immunologic cytotoxicity tests


Summary: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Top Publications

  1. Parker A, Parker S, Yokoyama W, Corbett J, Buller R. Induction of natural killer cell responses by ectromelia virus controls infection. J Virol. 2007;81:4070-9 pubmed
    ..These results confirm a crucial role for NK cells in controlling an ECTV infection...
  2. Chisholm S, Reyburn H. Recognition of vaccinia virus-infected cells by human natural killer cells depends on natural cytotoxicity receptors. J Virol. 2006;80:2225-33 pubmed
    ..The more general implications of these data for the processes of innate immune recognition are discussed. ..
  3. Chen K, Chen L, Zhao P, Marrero L, Keoshkerian E, Ramsay A, et al. FL-CTL assay: fluorolysometric determination of cell-mediated cytotoxicity using green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein expressing target cells. J Immunol Methods. 2005;300:100-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, this FL-CTL assay is highly sensitive, reliable, reproducible, economical, convenience and supports broad applications compared to conventional CTL assays. ..
  4. Trinité B, Chauvin C, Peche H, Voisine C, Heslan M, Josien R. Immature CD4- CD103+ rat dendritic cells induce rapid caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death in various tumor and nontumor cells and phagocytose their victims. J Immunol. 2005;175:2408-17 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that rat immature CD4- CD103+ DC mediate an unusual cytotoxic activity and can use this function to efficiently acquire Ag from live cells. ..
  5. van Baalen C, Kwa D, Verschuren E, Reedijk M, Boon A, De Mutsert G, et al. Fluorescent antigen-transfected target cell cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay for ex vivo detection of antigen-specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1183-90 pubmed
    ..The FATT-CTL assay provides a versatile tool that will advance our understanding of cell-mediated immunity. ..
  6. Anikeeva N, Somersalo K, Sims T, Thomas V, Dustin M, Sykulev Y. Distinct role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in mediating effective cytolytic activity by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6437-42 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that LFA-1 delivers a distinct signal essential for directing released cytolytic granules to the surface of antigen-bearing target cells to mediate the effective destruction of these cells by CTL. ..
  7. Lochmatter P, Zawodniak A, Pichler W. In vitro tests in drug hypersensitivity diagnosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2009;29:537-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, the authors discuss current in vitro techniques, most recent findings, and new promising tools in the diagnosis of T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity...
  8. Cho H, Kim E, Park S, Lee S, Hong Y, Kim T. Enhanced induction of anti-tumor immunity in human and mouse by dendritic cells pulsed with recombinant TAT fused human survivin protein. Cancer Lett. 2007;258:189-98 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that vaccination with DCs pulsed with tatSVV is an effective way for the SVV-targeting cancer vaccine to induce an effective anti-tumor responses. ..
  9. Pellegatta S, Poliani P, Stucchi E, Corno D, Colombo C, Orzan F, et al. Intra-tumoral dendritic cells increase efficacy of peripheral vaccination by modulation of glioma microenvironment. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:377-88 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Mai M, Ahsan N, Wadei H, Genco P, Geiger X, Willingham D, et al. Excellent renal allograft survival in donor-specific antibody positive transplant patients-role of intravenous immunoglobulin and rabbit antithymocyte globulin. Transplantation. 2009;87:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Given these results, this patient group should not be excluded from transplantation based on antibody specificities determined by virtual crossmatch techniques. ..
  2. Eller M, Eller L, Opollo M, Ouma B, Oballah P, Galley L, et al. Induction of HIV-specific functional immune responses by a multiclade HIV-1 DNA vaccine candidate in healthy Ugandans. Vaccine. 2007;25:7737-42 pubmed
  3. Suzuki R, Oda Y, Utoguchi N, Namai E, Taira Y, Okada N, et al. A novel strategy utilizing ultrasound for antigen delivery in dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy. J Control Release. 2009;133:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..G7-OVA tumors. These data indicate that the combination of BLs and US exposure is a promising antigen delivery system in DC-based cancer immunotherapy. ..
  4. Koopmans J, de Haan A, Bruin E, Van Der Gun I, van Dijk H, Rozing J, et al. Porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic cells are targets for primed xenoreactive human T cells. Cell Transplant. 2006;15:381-7 pubmed
    ..The large interindividual differences between human donors in their xenoreactive response may influence patient selection for xenotransplantation and chances of graft survival for individual patients. ..
  5. Kloss S, Bochennek K, Huenecke S, Zimmermann S, Kuci S, Müller T, et al. A novel five-colour flow cytometric assay to determine NK cell cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma and other adherent tumour cells. J Immunol Methods. 2007;325:140-7 pubmed
  6. Lee S, Kim J, Jang B, Hur S, Jung U, Kil K, et al. Fluctuation of peripheral blood T, B, and NK cells during a menstrual cycle of normal healthy women. J Immunol. 2010;185:756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroendocrine regulation on immune responses is suggested during an ovarian cycle, which may be critical for embryonic implantation and pregnancy. ..
  7. Wu A, Oh S, Gharagozlou S, Vedi R, Ericson K, Low W, et al. In vivo vaccination with tumor cell lysate plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides eradicates murine glioblastoma. J Immunother. 2007;30:789-97 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest direct vaccination with CpG/lysate provides an alternative and effective approach to induce host antitumor immunity and warrants clinical investigation in the immunotherapy of cancer. ..
  8. Białoszewska A, Niderla Bielinska J, Hyc A, Osiecka Iwan A, Radomska Leśniewska D, Kieda C, et al. Chondrocyte-specific phenotype confers susceptibility of rat chondrocytes to lysis by NK cells. Cell Immunol. 2009;258:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that chondrocyte susceptibility to lysis by NK cells depends on chondrocyte-specific phenotype, especially sulfated GAG production. ..
  9. Regoes R, Yates A, Antia R. Mathematical models of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:274-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the estimates of kinetic rates involved in CTL killing which were obtained in these studies, and elaborate on the differences between them. ..
  10. Kishimoto C, Okabe T, Hattori M, Yuan Z. Naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, ameliorates acute experimental autoimmune myocarditis by reducing cytotoxic activities. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;52:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Naloxone is beneficial for heart failure caused by EAM in the acute stage, but not in the chronic stage, due to decreasing cytotoxic activities of lymphocytes and to its neurohumoral modulating effects. ..
  11. Parsons R, Subramaniam D, Austen B. A specific inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, BM15.766, reduces the expression of beta-secretase and the production of amyloid-beta in vitro. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1276-91 pubmed
    ..By targeting cholesterol synthesis using specific cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors, it is possible to reduce Abeta production without reducing protein isoprenylation. ..
  12. Cecchetti S, Spadaro F, Lugini L, Podo F, Ramoni C. Functional role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C in regulating CD16 membrane expression in natural killer cells. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2912-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the PC-PLC enzyme could play an important role in regulating CD16 membrane expression, the CD16-mediated cytolytic mechanism and CD16-triggered signal transduction. ..
  13. Blondelle S, Moya Castro R, Osawa K, Schroder K, Wilson D. Immunogenically optimized peptides derived from natural mutants of HIV CTL epitopes and peptide combinatorial libraries. Biopolymers. 2008;90:683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence homologies between the natural mutants and synthetic mimic may provide insight into key contact positions in the MHC/TCR/peptide complex. ..
  14. Oyarzabal O, Backert S, Williams L, Lastovica A, Miller R, Pierce S, et al. Molecular typing, serotyping and cytotoxicity testing of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from commercial broilers in Puerto Rico. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:800-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first characterization of C. jejuni strains isolated from broilers in Puerto Rico. The genetic diversity of these strains suggests that several techniques are needed for strain characterization. ..
  15. Haynes R, Phipps A, Yamamoto B, Green P, Lairmore M. Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that during the early weeks following infection, HTLV-1-specific CTL responses are primarily targeted against Env-SU. ..
  16. Olovnikova N, Belkina E, Nikolaeva T, Miterev G, Chertkov I. Lymphocyte antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test for evaluation of clinical role of monoclonal anti-D-antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;141:57-61 pubmed
    ..These monoclonal antibodies are extremely rare: only 4 of 125 studied antibodies mediated hemolysis in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test with lymphocytes, while all polyclonal anti-D-preparations exhibited this activity. ..
  17. Hofmann C, Harrer T, Kubesch V, Maurer K, Metzner K, Eismann K, et al. Generation of HIV-1-specific T cells by electroporation of T-cell receptor RNA. AIDS. 2008;22:1577-82 pubmed publisher
  18. Liu Y, Daley S, Evdokimova V, Zdobinski D, Potter D, Butterfield L. Hierarchy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-specific T cell responses in subjects with AFP-positive hepatocellular cancer. J Immunol. 2006;177:712-21 pubmed
    ..These subdominant epitope-specific T cells can also recognize tumor cells and may be important therapeutically. ..
  19. Mu J, Jeyanathan M, Shaler C, Horvath C, Damjanovic D, Zganiacz A, et al. Respiratory mucosal immunization with adenovirus gene transfer vector induces helper CD4 T cell-independent protective immunity. J Gene Med. 2010;12:693-704 pubmed publisher
  20. Wang Y, Lobigs M, Lee E, Koskinen A, Mullbacher A. CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune responses in West Nile virus (Sarafend strain) encephalitis are independent of gamma interferon. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3599-609 pubmed
  21. Gori Savellini G, Di Genova G, Terrosi C, Di Bonito P, Giorgi C, Valentini M, et al. Immunization with Toscana virus N-Gc proteins protects mice against virus challenge. Virology. 2008;375:521-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the N+Gc viral antigen combination could be useful for future development of a vaccine controlling the spread of this emerging virus that could pose a new threat for humans...
  22. Zhai Y, Li X, Zhou Y, Ma L, Feng G. Intramuscular immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding prM-E protein from Japanese encephalitis virus: enhanced immunogenicity by co-administration of GM-CSF gene and genetic fusions of prM-E protein and GM-CSF. Intervirology. 2009;52:152-63 pubmed publisher
  23. Ito N, DeMarco R, Mailliard R, Han J, Rabinowich H, Kalinski P, et al. Cytolytic cells induce HMGB1 release from melanoma cell lines. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:75-83 pubmed
    ..Specifically, HMGB1 may promote healing or immune reactivity, depending on the nature of the local inflammatory response and the presence (or absence) of immune effectors. ..
  24. Stanke J, Hoffmann C, Erben U, von Keyserling H, Stevanovic S, Cichon G, et al. A flow cytometry-based assay to assess minute frequencies of CD8+ T cells by their cytolytic function. J Immunol Methods. 2010;360:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..g. vaccination studies with known MHC-restricted immunogenic peptides in scientific and diagnostic applications. ..
  25. Claas F, Doxiadis I. Human leukocyte antigen antibody detection and kidney allocation within Eurotransplant. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:636-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More data on the clinical relevance of antibodies detected by solid phase assays are necessary before their relevance for organ allocation can be established. ..
  26. Reno F, Papa S, Vitale M, Zamai L. Assays of natural killer (NK) cell ligation to target cells. Curr Protoc Cytom. 2001;Chapter 9:Unit 9.10 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the assay is designed for simple bench-top cytometers, rather than for more complex research instruments. Following this protocol, even a novice user should be able to achieve successful completion of an NK assay. ..
  27. Conrad H, Gebhard K, Kronig H, Neudorfer J, Busch D, Peschel C, et al. CTLs directed against HER2 specifically cross-react with HER3 and HER4. J Immunol. 2008;180:8135-45 pubmed
    ..The principle of "double" or "triple targeting" the HER Ags by cross-reacting T cells will impact the further development of T cell-based therapies. ..
  28. Barrera L, Mendoza F, Zuniga J, Estrada A, Zamora A, Melendro E, et al. Functional diversity of T-cell subpopulations in subacute and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:44-55 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that patients with chronic HP lose effector T-cell function and exhibit skewing toward Th2 activity, which may be implicated in the fibrotic response that characterizes this clinical form. ..
  29. Senthil M, Brown M, Xu D, Lu Q, Feketeova E, Deitch E. Gut-lymph hypothesis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome/multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: validating studies in a porcine model. J Trauma. 2006;60:958-65; discussion 965-7 pubmed
    ..A porcine model was chosen because the pig and human cardiovascular and gastrointestinal physiology are similar...
  30. Hu X, Chen S, Li J, Yu D, Yi Zhang -, Cai H. An IL-15 adjuvant enhances the efficacy of a combined DNA vaccine against Brucella by increasing the CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response. Vaccine. 2010;28:2408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that plasmid-delivered IL-15 increases the efficacy of the Brucella DNA vaccine. ..
  31. Ghatak S, Agarwal R, Bhilegaonkar K. Comparative study of cytotoxicity of Aeromonas spp. on four different cell lines. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;29:233-41 pubmed
    ..Vero cells proved to be most sensitive to aeromonal toxins and B 95a cells showed significantly (P<0.01) lower response compared to other cell lines. Sensitivities of BHK-21 and MDBK cell lines were in between Vero and B 95a. ..
  32. Li H, Jiang H, Ma M, Wei F, An X, Ren X. Vaccination with allogeneic GM-CSF gene-modified lung cancer cells: antitumor activity comparing with that induced by autologous vaccine. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2007;22:790-8 pubmed
    ..The allogeneic cancer vaccine could induce immune responses and protection against lung cancer, which had no significant difference with that of autologous vaccine. ..
  33. Tamang D, Alves B, Elliott V, Fraser S, Redelman D, Hudig D. Low dose IL-15 induces snap arming of CD44(low) T lymphocytes in the absence of antigen. Cell Immunol. 2008;251:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests that T cells may gain cytotoxic potential earlier than currently thought and even without TCR stimulation. ..
  34. Eckels D. Solid phase testing in the HLA laboratory: implications for organ allocation. Int J Immunogenet. 2008;35:265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Sadly, we sometimes forget that dissent from dogma can be fun! ..
  35. Glamann J, Hansen A. Dynamic detection of natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cell adhesion by electrical impedance measurements. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2006;4:555-63 pubmed
    ..Thus RT-CES is a convenient way to continuously determine cell number and cell adhesion and may offer early detection of NK cell-mediated cytotoxic effects. ..
  36. Filatova N, Tiuriaeva I, Ivanov V. [Recognition and lysis by natural killers of tumor cells with participation of laminin]. Tsitologiia. 2008;50:72-8 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment of CT K562 and HTC with laminin decreased the NKA to zero. The obtained data allow suggesting a doubtless participation of laminin and its receptors in CT cytolysis by NK. ..
  37. Giancola R, Olioso P, Di Riti M, Capone A, Contento A, Pompetti F, et al. Evaluation of an automated closed fluid management device for processing expanded cytokine-induced killer cells to use in immunotherapy programs for cancer. Transfusion. 2008;48:629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this simple and efficient washing technique is suitable for clinical-grade processing in cellular therapy protocols. ..
  38. Decman V, Laidlaw B, DiMenna L, Abdulla S, Mozdzanowska K, Erikson J, et al. Cell-intrinsic defects in the proliferative response of antiviral memory CD8 T cells in aged mice upon secondary infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:5151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the poor proliferative potential of memory T cells and altered memory CD8 T cell differentiation could underlie age-related defects in antiviral immunity...
  39. Zabrodskii P, Mandych V, Germanchuk V. Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 with 2-diethylamino-ethyl-2,2-diphenylpropylacetate (SKF-525A) reduces immunotoxicity of chlorinated carbohydrates. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;142:324-6 pubmed
    ..0 LD(50), metabolized in the body to compounds with higher toxicity (the phenomenon of "lethal synthesis") reduced their immunotoxicity by decreasing the formation of their biotransformation products. ..
  40. Gehring S, Gregory S, Wintermeyer P, Aloman C, Wands J. Generation of immune responses against hepatitis C virus by dendritic cells containing NS5 protein-coated microparticles. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, strategies that employ NS5-coated beads induce cellular immune responses in mice, which correlate well with the natural immune responses that occur in individuals who resolve HCV. ..
  41. Abraha A, Rana K, Whalen M. Role of protein kinase C in TBT-induced inhibition of lytic function and MAPK activation in human natural killer cells. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;59:661-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, TBT-induced activation of the MAPKs, p38 and JNK did not require PKC activation. These results indicate the pivotal role of PKC in the TBT-induced loss of NK lytic function including activation of p44/42 by TBT in NK cells...
  42. Betser Cohen G, Katz G, Gonen Gross T, Stern N, Arnon T, Achdout H, et al. Reduced KIR2DL1 recognition of MHC class I molecules presenting phosphorylated peptides. J Immunol. 2006;176:6762-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it might be possible that alteration in the phosphorylation pattern during tumor transformation or viral infection may result in less inhibition and, consequently, improved NK cell killing. ..
  43. Guo Y, Ren D, He X, Wang F, Jiang L, Song S, et al. A novel mouse model for immunogenic evaluation of human HBV vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27:5692-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 dTg was broken by the HBc(18-27) or HBs(183-191) peptide vaccine. In conclusion, HBV/HLA-A2.1 dTg was demonstrated to be useful model for in vivo immunogenicity testing of human HBV-based vaccines...
  44. Landais E, Morice A, Long H, Haigh T, Charreau B, Bonneville M, et al. EBV-specific CD4+ T cell clones exhibit vigorous allogeneic responses. J Immunol. 2006;177:1427-33 pubmed
    ..As already proposed, the strong alloreactivity toward LCLs suggest that these cells could be used for selective depletion of alloreactive T cells. ..
  45. Tyznik A, Bevan M. The surprising kinetics of the T cell response to live antigenic cells. J Immunol. 2007;179:4988-95 pubmed
    ..We explain the delayed CD8(+) response by proposing that there is a balance between cross-presentation of Ag by helper cell-licensed dendritic cells, on the one hand, and veto suppression by live male lymphocytes on the other. ..
  46. Wright S, Khaznadar R, Wang Z, Quinlin I, Rewers Felkins K, Phillips C, et al. Generation of MUC1-stimulated mononuclear cells using optimized conditions. Scand J Immunol. 2008;67:24-9 pubmed
    ..M1SMC were generated from multiple patients with breast cancer which lysed adenocarcinoma cells. ..
  47. Kulkarni R, Dhakal B, Slechta E, Kurtz Z, Mulvey M, Thanassi D. Roles of putative type II secretion and type IV pilus systems in the virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4752 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results, we propose that the putative T4P and T2S systems are virulence determinants of UPEC important for persistence in the urinary tract, particularly in renal tissues. ..
  48. Yang O. Assessing the antiviral activity of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;485:407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from such experiments can be useful to elucidate the contribution of viral and CTL factors to the antiviral efficiency of CTL. ..
  49. Kim G, Donnenberg V, Donnenberg A, Gooding W, Whiteside T. A novel multiparametric flow cytometry-based cytotoxicity assay simultaneously immunophenotypes effector cells: comparisons to a 4 h 51Cr-release assay. J Immunol Methods. 2007;325:51-66 pubmed
    ..The FCC assay has a potential for providing information about molecular interactions underlying target cell lysis and thus becoming a major tool for studies of disease pathogenesis as well as development of novel immune therapies. ..
  50. Kronig H, Hofer K, Conrad H, Guilaume P, Muller J, Schiemann M, et al. Allorestricted T lymphocytes with a high avidity T-cell receptor towards NY-ESO-1 have potent anti-tumor activity. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:649-55 pubmed publisher
  51. Jirmo A, Nagel C, Bohnen C, Sodeik B, Behrens G. Contribution of direct and cross-presentation to CTL immunity against herpes simplex virus 1. J Immunol. 2009;182:283-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that cross-presentation is of major importance for the induction of CTL immunity in mice...
  52. Ali S, Rezvan H, McArdle S, Khodadadi A, Asteal F, Rees R. CTL responses to Leishmania mexicana gp63-cDNA vaccine in a murine model. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..mexicana gp63 cDNA or SLA and long-lived CTL activity was observed in immunized and/or re-challenged mice but not naïve mice infected with the parasite...
  53. Inada T, Kubo K, Shingu K. Vaccines using dendritic cells, differentiated with propofol, enhance antitumor immunity in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009;31:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro cytotoxic T cell activity was not affected by propofol. However, natural killer cell activity in mice vaccinated with dendritic cells differentiated in propofol was significantly upregulated, compared to unvaccinated mice. ..