thermoluminescent dosimetry


Summary: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.

Top Publications

  1. Fainstein C, Winkler E, Saravi M. ESR/Alanine gamma-dosimetry in the 10-30 Gy range. Appl Radiat Isot. 2000;52:1195-6 pubmed
    ..The ESR/Alanine results are compared against those obtained using the thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) method.
  2. Blattert T, Fill U, Kunz E, Panzer W, Weckbach A, Regulla D. Skill dependence of radiation exposure for the orthopaedic surgeon during interlocking nailing of long-bone shaft fractures: a clinical study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2004;124:659-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, the use of radiation is more consistent and standardized with a skilled surgeon. ..
  3. Bacher K, Bogaert E, Lapere R, De Wolf D, Thierens H. Patient-specific dose and radiation risk estimation in pediatric cardiac catheterization. Circulation. 2005;111:83-9 pubmed
  4. Perisinakis K, Raissaki M, Damilakis J, Stratakis J, Neratzoulakis J, Gourtsoyiannis N. Fluoroscopy-controlled voiding cystourethrography in infants and children: are the radiation risks trivial?. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:846-51 pubmed
    ..Radiation risks associated with pediatric patients undergoing VCUG should not be disregarded if such a procedure is to be justified adequately. ..
  5. Bentzen S, Bernier J, Davis J, Horiot J, Garavaglia G, Chavaudra J, et al. Clinical impact of dosimetry quality assurance programmes assessed by radiobiological modelling of data from the thermoluminescent dosimetry study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2000;36:615-20 pubmed
    ..Substantial reductions in the variation between measured and stated output can be achieved by sequential mailings. Mailed TLD checks should be an integral part of a continuously ongoing quality assurance activity in radiotherapy. ..
  6. Buls N, Pages J, Mana F, Osteaux M. Patient and staff exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Br J Radiol. 2002;75:435-43 pubmed
    ..ERCP requires the same radiation protection practice as all IR procedures. It should be consistently included in future multicentre IR patient and staff dose survey studies at national or international level. ..
  7. Duggan L, Warren Forward H, Smith T, Kron T. Investigation of dose reduction in neonatal radiography using specially designed phantoms and LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs. Br J Radiol. 2003;76:232-7 pubmed
    ..All contrast details were observable at 66 kVp with hafnium filtration. Technique 1 may lead to an increase in effective dose due to field overlap, which diverges at depth, and increased scatter at the periphery of the fields. ..
  8. Kallmes D, O E, Roy S, Piccolo R, Marx W, Lee J, et al. Radiation dose to the operator during vertebroplasty: prospective comparison of the use of 1-cc syringes versus an injection device. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1257-60 pubmed
    ..However, total dose per injection was equivalent between groups because of significantly longer injection duration for the injection device cohort. ..
  9. Yoshizumi T, Goodman P, Frush D, Nguyen G, Toncheva G, Sarder M, et al. Validation of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor technology for organ dose assessment during CT: comparison with thermoluminescent dosimetry. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:1332-6 pubmed
    ..MOSFET technology can be used for protocol development in the rapidly changing MDCT scanner environment, in which organ dose data are extremely limited. ..

More Information


  1. Sulieman A, Theodorou K, Vlychou M, Topaltzikis T, Kanavou D, Fezoulidis I, et al. Radiation dose measurement and risk estimation for paediatric patients undergoing micturating cystourethrography. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:731-7 pubmed
    ..The risks associated with MCU for patients and co-patients are negligible. The results of this study provide baseline data to establish reference dose levels for MCU examination in very young patients. ..
  2. Minagawa J, Narusaka Y, Inoue Y, Satoh K. Electron transfer between QA and QB in photosystem II is thermodynamically perturbed in phototolerant mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochemistry. 1999;38:770-5 pubmed
  3. Bennett B, Lamba M, Elson H. Analysis of peripheral doses for base of tongue treatment by linear accelerator and helical TomoTherapy IMRT. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2010;11:3136 pubmed
    ..At distances beyond one field width (where leakage is dominant), helical TomoTherapy doses are lower than linear accelerator doses. ..
  4. Samat S, Evans C, Kadni T, Dolah M. Malaysian participation in the IAEA/WHO postal TLD and postal ionisation chamber intercomparison programmes: analysis of results obtained during 1985-2008. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009;133:186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reports an analysis of the intercomparison data and demonstrates that the quality of the SSDL calibration service is well within the limits required by IAEA. ..
  5. Bernhardsson C, Zvonova I, Rääf C, Mattsson S. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:4811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper...
  6. Nazififard M, Mahdizadeh S, Meigooni A, Alavi M, Suh K. A novel device for automatic withdrawal and accurate calibration of 99m-technetium radiopharmaceuticals to minimise radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff and patient. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;151:469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This research will serve as a backbone for future study about the safe use of ionising radiation in medicine. ..
  7. Larsen A, Osterås B. Step back from the patient: reduction of radiation dose to the operator by the systematic use of an automatic power injector for contrast media in an interventional angiography suite. Acta Radiol. 2012;53:330-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Rimpler A, Barth I, Baum R, Senftleben S, Geworski L. Beta radiation exposure of staff during and after therapies with 90Y-labelled substances. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, under normal circumstances, the annual dose limits for the public (effective dose: 1 mSv, skin dose: 50 mSv) will be complied with. ..
  9. Lawless M, Junell S, Hammer C, DeWerd L. Response of TLD-100 in mixed fields of photons and electrons. Med Phys. 2013;40:012103 pubmed publisher
    ..TLD-100 dosimetry of mixed fields must account for this intermediate response to minimize the estimation errors associated with calibration factors obtained from a single beam quality. ..
  10. Chiewvit P, Ananwattanasuk J, Mongkolsuk M, Boonma C, Suthipongchai S. Evaluation of image quality and lens's radiation dose of a low-dose cranial CT scan. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009;92:831-4 pubmed
    ..77 mGy for 150 mAs, 28.73 mGy and 29.25 mGy for 100 mAs respectively. A low dose cranial CT scan at 100 miliampere-second provides not only an acceptable clinical image quality, but also decreases the lens's radiation dose by 43%. ..
  11. Takam R, Bezak E, Liu G, Marcu L. The use of enriched 6Li and 7Li Lif:Mg,Cu,P glass-rod thermoluminescent dosemeters for linear accelerator out-of-field radiation dose measurements. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;150:22-33 pubmed publisher
    ..6±3.8 to 59.1±49.9 ?Sv at 100 and 15 cm from the isocentre, respectively. Contribution of thermal neutrons to total neutron dose equivalent was small: 3.1±7.2 ?Sv per MU at 15 cm from the isocentre. ..
  12. Chatterson L, Leswick D, Fladeland D, Hunt M, Webster S. Lead versus bismuth-antimony shield for fetal dose reduction at different gestational ages at CT pulmonary angiography. Radiology. 2011;260:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Shielding improves reduction with no significant difference between lead and bismuth-antimony shields when conservative scanning parameters are observed. ..
  13. Manfred M, Gabriel N, Yukihara E, Talghader J. Thermoluminescence measurement technique using millisecond temperature pulses. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;139:560-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The lower limit of the duration of useful pulses appears to be limited by particle size and thermal contact between the particle and heater. ..
  14. Masood K, Zafar J, Zafar T, Zafar H. Assessment of the occupational radiation exposure doses to workers at INMOL Pakistan (2007-11). Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;155:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The declining trend observed in the annual average dose values during the time interval (2007-11) is an indication of ameliorated radiation protection practices at INMOL, Pakistan. ..
  15. Hocine N. Calculated angular responses of an RPL dosemeter to photon and beta radiation. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;151:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results were compared with the experimental data. Good agreement was found between the measured and calculated values of the relative dose equivalent angular responses of the RPL dosemeter. ..
  16. Summers E, Brown J, Bownes P, Anderson S. Eye doses to staff in a nuclear medicine department. Nucl Med Commun. 2012;33:476-80 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mSv and will in fact be greater than 6 mSv, which is 3/10th of the proposed new dose limit and would require these staff to become classified workers. ..
  17. Schilling R, Geibel M. Assessment of the effective doses from two dental cone beam CT devices. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2013;42:20120273 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger FOVs do not necessarily lead to higher effective doses. ..
  18. Ogata Y, Ishigure N, Mochizuki S, Ito K, Hatano K, Abe J, et al. Distribution of thermal neutron flux around a PET cyclotron. Health Phys. 2011;100 Suppl 2:S60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ?Sv h(-1) in effective dose. The neutron fluxes outside the concrete shielding were confirmed to be quite low compared to the legal limit. ..
  19. Boziari A, Koukorava C, Carinou E, Hourdakis C, Kamenopoulou V. The use of active personal dosemeters as a personal monitoring device: comparison with TL dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences were found between the TLD readings and mainly some not commonly used APDs. The importance of choosing the best adapted APD according to the radiation field characteristics is pointed out. ..
  20. Chikramane P, Suresh A, Bellare J, Kane S. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: A nanoparticulate perspective. Homeopathy. 2010;99:231-42 pubmed publisher
  21. Dubey V, Kaur J, Parganiha Y, Suryanarayana N, Murthy K. Study of formation of deep trapping mechanism by UV, beta and gamma irradiated Eu(3+) activated SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9 phosphors. Appl Radiat Isot. 2016;110:16-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Formation of deep trapping mechanism by UV, beta and gamma irradiated Eu(3+) activated SrY2O4 and Y4Al2O9 phosphors is discussed in this paper. ..
  22. Das R, Toye W, Kron T, Williams S, Duchesne G. Thermoluminescence dosimetry for in-vivo verification of high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2007;30:178-84 pubmed
    ..They verify the delivery and provide information about the dose delivered to critical structures. The latter may be of particular interest if higher doses are to be given per fraction such as in HDR monotherapy. ..
  23. Lie Ø, Paulsen G, Wøhni T. Assessment of effective dose and dose to the lens of the eye for the interventional cardiologist. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The estimated annual doses to the unprotected eye ranged from 9 to 210 mSv. According to the ICRP dose limits, the results indicate that the eye could be the limiting organ. ..
  24. Ludlow J, Ivanovic M. Comparative dosimetry of dental CBCT devices and 64-slice CT for oral and maxillofacial radiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Dental CBCT can be recommended as a dose-sparing technique in comparison with alternative medical CT scans for common oral and maxillofacial radiographic imaging tasks. ..
  25. Jones L, Stokes R, Pinks T. Response of the Panasonic UD803AS TLD in workplace neutron fields. J Radiol Prot. 2008;28:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..It was therefore concluded that historical Panasonic UD803AS dose assessments will, for the most part, include a conservative estimate of any neutron exposure. ..
  26. Nishizawa K, Masuda Y, Morinaga K, Suzuki S, Kikuyama S, Yoshida T, et al. Surface dose measurement in patients and physicians and effective dose estimation in patients during uterine artery embolisation. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;128:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The effective dose was 1.09-14.8 mSv. Monitored doses on the body surface of physicians were relatively high in the upper arm (5.41+/-1.52 to 163+/-17.25 microGy) and the hand and fingers (0.85+/-1.18 to 222+/-16.4 microGy). ..
  27. Yildirim R, Kafadar V, Yazici A, Gün E. The analysis of thermoluminescent glow peaks of natural calcite after beta irradiation. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;151:397-402 pubmed publisher
  28. Roland T, Stathakis S, Ramer R, Papanikolaou N. Measurement and comparison of skin dose for prostate and head-and-neck patients treated on various IMRT delivery systems. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1844-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Helical tomotherapy was observed to deposit the highest average skin dose followed by serial tomotherapy delivery system. ..
  29. Bradley D, Hugtenburg R, Nisbet A, Abdul Rahman A, Issa F, Mohd Noor N, et al. Review of doped silica glass optical fibre: their TL properties and potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;71 Suppl:2-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The review is accompanied by previously unpublished data. ..
  30. Jagannatha Reddy A, Kokila M, Nagabhushana H, Rao J, Shivakumara C, Nagabhushana B, et al. EPR, thermo and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanopowders. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;81:59-63 pubmed publisher
  31. Hernandez Ruiz L, Jimenez Flores Y, Rivera Montalvo T, Arias Cisneros L, Méndez Aguilar R, Uribe Izquierdo P. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;71 Suppl:44-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. ..
  32. Lee Y, Yang C, Mok G, Wu T. Infant cardiac CT angiography with 64-slice and 256-slice CT: comparison of radiation dose and image quality using a pediatric phantom. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49609 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are useful for future implementation of dose reduction strategies in pediatric cardiac CTA protocols. ..
  33. Abd El Hafez A, Maghraby A. Impact of reading pre-irradiation background signal on the post-irradiation glow curves of thermoluminescence dosimeters. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:1533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is strongly recommended to perform pre-irradiation background measurements for all LiF-based dosimeters regardless of the values of the background doses relative to the radiation doses to be given. ..
  34. King C, Maxim P, Hsu A, Kapp D. Incidental testicular irradiation from prostate IMRT: it all adds up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:484-9 pubmed publisher
  35. Carinou E, Askounis P, Dimitropoulou F, Kiranos G, Kyrgiakou H, Nirgianaki E, et al. Pre- and post-irradiation fading effect for LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P materials used in routine monitoring. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:207-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the fading effect is different for each material and should be taken into account when estimating doses from dosemeters that are in use for >2 months. ..
  36. Ismail S, Khan F, Sultan N, Naqvi M. Radiation exposure to anaesthetists during interventional radiology. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..28 mSv for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures and 2.32 mSv in the cardiac catheterisation suite. The combined exposure was less than the maximum recommended exposure of 20 mSv per year. ..
  37. Dzierma Y, Nuesken F, Otto W, Alaei P, Licht N, Rube C. Dosimetry of an in-line kilovoltage imaging system and implementation in treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;88:913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in the Alderson phantom agree well with the calculated TPS dose, validating the model and providing an estimate of the imaging dose for different protocols. ..
  38. Guinement L, Marchesi V, Veres A, Lacornerie T, Buchheit I, Peiffert D. [Development of external quality control protocol for CyberKnife beams dosimetry: preliminary tests multicentre]. Cancer Radiother. 2013;17:288-96 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop an external quality control procedure for CyberKnife(®) beams. This work conducted in Nancy, has included a test protocol initially drawn by the medical physicist of Nancy and Lille in collaboration with Equal-Estro Laboratory...
  39. Hernandez L, Rivera T, Jimenez Y, Alvarez R, Zeferino J, Vazquez A, et al. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE induced by X-ray beams. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:1307-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this fact, this material can be used for X-ray beams measurements if appropriate calibration procedures are performed. ..
  40. Beerten K, Vanhavere F. The use of a portable electronic device in accident dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:509-12 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that it should be possible to perform rapid and reliable accident dose assessments with such components using conventional thermoluminescence dosimetry equipment. ..
  41. Bassler N, Holzscheiter M, Petersen J. Neutron fluence in antiproton radiotherapy, measurements and simulations. Acta Oncol. 2010;49:1149-59 pubmed publisher
  42. Reciniello R, Sengupta S, Thompson R. The possible effect on personnel dose by two copper filters covering Element 1 of the Harshaw 8814 TLD badge. Health Phys. 2009;97:S140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..From both the test and the review of exposures, it can be concluded that, for radiological work under the conditions at BNL, there is no apparent dosimetric difference if one or two copper filters cover Element 1 of the Type-8814 badge. ..
  43. Espinosa M, Nunez L, Muñiz J, Lagares J, Embid M, Gomez Ros J. Postal dosimetry audit test for small photon beams. Radiother Oncol. 2012;102:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..When deviations are above 5%, their causes have been investigated and led to corrections. The developed postal audit is suitable to verify the absorbed doses in small photon beams with an accuracy of 2.9% (1 s). ..
  44. Widmark A, Friberg E. How 'do's' and 'dont's' can be of significant importance in radiation protection: a case report. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;147:99-101 pubmed publisher
    ..4 Gy, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 Gy. The aim of this work was to illustrate the dose reductions that are possible to achieve with a very few basic advices, especially when the operator has suboptimal competence. ..
  45. Martini C, Palumbo A, Maffei E, Rossi A, Rengo M, Malago R, et al. Dose reduction in spiral CT coronary angiography with dual-source equipment. Part I. A phantom study applying different prospective tube current modulation algorithms. Radiol Med. 2009;114:1037-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiation exposure with DSCT-CA using a narrow pulsing window significantly decreases when compared with a wider pulsing window. When using a protocol with reduced tube current to 4%, the radiation dose is significantly lower. ..
  46. Tsujimura N, Yoshida T, Takada C. Prediction analysis of dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters used at a MOX fuel facility. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;146:198-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculations revealed the energy dependences of the responses expected within the entire range of neutron spectral variations observed in neutron fields at workplaces. ..
  47. Qu X, Li G, Ludlow J, Zhang Z, Ma X. Effective radiation dose of ProMax 3D cone-beam computerized tomography scanner with different dental protocols. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:770-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). ProMax 3D can provide a wide range of radiation dose levels. Reduction in radiation dose can be achieved when using lower settings of exposure parameters. ..
  48. Ketelsen D, Luetkhoff M, Thomas C, Werner M, Buchgeister M, Tsiflikas I, et al. Estimation of the radiation exposure of a chest pain protocol with ECG-gating in dual-source computed tomography. Eur Radiol. 2009;19:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Using DSCT, the evaluated chest pain protocol revealed a higher radiation exposure compared with standard chest CT. Furthermore, HRs markedly influenced the dose exposure when using the ECG-gated chest pain protocol. ..
  49. Sghedoni R, Grassi E, Fioroni F, Asti M, Piccagli V, Versari A, et al. Personnel exposure in labelling and administration of (177)Lu-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide. Nucl Med Commun. 2011;32:947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of appropriate protection devices and procedures allows the observance of International Commission for Radiological Protection dose limits for exposed workers. ..
  50. German U, Weinstein M, Abraham A, Alfassi Z. Comments on 'The thermoluminescence dose-response and other characteristics of the high-temperature TL in LiF: Mg.Ti (TLD-100)' by Y.S. Horowitz, L. Oster and H. Datz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;128:509-10; author reply 510-5 pubmed publisher
  51. Samerdokiene V, Atkocius V, Ofomala R. Radiation exposure received by the medical radiation workers in Lithuania at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University, 2004-2011. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;157:152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..028) and Radiology (p < 0.0001) departments. The values of AAED in Radiology, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine departments are quite low and well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, averaged over a period of 5 consecutive years. ..
  52. Koukorava C, Carinou E, Simantirakis G, Vrachliotis T, Archontakis E, Tierris C, et al. Doses to operators during interventional radiology procedures: focus on eye lens and extremity dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:482-6 pubmed publisher
    ..e. projection) and shielding equipment on the personnel doses was evaluated. The measurements were performed within the framework of the ORAMED (Optimization of RAdiation Protection for MEDical staff) project. ..
  53. Hultqvist M, Fernández Varea J, Izewska J. Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:N161-6 pubmed publisher