:35-9 pubmed
    ..the state of New South Wales, Australia trauma network were instructed in the uses and techniques of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) from the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine...
  8. Osler T, Baker S, Long W. A modification of the injury severity score that both improves accuracy and simplifies scoring. J Trauma. 1997;43:922-5; discussion 925-6 pubmed
    ..The NISS is defined as the sum of the squares of the Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of each of a patient's three most severe Abbreviated Injury Scale injuries regardless of the body ..
  9. Garthe E, States J, Mango N. Abbreviated injury scale unification: the case for a unified injury system for global use. J Trauma. 1999;47:309-23 pubmed
    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), developed by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine is the most widely used anatomic injury severity scale in the world (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine...
  10. Rutledge R, Hoyt D, Eastman A, Sise M, Velky T, Canty T, et al. Comparison of the Injury Severity Score and ICD-9 diagnosis codes as predictors of outcome in injury: analysis of 44,032 patients. J Trauma. 1997;42:477-87; discussion 487-9 pubmed
    ..The present study confirms previous work showing that survival risk ratios derived from injured patients' ICD-9 diagnoses codes are as good as or better than ISS as predictors of survival. ..
  11. Jeremitsky E, Omert L, Dunham C, Protetch J, Rodriguez A. Harbingers of poor outcome the day after severe brain injury: hypothermia, hypoxia, and hypoperfusion. J Trauma. 2003;54:312-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, multivariate regression analysis revealed that hypotension, hypothermia, and Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the head were independently related to mortality, whereas other SBIFs, age, Injury Severity ..
  12. Willis C, Gabbe B, Jolley D, Harrison J, Cameron P. Predicting trauma patient mortality: ICD [or ICD-10-AM] versus AIS based approaches. ANZ J Surg. 2010;80:802-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-based alternative to mortality prediction tools that use Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) data, including the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS)...
  13. Viano D, Parenteau C, Edwards M. Rollover injury: effects of near- and far-seating position, belt use, and number of quarter rolls. Traffic Inj Prev. 2007;8:382-92 pubmed
    ..Analysis of rollovers by quarter turns indicates that occupants are both far-side and near-side in rollovers. The extent to which this confounds the relationship between roll direction, seating position, and injury risk is unknown. ..
  14. Richter M, Thermann H, Wippermann B, Otte D, Schratt H, Tscherne H. Foot fractures in restrained front seat car occupants: a long-term study over twenty-three years. J Orthop Trauma. 2001;15:287-93 pubmed
    ..angle, deltav, and extent of vehicle deformation) and clinical data (injury location and severity [abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score] and long-term outcome). From 1973 to 1996, 15,559 car accidents were analyzed...
  15. Funk J, Cormier J, Manoogian S. Comparison of risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in rollover crashes. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;45:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Vehicle type, occupant height, and occupant gender had inconsistent and generally non-significant effects on injury. This study demonstrates both common and unique risk factors for different types of injuries in rollover crashes. ..
  16. Kluger Y, Mayo A, Hiss J, Ashkenazi E, Bendahan J, Blumenfeld A, et al. Medical consequences of terrorist bombs containing spherical metal pellets: analysis of a suicide terrorism event. Eur J Emerg Med. 2005;12:19-23 pubmed
    ..Tissue destruction and specific organ injuries among survivors were limited. To evaluate and manage victims of terrorist bombings properly, medical teams should become familiar with these severe injuries. ..
  17. Rhule H, Suntay B, Herriott R, Amenson T, Stricklin J, Bolte J. Response of PMHS to high- and low-speed oblique and lateral pneumatic ram impacts. Stapp Car Crash J. 2011;55:281-315 pubmed
    ..The small number of tests conducted indicates that less chest compression may be required to obtain serious thoracic injury in oblique impacts as compared to lateral impacts at speeds of 4.5 or 5.5 m/s. ..
  18. Dubose J, Barmparas G, Inaba K, Stein D, Scalea T, Cancio L, et al. Isolated severe traumatic brain injuries sustained during combat operations: demographics, mortality outcomes, and lessons to be learned from contrasts to civilian counterparts. J Trauma. 2011;70:11-6; discussion 16-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolated severe brain injuries (defined as head abbreviated injury scale [AIS] ?3 and no other body region AIS>2) were queried from the JTTR over a period from 2003 to 2007...
  19. Staudenmayer K, Diaz Arrastia R, de Oliveira A, Gentilello L, Shafi S. Ethnic disparities in long-term functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2007;63:1364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional outcomes were measured in 211 patients with blunt TBI (head Abbreviated Injury Scale score 3-5) who were alive >/=6 months after discharge using the Functional Status Examination (FSE), ..
  20. Berndtson A, Sen S, Greenhalgh D, Palmieri T. Estimating severity of burn in children: Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score versus Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI). Burns. 2013;39:1048-53 pubmed publisher
    ..863). Both PRISM and ABSI scores are predictive of mortality in severely burned children. Only ABSI correlates with hospital length of stay and ventilator days, and thus may also be more useful in predicting ICU resource utilization. ..
  21. Deans K, Minneci P, Lowell W, Groner J. Increased morbidity and mortality of traumatic brain injury in victims of nonaccidental trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;75:157-60 pubmed
    ..admitted with the diagnosis of TBI between 2001 and 2010 in our institutional trauma registry with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 1...
  22. Van Belleghem G, Devos S, De Wit L, Hubloue I, Lauwaert D, Pien K, et al. Predicting in-hospital mortality of traffic victims: A comparison between AIS-and ICD-9-CM-related injury severity scales when only ICD-9-CM is reported. Injury. 2016;47:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Various severity scores are available and are mostly based on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD)...
  23. Papadopoulos I, Bonovas S, Kanakaris N, Nikolopoulos G, Kotsilianou O, Konstantoudakis G, et al. Alcohol and psychoactive drugs increased the pre-hospital mortality in 655 fall-related fatalities in Greece: a call for management protocols. Injury. 2012;43:1522-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and toxicology compared demographics, location of injury; intention for the injury, height of fall, Abbreviated Injury Scale--90 (AIS-90), post-mortem Injury Severity Score (ISS), and location of death...
  24. Hadjizacharia P, Green D, Plurad D, Chan L, Inaba K, Shulman I, et al. Methamphetamines in trauma: effect on injury patterns and outcome. J Trauma. 2009;66:895-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients exposed to Methamphetamines do not have increased mortality or complications or lengths of ICU and hospital stay. However, they are more likely to require admission to the ICU. ..
  25. Hussmann B, Lefering R, Kauther M, Ruchholtz S, Moldzio P, Lendemans S. Influence of prehospital volume replacement on outcome in polytraumatized children. Crit Care. 2012;16:R201 pubmed publisher
    ..enrolled into two groups according to the following criteria: intubation at the accident site (yes/no), Abbreviated Injury Scale (four body regions), accident year, systolic blood pressure and age group...
  26. Moskal A, Martin J, Laumon B. Helmet use and the risk of neck or cervical spine injury among users of motorized two-wheel vehicles. Inj Prev. 2008;14:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify the effects of wearing a helmet on head and facial injury among users of motorized two-wheel vehicles and to determine if helmet use increases the risk of neck and cervical spine injury...
  27. Made C, Borg H, Thelander D, Elmqvist L. Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2001;9:386-91 pubmed
    ..The severity of ankle/foot injuries classified as the Abbreviated Injury Scale group 2 or higher decreased from 33% to 21% during the study period...
  28. Ruchholtz S, Waydhas C, Lewan U, Pehle B, Taeger G, Kühne C, et al. Free abdominal fluid on ultrasound in unstable pelvic ring fracture: is laparotomy always necessary?. J Trauma. 2004;57:278-85; discussion 285-7 pubmed
    ..Early laparotomy appears indicated in these cases. Shock control in pelvic bleeding can be sufficiently achieved by internal tamponade and external fixation. ..
  29. Ooi S, Wong S, Radin Umar R, Azhar A, Yeap J, Megat Ahmad M. Mechanisms of cervical spine injuries for non-fatal motorcycle road crash. Med J Malaysia. 2004;59:146-52 pubmed
    ..Classification based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is made to give a view on injury severity, 9...
  30. Gabbe B, Williamson O, Cameron P, Dowrick A. Choosing outcome assessment instruments for trauma registries. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:751-8 pubmed
    ..The use of previously recommended outcome assessment instruments is discussed, with a focus on the utility of these instruments for use in routine monitoring of trauma outcomes other than mortality through trauma registries. ..
  31. Javouhey E, Guérin A, Gadegbeku B, Chiron M, Floret D. Are restrained children under 15 years of age in cars as effectively protected as adults?. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:304-8 pubmed
    ..A multivariate logistic regression was performed to quantify the risk of AIS2+ injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale of 2 or more)...
  32. Smith J, Chang E, Rosenthal G, Meeker M, von Koch C, Manley G, et al. The role of early follow-up computed tomography imaging in the management of traumatic brain injury patients with intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2007;63:75-82 pubmed
    ..We suggest that assessment, based on the severity of findings on initial brain imaging and serial clinical examinations, should guide the need for follow-up imaging in the setting of head trauma. ..
  33. Tien H, Cunha J, Wu S, Chughtai T, Tremblay L, Brenneman F, et al. Do trauma patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 and bilateral fixed and dilated pupils have any chance of survival?. J Trauma. 2006;60:274-8 pubmed
    ..Clinicians, however, are less likely to aggressively treat BFDP patients than RP patients. Further prospective studies are required to determine which patients with GCS of 3 and BFDP are likely to benefit from aggressive treatment. ..
  34. Gill A. Risk factors for pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder after traumatic injury. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2002;16:168-75 pubmed
    ..001). Psychiatric screening of patients with gun shot wounds and wounds to the abdomen may help with the early identification and treatment of PTSD. ..
  35. Karmy Jones R, Nathens A, Jurkovich G, Shatz D, Brundage S, Wall M, et al. Urgent and emergent thoracotomy for penetrating chest trauma. J Trauma. 2004;56:664-8; discussion 668-9 pubmed
    ..7-73.7). Although patient selection is the primary factor determining outcome, there may be an independent benefit for performing TCY after GSW in a specialized resuscitation room or the operating room. ..
  36. Acuña D, Berg G, Harrison B, Wray T, Dorsch D, Sook C. Assessing the use of venous thromboembolism risk assessment profiles in the trauma population: is it necessary?. Am Surg. 2011;77:783-9 pubmed
    ..The RAP critical value (5) was not validated. We recommend all trauma patients be treated with prophylactic anticoagulants throughout the hospital stay unless clear contraindications exist. ..
  37. Garg N, Hyder A. Road traffic injuries in India: a review of the literature. Scand J Public Health. 2006;34:100-9 pubmed
    ..This is an important research agenda for the country. Immediate steps are required to curb this problem to limit the loss of life and resources. ..
  38. Wong G, Yeung J, Graham C, Zhu X, Rainer T, Poon W. Neurological outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury and its relationship with computed tomography patterns of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:1510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients included in the study had significant head injury (as defined by a head Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score of 2 or more) with traumatic SAH according to admission CT...
  39. Benson E, Conroy C, Hoyt D, Eastman A, Pacyna S, Smith J, et al. Calcaneal fractures in occupants involved in severe frontal motor vehicle crashes. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:794-9 pubmed
    ..Because lower extremity injuries, including calcaneal fractures, may cause permanent disability, it is important to prevent these injuries through structural improvements in motor vehicle design. ..
  40. Brady R, Bandari M, Kerssens J, Paterson Brown S, Parks R. Splenic trauma in Scotland: demographics and outcomes. World J Surg. 2007;31:2111-6 pubmed
    ..The incidence of splenic trauma is low, but it accounts for significant mortality. Outcome in the present study was worse in those with advanced age and associated injuries. ..
  41. Sveen U, Bautz Holter E, Sandvik L, Alvsåker K, Røe C. Relationship between competency in activities, injury severity, and post-concussion symptoms after traumatic brain injury. Scand J Occup Ther. 2010;17:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Injury severity was assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head and Injury Severity Score...
  42. Palmer C. Major trauma and the injury severity score--where should we set the bar?. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2007;51:13-29 pubmed
    ..Since this threshold was formulated, there have been significant developments in both the Abbreviated Injury Scale underlying the ISS, and trauma management techniques, both in the preventive and acute-care phases of ..
  43. Talving P, Lustenberger T, Kobayashi L, Inaba K, Barmparas G, Schnüriger B, et al. Erythropoiesis stimulating agent administration improves survival after severe traumatic brain injury: a matched case control study. Ann Surg. 2010;251:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective matched case control study in patients with sTBI [head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), >or=3] receiving ESA while in the surgical intensive care unit from January 1, 1996 to December ..
  44. Hitosugi M, Koseki T, Miyama G, Furukawa S, Morita S. Comparison of the injury severity and medical history of disease-related versus trauma-related bicyclist fatalities. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016;18:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Victims' health histories, blood alcohol levels, causes of death, mechanisms of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were determined...
  45. Kallinen O, Partanen T, Maisniemi K, Bohling T, Tukiainen E, Koljonen V. Comparison of premortem clinical diagnosis and autopsy findings in patients with burns. Burns. 2008;34:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..This study emphasizes the usefulness of autopsies to provide valuable clinical data for the treatment of burn patients. It also highlights the few missed diagnoses which may occur in burn patients. ..
  46. Davis K, Cabbad N, Schuster K, Kaplan L, Carusone C, Leary T, et al. Trauma team oversight improves efficiency of care and augments clinical and economic outcomes. J Trauma. 2008;65:1236-42; discussion 1242-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This paradigm change, coupled with improved documentation and coding, resulted in improved reimbursement for the physician, and lower cost per discharge for the hospital. ..
  47. Babalola O, Oluwadiya K, Vrgoč G, Akpati U, Sindik J, Čoklo M, et al. Pattern of emergency room mortality among road traffic crash victims. Injury. 2015;46 Suppl 6:S21-3 pubmed publisher
    ..3:1. Most of these patients were pedestrians with severe injuries involving two or more Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) coded regions. The mean time between injury and presentation in the first trauma facility was 112...
  48. Viano D, Parenteau C. Brainstem injury in motor vehicle crashes. Traffic Inj Prev. 2017;18:730-735 pubmed publisher
  49. Ferguson S. Summary of BRP preliminary findings. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med. 2003;47:101-2 pubmed
  50. Resch J, Villarreal V, Johnson C, Elliott T, Kwok O, Berry J, et al. Trajectories of life satisfaction in the first 5 years following traumatic brain injury. Rehabil Psychol. 2009;54:51-9 pubmed
    ..Individuals with greater cognitive and motor impairments following TBI are likely to experience significant declines in life satisfaction within 5 years of living with TBI. ..
  51. Nicholson V, Bunn T, Costich J. Disparities in work-related injuries associated with worker compensation coverage status. Am J Ind Med. 2008;51:393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Work-relatedness indicators collected routinely in ED and outpatient settings should be incorporated into standard reporting systems to facilitate more accurate and comprehensive surveillance and better-targeted interventions. ..
  52. Pollack K, Xie D, Arbogast K, Durbin D. Body mass index and injury risk among US children 9-15 years old in motor vehicle crashes. Inj Prev. 2008;14:366-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This increased risk may be due to a combination of physiology, biomechanical forces, and vehicle design. ..