complement hemolytic activity assay


Summary: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.

Top Publications

  1. Matheswaran K, Dhinakar Raj G, Nachimuthu K. Demonstration of alternative and classical complement pathway activity in colostrum from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Vet Res Commun. 2003;27:445-52 pubmed
    ..06 to 8.48 CH50 units/ml. Using a standard system for titrating the classical complement pathway and rabbit red blood cells sensitized with goat haemolysin, the range of complement activity in buffalo colostrum was 4.81-6.77 CH50/ml. ..
  2. Sitja Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O, Alvarez Pellitero P. Immune response of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces: Teleostei), to formalin-killed scuticociliates (Ciliophora) and adjuvanted formulations. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:1-10 pubmed
    ..The obtained information could be useful for further design of immunoprophylactic formulations against scuticociliatosis...
  3. Pini N, Lima D, Lovadino J, Ganss C, Schlueter N. In vitro Efficacy of Experimental Chitosan-Containing Solutions as Anti-Erosive Agents in Enamel. Caries Res. 2016;50:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Chitosan shows different properties under erosive and erosive/abrasive conditions. Under erosive conditions high viscosity might be helpful, whereas lower viscosity seems to be more effective in cases of chemo-mechanical challenges. ..
  4. Uchino A, Tsukamoto H, Nakashima H, Yoshizawa S, Furugo I, Mitoma H, et al. Tacrolimus is effective for lupus nephritis patients with persistent proteinuria. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2010;28:6-12 pubmed
    ..Tacrolimus is safe and effective as maintenance therapy for patients with lupus nephritis, at least for 6 months. A larger randomised, controlled trial over a longer period is needed to confirm these results. ..
  5. van Loveren H, Van Amsterdam J, Vandebriel R, Kimman T, Rumke H, Steerenberg P, et al. Vaccine-induced antibody responses as parameters of the influence of endogenous and environmental factors. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:757-64 pubmed
    ..An exposure-associated inhibition of a vaccination response may, however, signify a decreased host resistance to pathogens against which no vaccination had been performed. ..
  6. Onda K, Ohi H, Tamano M, Ohsawa I, Wakabayashi M, Horikoshi S, et al. Hypercomplementemia in adult patients with IgA nephropathy. J Clin Lab Anal. 2007;21:77-84 pubmed
    ..hypercomplementemia occurs in IgAN and is associated with an increase in complement regulatory protein (CRP). C4 binding protein analyses can be used to predict disease prognosis. ..
  7. Ramos Casals M, Brito Zeron P, Yague J, Akasbi M, Bautista R, Ruano M, et al. Hypocomplementaemia as an immunological marker of morbidity and mortality in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005;44:89-94 pubmed
    ..Our results support the inclusion of complement determination at diagnosis as a predictor of the outcome of patients with primary SS and its routine determination in the clinical follow-up. ..
  8. Parmentier H, Baelmans R, Savelkoul H, Dorny P, Demey F, Berkvens D. Serum haemolytic complement activities in 11 different MHC (B) typed chicken lines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;100:25-32 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that levels of haemolytic complement activity, either from the classical or from the alternative pathways, may underlie part of the immunocompetence ascribed to the MHC (B) complex in chickens. ..
  9. Yan W, Che L, Jiang J, Yang F, Duan Q, Song H, et al. Depletion of complement system immunity in patients with myocardial infarction. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14:5350-5356 pubmed publisher
    ..The depression of complement system immunity in the patients with AMI may be associated with the pathogenesis of AMI. ..

More Information


  1. Avirutnan P, Fuchs A, Hauhart R, Somnuke P, Youn S, Diamond M, et al. Antagonism of the complement component C4 by flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1. J Exp Med. 2010;207:793-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Through this mechanism, NS1 protects DENV from complement-dependent neutralization in solution. These studies define a novel immune evasion mechanism for restricting complement control of microbial infection...
  2. Biesma D, Hannema A, van Velzen Blad H, Mulder L, van Zwieten R, Kluijt I, et al. A family with complement factor D deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:233-40 pubmed
    ..Increased susceptibility for infections in individuals with a partial factor D deficiency is unlikely. ..
  3. Su H, Boackle R. Interaction of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus with C1q and fibronectin under conditions present in human saliva. Mol Immunol. 1991;28:811-7 pubmed
    ..e. to the salivary sediment), may play an important role in the reduction of HIV transmission via saliva. Further studies will be needed to test the latter speculation. ..
  4. Thordardottir S, Traustadottir K, Erlendsson K. A discrepancy between liquid phase and gel phase assays for evaluation of total complement activity and some possible explanations. Scand J Immunol. 2004;59:574-81 pubmed
    ..This could indicate a clinically relevant factor in the test sera but can also result from the difference in assay design. ..
  5. Johnstone J, Maclaren L, Doucet J, McAlister V. In vitro studies regarding the feasibility of bovine erythrocyte xenotransfusion. Xenotransplantation. 2004;11:11-7 pubmed
    ..Bovine RBC is more robust than pRBC. These characteristics including the potential ease and volume of blood collection make the cow a more suitable blood donor than the pig. ..
  6. Wozniakowska Gesicka T, Wisniewska Ligier M, Kups J. Effect of IFN-alpha on total haemolytic activity of CH50 complement system and C3, C4 levels in children with chronic hepatitis C. Med Sci Monit. 2001;7 Suppl 1:202-6 pubmed
    ..Higher total haemolytic activity of CH50 complement and C3, C4 levels after 6 months of treatment with IFN-alpha administered to children with chronic hepatitis C suggest that IFN-alpha is capable of reducing complement activity. ..
  7. Aston W, Mhatre A, MacRae J. Isolation of the fifth component of the bovine complement system. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1990;24:301-12 pubmed
    ..This provided the basis for a C5 functional assay throughout the purification procedure. The purified C5 showed species specificity and was functionally distinct from bovine C3. ..
  8. Rhee P. Noncolligative properties of intravenous fluids. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010;16:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This has led to a decrease in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome. ..
  9. Auclair D, Hopwood J, Brooks D, Lemontt J, Crawley A. Replacement therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI: advantages of early onset of therapy. Mol Genet Metab. 2003;78:163-74 pubmed
    ..Overall improvement in the disease condition (at physical, neurological, and skeletal levels) was most pronounced for cats treated from birth compared with cats treated at a later age. ..
  10. Agah A, Montalto M, Kiesecker C, Morrissey M, Grover M, Whoolery K, et al. Isolation, characterization, and cloning of porcine complement component C7. J Immunol. 2000;165:1059-65 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that porcine and human C7 are highly conserved, sharing structural and functional characteristics. ..
  11. Taki H, Schwartz S. Levamisole as an immunopotentiator for T cell deficiency. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1994;16:129-37 pubmed
    ..The patient was treated with Levamisole resulting in restoration of his T cell functions and resolution of his mycobacterial infection. ..
  12. Jodele S, Fukuda T, Vinks A, Mizuno K, Laskin B, Goebel J, et al. Eculizumab therapy in children with severe hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014;20:518-25 pubmed publisher
  13. Banyai A, Varga L, Barta A, Gopcsa L, Paloczi K. Monitoring the level of complement components during autologous blood stem cell transplantation in patients with malignant lymphomas. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2004;53:835-9 pubmed
    ..However, an unusual elevation seemed to be the sign of infection, and the significant decrease seemed to indicate a relapse. ..
  14. Kang H, Lee G, Kim J, Lee S, Wi H, Hwang P, et al. Pre-treatment of donor with 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin could alleviate early failure of porcine xenograft in a cobra venom factor treated canine recipient. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28:149-56 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the strategies targeting vWF would be promising for successful pulmonary xenotransplantation. ..
  15. O Rear L, Ross G. Isolation and purification of C3 from human plasma. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2001;Chapter 13:Unit 13.3 pubmed publisher
    ..This unit presents methods for assaying total alternative pathway activity and the activity of factors B and D. Radial immunodiffusion (RID) can also be used to measure factor D, B, and P concentrations. ..
  16. Ahlenstiel Grunow T, Hachmeister S, Bange F, Wehling C, Kirschfink M, Bergmann C, et al. Systemic complement activation and complement gene analysis in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli-associated paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016;31:1114-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Complement alterations appear to be more frequent in patients with EHEC-HUS than previously thought and are suspected to have a role in the severity of the disease. ..
  17. Fernandez T, Cerdá Zolezzi P, Risco E, Martino V, Lopez P, Clavin M, et al. Immunomodulating properties of Argentine plants with ethnomedicinal use. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:546-52 pubmed
    ..sellowianus (IC50 11.2 and 17.3 microg/ml respectively). Besides, 2 extracts (13%), dichloromethane extract of E. arnottianum and aqueous extract of P. sellowianus, showed moderate inhibition on AP. ..
  18. Fremeaux Bacchi V, Dragon Durey M, Blouin J, Mouthon L, Fridman W. [Investigation of the complement system in clinical practice]. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 2003;154:529-40 pubmed
    ..Complete lack of CH50 associated with normal C3 antigen is a strong indication for complement deficiency and should be followed up with further tests to determine which component is missing. ..
  19. Plumb M, Sodetz J. An indel within the C8 alpha subunit of human complement C8 mediates intracellular binding of C8 gamma and formation of C8 alpha-gamma. Biochemistry. 2000;39:13078-83 pubmed
  20. Schlesinger M, Mashal U, Levy J, Fishelson Z. Hereditary properdin deficiency in three families of Tunisian Jews. Acta Paediatr. 1993;82:744-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, our findings indicate that, as in other complement abnormalities, hereditary properdin deficiency may also be associated with the ethnic origin of the patient. ..
  21. Stephenson I, Das R, Wood J, Katz J. Comparison of neutralising antibody assays for detection of antibody to influenza A/H3N2 viruses: an international collaborative study. Vaccine. 2007;25:4056-63 pubmed
    ..This study raises concern about comparability of serology results from H5N1 vaccine trials and it is proposed that an International Standard for influenza H5N1 antibody is developed. ..
  22. Attridge S, Qadri F, Albert M, Manning P. Susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae O139 to antibody-dependent, complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000;7:444-50 pubmed
    ..Each of seven O139 isolates tested was found to be lysed by antibody and complement in our standard assay system, which allowed the detection of significant serum bactericidal responses in 9 of 11 cases of O139 disease. ..
  23. Varga L, Fust G. Assays for complement proteins encoded in the class III region of human MHC. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2005;Chapter 13:Unit 13.7 pubmed publisher
    ..This simple technique is a very useful first-step assay for clinical laboratories engaged in genetic studies. ..
  24. Seppanen M, Suvilehto J, Lokki M, Notkola I, Jarvinen A, Jarva H, et al. Immunoglobulins and complement factor C4 in adult rhinosinusitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;145:219-27 pubmed
    ..Multiple clinical and immunological parameters may need to be evaluated when searching for prognostic variables. ..
  25. Egan L, Orren A, Doherty J, Wurzner R, McCarthy C. Hereditary deficiency of the seventh component of complement and recurrent meningococcal infection: investigations of an Irish family using a novel haemolytic screening assay for complement activity and C7 M/N allotyping. Epidemiol Infect. 1994;113:275-81 pubmed
    ..Identification of complement deficient patients allows the implementation of strategies to prevent recurrent infection. ..
  26. Hiemstra P, Langeler E, Compier B, Keepers Y, Leijh P, van den Barselaar M, et al. Complete and partial deficiencies of complement factor D in a Dutch family. J Clin Invest. 1989;84:1957-61 pubmed
    ..This study describes the first complete deficiency of factor D, and demonstrates its possible relation to recurrent Neisseria infections. ..
  27. Oppermann M, Wurzner R. Modern determination of complement activation. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010;36:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Several confounding factors also have to be taken into account to allow a correct interpretation of the results. ..
  28. de Souza L, Koury M. Chemical and biological properties of endotoxin from Leptospira interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1992;25:467-75 pubmed
    ..coli O111:B4 LPS. The PCP extract showed no cytotoxicity on chicken embryo fibroblasts and epithelial cells. 3. These results demonstrate that Leptospira endotoxin activity is similar to E. coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide...
  29. Monefeldt K, Tollefsen T. Effects of a streptococcal lipoteichoic acid on complement activation in vitro. J Clin Periodontol. 1993;20:186-92 pubmed
    ..05) stronger activator than LTA. Apparently, the C3 degradation found for this LTA involved the alternative pathway to a small extent; thus some other mechanism of fluid-phase C3 cleavage seemed also to be operative. ..
  30. Wing M, Seilly D, Bridgman D, Harrison R. Rapid isolation and biochemical characterization of rat C1 and C1q. Mol Immunol. 1993;30:433-40 pubmed
    ..In addition to the major A:B and C:C dimer bands, rat, unlike human C1q, contained minor dimer species. These may reflect heterogeneity in glycosylation and or lysine and proline hydroxylation. ..
  31. Kulick D, Salerno C, Dalmasso A, Park S, Paz M, Fodor W, et al. Transgenic swine lungs expressing human CD59 are protected from injury in a pig-to-human model of xenotransplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;119:690-9 pubmed
    ..Transgenic swine pulmonary xenografts that express the human complement regulatory protein CD59 demonstrated improved function and survival in an ex vivo model of pig-to-human xenotransplantation. ..
  32. Boutonnier A, Dassy B, Duménil R, Guenole A, Ratsitorahina M, Migliani R, et al. A simple and convenient microtiter plate assay for the detection of bactericidal antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae O139. J Microbiol Methods. 2003;55:745-53 pubmed
    ..cholerae O1. The microtiter plate assay was also convenient for measuring the activity of animal sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies. ..
  33. West C. A hemolytic method for the measurement of nephritic factor. J Immunol Methods. 2008;335:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The C3 level could be low and NF absent or, occasionally, NF present with the C3 level normal. NF activity was absent from the stored serum of patients with active SLE, AGN or with an IgA nephropathy. ..
  34. Bagni M, Romano N, Finoia M, Abelli L, Scapigliati G, Tiscar P, et al. Short- and long-term effects of a dietary yeast beta-glucan (Macrogard) and alginic acid (Ergosan) preparation on immune response in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2005;18:311-25 pubmed
    ..The results suggested the potential of alginic acid and beta-glucans to activate some innate immune responses in sea bass, and particularly under conditions of immunodepression related to environmental stress. ..
  35. Lamprecht P, Moosig F, Gause A, Herlyn K, Csernok E, Hansen H, et al. Immunological and clinical follow up of hepatitis C virus associated cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:385-90 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that activity of the humoral (cryoglobulinaemia, RF, autoantibodies) and cellular (sIL2r, sICAM-1, sCD30) immune response and endothelial damage (sICAM-1) are found in HCV associated CV. ..
  36. Schwaeble W, Luttig B, Sokolowski T, Estaller C, Weiss E, Meyer zum Buschenfelde K, et al. Human complement factor B: functional properties of a recombinant zymogen of the alternative activation pathway convertase. Immunobiology. 1993;188:221-32 pubmed
    ..To study the biological activities assigned to factor B, the availability of recombinant polypeptides representing definite portions of the human factor B molecule is desirable. ..
  37. Shen H, Li B, Bai B, Hou J, Xu Z, Zhao M, et al. Laboratory features throughout the disease course of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Clin Lab. 2013;59:337-42 pubmed
    ..The development of WBC count in patients with influenza may be an effective predictor for severity of illness. ..
  38. Powell J, Nugent D, Harrison J, Soni A, Luk A, Stass H, et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a recombinant factor VIII with pegylated liposomes in severe hemophilia A. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:277-83 pubmed
    ..Plasma pharmacokinetics of FVIII cannot explain the extended protection from bleeding observed previously with BAY 79-4980. Further studies of efficacy and long-term safety of chronic administration are planned. ..
  39. Osipov A, Mordvintsev D, Starkov V, Galebskaya L, Ryumina E, Bel tyukov P, et al. Naja melanoleuca cobra venom contains two forms of complement-depleting factor (CVF). Toxicon. 2005;46:394-403 pubmed
    ..Thus, for the first time the presence in a single venom of two forms of CVF differing by both amino acid sequence and biological activity has been shown. ..
  40. Landi Librandi A, Chrysóstomo T, Azzolini A, Recchia C, Uyemura S, de Assis Pandochi A. Effect of the extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit on the complement system: studies in vitro and in hamsters submitted to a cholesterol-enriched diet. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1487-95 pubmed
    ..By itself, ExT had no effect on the complement system in vivo. ExT activity on the CS may be of interest for therapy and research purposes...
  41. Weiner S, Thiel J, Berg T, Weber S, Krumme B, Peter H, et al. Impact of in vivo complement activation and cryoglobulins on graft outcome of HCV-infected renal allograft recipients. Clin Transplant. 2004;18:7-13 pubmed
    ..50 +/- 0.77 g/d; p = 0.25, NS). Cryoglobulins are common in renal allograft recipients, but do not affect graft function. However, complement activation appears to be involved in chronic allograft dysfunction in HCV-infected recipients. ..
  42. Chen C, Lv Y, Shi Q, Zhou W, Xiao K, Sun J, et al. Low activity of complement in the cerebrospinal fluid of the patients with various prion diseases. Infect Dis Poverty. 2016;5:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationship analysis identified that the CH50 activity in the CSF was negatively associated with the protein 14-3-3 positive in the CSF. These results indicate a silent complement system in the CSF of PrD patients. ..
  43. Shvidel L, Shtalrid M, Duek A, Haran M, Berrebi A, Sigler E. Direct antiglobulin test reactive with complement only in warm type autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Int J Lab Hematol. 2008;30:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize that AIHA with DAT reactive with complement alone is a rare disorder and might be accompanied by severe, refractory to conventional treatment and life-threatening hemolysis. ..
  44. Domingo P, Muñiz Diaz E, Baraldès M, Arilla M, Barquet N, Pericas R, et al. Associations between Fc gamma receptor IIA polymorphisms and the risk and prognosis of meningococcal disease. Am J Med. 2002;112:19-25 pubmed
    ..0001). The FcgammaRIIA-R/R131 allotype is associated with more severe forms of meningococcal disease. ..
  45. Layre A, Couvreur P, Chacun H, Richard J, Passirani C, Requier D, et al. Novel composite core-shell nanoparticles as busulfan carriers. J Control Release. 2006;111:271-80 pubmed
    ..The PIBCA:PCL-PEG composite nanoparticles prepared using the new co-precipitation method here described represent an original approach for busulfan administration. ..
  46. Sekowska A, Gospodarek E, Janickca G, Jachna Sawicka K, Sawicki M. [Hydrolytic and haemolytic activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2006;58:135-41 pubmed
    ..0% and 22.8% K. pneumoniae strains and in 7.5% K. oxytoca strains on each medium. Haemolytic properties on horse erythrocytes were detected respectively in 33.4% and 52.6% K. pneumoniae strains and in 15.0% and 20.0% K. oxytoca strains. ..
  47. Yang Y, Chung E, Zhou B, Blanchong C, Yu C, Fust G, et al. Diversity in intrinsic strengths of the human complement system: serum C4 protein concentrations correlate with C4 gene size and polygenic variations, hemolytic activities, and body mass index. J Immunol. 2003;171:2734-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, the polygenic and gene size variations of C4A and C4B contribute to the quantitative traits of C4 with a wide range of serum protein levels and hemolytic activities, and consequently the power of the innate defense system. ..
  48. Maryono S, Guntur A, Suharti C. Serum complement 3 (C3) and complement 4 (C4) level in febrile neutropenia patients at Dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang and Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. Acta Med Indones. 2008;40:14-8 pubmed
    ..Serum C4 level in febrile neutropenia group is lower than the non-febrile neutropenia group, but the difference is not significant. ..
  49. Veetil B, Osborn T, Mayer D. Extreme hypercomplementemia in the setting of mixed cryoglobulinemia. Clin Rheumatol. 2011;30:415-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case, there appeared to be no adverse end-organ damage from the excessive complement components or their activation. ..
  50. Zabavichene N, Chepurnov A. [Dynamics of complement hemolytic activity in experimental Ebola infection]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:21-5 pubmed
    ..A reliable correlation was demonstrated between the complement hemolytic activity and the level of circulating immune complexes in blood of experimental animals, which can be traced both in lethal and non-lethal infection. ..
  51. Frank M. Hereditary angioedema: the rewards of studying a rare disease. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2004;4:251-3 pubmed
  52. Van Butsele K, Sibret P, Fustin C, Gohy J, Passirani C, Benoit J, et al. Synthesis and pH-dependent micellization of diblock copolymer mixtures. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;329:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..e., dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential, fluorescence spectroscopy and complement hemolytic 50 test. ..
  53. Takamura K, Arai K, Otsu N. [Two cases of C1INH deficiency with paroxysmal abdominal pain]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2007;104:799-803 pubmed
    ..Decreased serum levels of C4 and C1INH activity indicated a diagnosis of C1INH deficiency. Although C1INH deficiency is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients with paroxysmal abdominal pain. ..