gamete intrafallopian transfer


Summary: A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.

Top Publications

  1. McGovern P, Llorens A, Skurnick J, Weiss G, Goldsmith L. Increased risk of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies resulting from in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer or gamete intrafallopian transfer: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:1514-20 pubmed
    ..98 (95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.22). The risk of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF-ET/GIFT is twice that of natural conceived pregnancies. ..
  2. Chung P, Yeko T, Mayer J, Clark B, Welden S, Maroulis G. Gamete intrafallopian transfer. Does smoking play a role?. J Reprod Med. 1997;42:65-70 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of active and passive cigarette smoking on the outcome of gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). A retrospective analysis of 98 patients who had laparoscopic GIFT was performed...
  3. Klonoff Cohen H, Natarajan L, Chen R. A prospective study of the effects of female and male marijuana use on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:369-76 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to examine whether marijuana use affects in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer (IVF/GIFT). Prospective study of 221 IVF/GIFT couples...
  4. Klonoff Cohen H, Chu E, Natarajan L, Sieber W. A prospective study of stress among women undergoing in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertil Steril. 2001;76:675-87 pubmed
    To evaluate whether baseline or procedural stress during in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) affects pregnancy or live birth delivery rates. Prospective study...
  5. Sanchez Sarmiento C, Coetzee K, Kruger T, van der Merwe J, Stander F, Henkel R, et al. Comparison between swim-up and glass wool column filtration of human semen in a gamete intrafallopian transfer program. Arch Androl. 1996;36:155-60 pubmed
    ..wool filtration in both pregnancy outcome and fertilization of excess oocytes in patients undergoing gamete intrafallopian transfer. Gamete intrafallopian transfer patients were retrospectively included in the study group (n = 52)...
  6. Gudmundsson J, Fleming R, Jamieson M, McQueen D, Coutts J. Luteinization to oocyte retrieval delay in women in whom multiple follicular growth was induced as part of an in vitro fertilization/gamete intrafallopian transfer program. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:735-7 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that with this induction regime, the time interval can be extended to 39 hours without preoperative ovulation and with improved oocyte maturity. ..
  7. Molloy D, Deambrosis W, Keeping D, Hynes J, Harrison K, Hennessey J. Multiple-sited (heterotopic) pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:1068-71 pubmed
    ..Individual cases may occur after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)...
  8. Klonoff Cohen H, Natarajan L. The effect of advancing paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191:507-14 pubmed
    ..sperm parameters, fertilization, pregnancy, and live birth rates among in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) couples. The impact of female age was also investigated...
  9. Heiner J, Kerin J, Schmidt L, Wu T. Can a single, early quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in an in vitro fertilization-gamete intrafallopian transfer program predict pregnancy outcome?. Fertil Steril. 1992;58:373-7 pubmed
    ..hCG) measurement obtained on day 14, 15, or 16 after transfer in in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer pregnancies. Retrospective. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs...

More Information


  1. Hughes E, Fedorkow D, Daya S, Sagle M, Van de Koppel P, Collins J. The routine use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists prior to in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Fertil Steril. 1992;58:888-96 pubmed
    ..GnRH-a) used in ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)...
  2. Lin Y, Cassidenti D, Chacon R, Soubra S, Rosen G, Yee B. Successful implantation of frozen sibling embryos is influenced by the outcome of the cycle from which they were derived. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:262-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the outcome of the initial cycle can be used to predict the success or failure of subsequent frozen transfers and oocyte-embryo quality appears to be key. ..
  3. Ginsburg E, Yanushpolsky E, Jackson K. In vitro fertilization for cancer patients and survivors. Fertil Steril. 2001;75:705-10 pubmed
    ..Sixty-nine women undergoing 113 IVF/gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) cycles after cancer treatment in one partner, and 13 women undergoing 13 IVF cycles for embryo ..
  4. Wirtu G, Bailey T, Chauhan M, Parker N, Dascanio J, Gwazdauskas F, et al. Xenogenous fertilization of equine oocytes following recovery from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro maturation. Theriogenology. 2004;61:381-91 pubmed
    ..Oocytes underwent IVM for 41 +/- 2 h (mean +/- S.D.), before being subjected to xenogenous gamete intrafallopian transfer (XGIFT). An average of 13 +/- 0...
  5. van der Merwe J, Kruger T, Windt M, Hulme V, Menkveld R. Treatment of male sperm autoimmunity by using the gamete intrafallopian transfer procedure with washed spermatozoa. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:682-7 pubmed
    ..Patients in the study group were treated for their immunological infertility problem by performing the gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) procedure...
  6. Collins L, Vaghadia H. Regional anesthesia for laparoscopy. Anesthesiol Clin North America. 2001;19:43-55 pubmed
  7. Schalkoff M, Oskowitz S, Powers R. A multifactorial analysis of the pregnancy outcome in a successful embryo cryopreservation program. Fertil Steril. 1993;59:1070-4 pubmed
    ..Patient age was also found to be significant in predicting pregnancy. Neither the day of the LH surge, number of embryos transferred, length of time frozen, nor the E2 level appears to have any effect on the establishment of pregnancy. ..
  8. Téllez Martinez M, Wenz Flores M, Pascual Blanco A, Garcia Luna A, Manterola Alvarez D. [Oocyte maturation and its relation to various components of the follicular fluid]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1994;62:107-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, spectrophotometric scan of the FF could be of great value for scoring the oocyte mature, mainly in the GIFT. ..
  9. Huyser C, Fourie F, Pentz J, Hurter P. The predictive value of basal follicle stimulating and growth hormone levels as determined by immunofluorometry during assisted reproduction. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1995;12:244-51 pubmed
    ..Basal LH, GH, and E2 levels are, in comparison to baseline FSH levels, unsuitable indices for estimating ovarian responsiveness. IFMA can be regarded as an alternative to RIA in both clinical and research laboratories. ..
  10. Bollen N, Camus M, Staessen C, Tournaye H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem A. The incidence of multiple pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, gamete, or zygote intrafallopian transfer. Fertil Steril. 1991;55:314-8 pubmed
    ..At 20 weeks, 16% of GIFT pregnancies, 27% of ZIFT pregnancies, and 32% of IVF-ET pregnancies were multiple. Therefore we recommend to limit the number of conceptus transferred to a maximum of three in all cases. ..
  11. Lopata A, Oliva K. Chorionic gonadotrophin secretion by human blastocysts. Hum Reprod. 1993;8:932-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these and other studies it was postulated that receptors for insulin, transferrin and PDGF were expressed in preimplantation blastocysts. ..
  12. Bongso A, Fong C. The effect of coculture on human zygote development. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1993;5:585-93 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the effect of coculture on human zygote development. The selection and establishment of cell-lines, biologic actions of coculture of gametes and zygotes, the outcome, and future prospects are discussed. ..
  13. Woolcott R, Stanger J, Cohen R, Silber S. Refinements in the methodology of injection for transvaginal gamete intra-fallopian transfer. Hum Reprod. 1994;9:1466-8 pubmed
    ..Further study is necessary to define the optimal methodology for transvaginal GIFT and to enhance the ability of the procedure to produce pregnancy rates comparable to transabdominal GIFT. ..
  14. Guzick D, Yao Y, Berga S, Krasnow J, Stovall D, Kubik C, et al. Endometriosis impairs the efficacy of gamete intrafallopian transfer: results of a case-control study. Fertil Steril. 1994;62:1186-91 pubmed
    ..b>Gamete intrafallopian transfer was performed in all patients in an identical manner independent of their underlying diagnosis...
  15. Tabsh K, Theroux N. Genetic amniocentesis following multifetal pregnancy reduction to twins: assessing the risk. Prenat Diagn. 1995;15:221-3 pubmed
    ..This is equivalent to a 9.4 per cent pregnancy loss rate for reduced twin gestations in comparison with an expected loss rate of 2 per cent for non-reduced twin gestations. ..
  16. Evans M, Littmann L, St Louis L, Leblanc L, Addis J, Johnson M, et al. Evolving patterns of iatrogenic multifetal pregnancy generation: implications for aggressiveness of infertility treatments. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:1750-3; discussion 1753-5 pubmed
    ..human menopausal gonadotropin, and ovulation stimulation with urofollitropin were compared against gamete intrafallopian transfer, zygote intrafallopian transfer, and in vitro fertilization (assisted reproductive techniques)...
  17. Kably Ambe A, Vielma Valdéz A, Arredondo J, Beltrán Zuñiga M, Alvarado Duran A. [Evidence of antimicrobial activity of the follicular fluid: an evaluation and analytical study of samples obtained in an assisted reproduction program]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1995;63:152-7 pubmed
    ..albicans. It is concluded that follicular fluid has an antibacterial action, probably selective; and that keeping this research line will confirm this finding, and possibly will determine the concerned factors. ..
  18. Belaisch Allart J. [Techniques and indications of tubal transfer]. Rev Prat. 1990;40:2701-2 pubmed
    ..Its principle indications are unexplained or male infertility. ..
  19. Urbancsek J, Rabe T, Grunwald K, Runnebaum B. [Diagnosis, incidence and clinical significance of premature LH rise/peak in patients of an in vitro fertilization and gamete transfer program]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1990;50:454-62 pubmed
    ..001) lower prevalence of the premature LH peak (16%; 7/44 versus 51%; 48/95); the combined Buserelin + HMG stimulation is recommended for treatment of premature LH peak. ..
  20. Klock S, Maier D. Guidelines for the provision of psychological evaluations for infertile patients at the University of Connecticut Health Center. Fertil Steril. 1991;56:680-5 pubmed
    ..These guidelines are preliminary in nature and intended to provide a starting point for discussion among physicians, nurses, and mental health professionals regarding the psychological needs of infertility patients. ..
  21. Windt M, Franken D, Kruger T, Oehninger S. In vitro fertilization failure: identification of gamete defects by investigation of sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity of unfertilized oocytes. Andrologia. 1996;28:211-5 pubmed
    ..The results stress the need to develop a sequential analytic programme for those couples with repeated total or partial fertilization failure. ..
  22. Fox J, Jackson K, Rein M, Hornstein M, Clarke R, Friedman A. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the clinical effects of split- versus single-dose human menopausal gonadotropins in an assisted reproductive technology program. Fertil Steril. 1996;65:598-602 pubmed
    ..Based on our data, clinicians may want to consider split-dose therapy for patients with repeated implantation failures. ..
  23. Lindner C, Braendle W, Lichtenberg V, Kohler S, Bettendorf G. Ovarian response and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and in vivo fertilization therapies after combined gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist/human menopausal gonadotropin stimulation. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1990;29:140-4 pubmed
    ..b>Gamete intrafallopian transfer, performed only in the GnRH-A/HMG group, led to a pregnancy rate of 34%...
  24. Ogawa S, Minakami H, Araki S, Ohno T, Motoyama M, Shibahara H, et al. A rise of the serum level of von Willebrand factor occurs before clinical manifestation of the severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2001;18:114-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that a rise of the serum level of vWF occurs prior to clinical manifestation of OHSS in patients with severe OHSS but not in patients with mild OHSS. ..
  25. Cummins J, Yovich J, Edirisinghe W, Yovich J. Pituitary down-regulation using leuprolide for the intensive ovulation management of poor prognosis patients having in vitro fertilization (IVF)-related treatments. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transf. 1989;6:345-52 pubmed
    ..Pregnancy rates per treatment for the other groups were as follows: elevated age, 27% (9/33), high androgens, 40% (2/5); premature LH surges, 32% (9/28); and poor responders, 17.5% (7/40).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  26. Lisse K, Sydow P, Pfüller B, Wilken T, Scheiber I. [Development of a method for transuterine gamete transfer--initial results]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111:469-71 pubmed
    ..In a first series two clinical pregnancies resulted from 8 transuterine transfers. ..
  27. Guichard A, Mignot T, Boyer P, Zorn J, Cedard L. [Immunoradiometric assay for active renin and plasma prorenin during cycles stimulated by IVFET or GIFT]. Reprod Nutr Dev. 1988;28:1731-40 pubmed
    ..5 vs -2 pg/ml) the mean variation between Do and D + 1 being significantly different in fertile cycles and in nonfertile cycles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  28. Alam V, Manzur A, Borini A, Asch R, Balmaceda J. The abnormally large follicle during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: management and outcome of the cycle. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:361-5 pubmed
  29. Ochsenkuhn R, Strowitzki T, Gurtner M, Strauss A, Schulze A, Hepp H, et al. Pregnancy complications, obstetric risks, and neonatal outcome in singleton and twin pregnancies after GIFT and IVF. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2003;268:256-61 pubmed
    ..After controlling for parity, maternal and gestational age, singleton pregnancies conceived by GIFT/IVF are at increased obstetrical risk, however the perinatal outcome is comparable despite a lower average birth weight. ..
  30. Smith Y, Ansbacher R, Christman G, Hurd W, Randolph J. Kallmann's syndrome: pregnancy achieved through gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertil Steril. 1993;60:737-9 pubmed
  31. Dickey R, Gasser R. Ultrasound evidence for variability in the size and development of normal human embryos before the tenth post-insemination week after assisted reproductive technologies. Hum Reprod. 1993;8:331-7 pubmed
  32. Radwan J, Pawlicki J, Kozarzewski M, Banaszczyk R, Niwald W, Makuła D, et al. [Treatment of infertility in marriage using a method of transcervical gamete introduction into the fallopian tube under control of USG]. Ginekol Pol. 1993;64:591-3 pubmed
    ..The ovulation was stimulated by gonadotropin and Clomid. In result we obtained four pregnancies--three normal uterine pregnancies and one ectopic pregnancy. One of these pregnant women gave birth to a child in February 1993. ..
  33. Wang J, Davies M, Norman R. Polycystic ovarian syndrome and the risk of spontaneous abortion following assisted reproductive technology treatment. Hum Reprod. 2001;16:2606-9 pubmed
    ..98, 95% CI 0.75-1.28). The results of this study suggest that the higher risk of spontaneous abortion observed in women with PCOS is likely to be due to their high prevalence of obesity and the type of treatment they receive. ..
  34. Robinson J, Forman R, Clark A, Egan D, Chapman M, Barlow D. Attitudes of donors and recipients to gamete donation. Hum Reprod. 1991;6:307-9 pubmed
    ..This would be to the detriment of gamete donation programmes and to the subfertile couples who request this form of treatment. ..
  35. Dokras A, Olive D. Endometriosis and assisted reproductive technologies. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1999;42:687-98 pubmed
    ..Although our current practice is based primarily on retrospective observational studies and small randomized studies, the overall impact on pregnancy outcome is beneficial. ..
  36. Cramer D, Liberman R, Powers D, Hornstein M, McShane P, Barbieri R. Recent trends in assisted reproductive techniques and associated outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:61-6 pubmed
    ..treatment-related details and outcomes on 1244 couples accepted for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) at three clinics in greater Boston from 1994-1998...
  37. Shapiro D, Nelson J, Batzer F, Gocial B, Go K, Maislin G, et al. Bilateral and unilateral gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) are not equivalent therapies if unilateral GIFT is chosen to avoid one abnormal tube. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1993;10:500-3 pubmed
    The relative effectiveness of bilateral and unilateral gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) was compared. Bilateral GIFT, where possible, was the preferred method of transfer and occurred in 328 patients...
  38. Pantos K, Stefanidis K, Grammatis M, Stavrou D, Pappas K, Karantzis P. Clinical pregnancy in a woman of 45 years after gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2001;28:191-2 pubmed
    ..Clinical pregnancy in women over 44 years is rare in assisted reproductive technology (ART). A case of a 45-year-old woman with clinical pregnancy after GIFT is described. ..
  39. Manase K, Henmi H, Yamanaka I, Endo T, Hayakawa O, Kudo R. Complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus after gamete intrafallopian transfer. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2000;45:227-30 pubmed
    ..We report the only known case with a surviving coexistent fetus after gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)...
  40. Draper E, Kurinczuk J, Abrams K, Clarke M. Assessment of separate contributions to perinatal mortality of infertility history and treatment: a case-control analysis. Lancet. 1999;353:1746-9 pubmed
    ..risks associated with infertility, other than for infertility treated by in-vitro fertilisation or gamete intrafallopian transfer. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the risks of perinatal death associated with treated and ..
  41. Leighton D. Radiological abnormalities in children born as a result of assisted conception. Australas Radiol. 1995;39:237-42 pubmed
    ..Radiological abnormalities relating to the increased rate of prematurity, a probable increase in the risk of congenital malformations and a number of cases of neural crest tumours seen in these infants will be presented. ..
  42. Johnson M, Pickering S, Braude P, Vincent C, Cant A, Currie J. Acid Tyrode's solution can stimulate parthenogenetic activation of human and mouse oocytes. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:266-70 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results for the manipulation of human and mouse eggs in vitro are discussed. ..
  43. Kubik C, Guzick D, Berga S, Zeleznik A. Establishment of pregnancies in humans after transcervical transfer of gametes immediately after oocyte retrieval. Fertil Steril. 1990;54:1174-6 pubmed
    ..Notwithstanding this uncertainty, we feel that transcervical transfer of gametes may be an alternative to IVF for patients with ethical concerns regarding IVF. ..
  44. Weathersbee P, Francis M, Macaso T, Sauer M, Paulson R. A new long shelf life formulation of modified Ham's F-10 medium: biochemical and clinical evaluation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1995;12:175-9 pubmed
    ..e., from powder) and may decrease the need for frequent medium preparation. ..
  45. Amso N, Shaw R. A critical appraisal of assisted reproduction techniques. Hum Reprod. 1993;8:168-74 pubmed
    ..However, a higher implantation rate following tubal embryo transfers is observed in many studies. This review presents a critical assessment of the effectiveness of assisted reproductive techniques. ..
  46. Tzafettas J, Loufopoulos A, Stephanatos A, Mukherjee A. Tubal catheterization for intrafallopian insemination and transvaginal gamete (GIFT) or zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT): our experience in a total of 1128 treatment cycles. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1994;11:283-8 pubmed
  47. Mardesic T, Laitl J, Uher J, Jirasek J, Stroufová A, Presl J. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) as a complement to the tubal microsurgery. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111:276-80 pubmed
    ..The number of clinical pregnancies in this modification doesn't reach the referred success rate of a standard gamete intrafallopian transfer.
  48. Kaltwasser P, Blumenauer V, Seliger E, Pöhler K. [Initial experiences with intra-tubal gamete transfer (GIFT)]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1990;112:285-7 pubmed
    ..Altogether the GIFT resulted in seven pregnancies, two in the culture medium group and five in the follicular fluid group. The advantages of the follicular fluid as transfer medium are discussed. ..
  49. Ventruba P, Pilka L, Cupr Z, Travnik P, Malenovská A, Zakova J. [Oocyte removal in conjunction with pelvic microsurgery]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1991;113:557-61 pubmed
    ..The connection of sterility microsurgery with oocyte retrieval increases the success rate of operations without another stress of a patient and has also its economic significance. ..
  50. Ranieri M, Beckett V, Marchant S, Kinis A, Serhal P. Gamete intra-Fallopian transfer or in-vitro fertilization after failed ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in unexplained infertility?. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:2023-6 pubmed
  51. Macrow P, Li T, Seif M, Buckley C, Elstein M. Endometrial structure after superovulation: a prospective controlled study. Fertil Steril. 1994;61:696-9 pubmed
    ..Superovulation preceded by pituitary down regulation is not associated with abnormal endometrial glandular development, even though supraphysiological levels of E2 and P are induced. ..
  52. Lee C, Lie A. Successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer in a patient with Müllerian dysgenesis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:547-9 pubmed publisher
    ..She then underwent an emergency Caesarean section at 32 weeks of pregnancy. She delivered a healthy, normal 1.24 kg baby boy. Her post-natal care was uneventful. ..
  53. Ray A, Shah A, Gudi A, Homburg R. Unexplained infertility: an update and review of practice. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:591-602 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a definite need for multicentre randomized controlled trials to identify the best treatment option in unexplained infertility using a standard definition. ..