film dosimetry


Summary: Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.

Top Publications

  1. Devic S, Seuntjens J, Sham E, Podgorsak E, Schmidtlein C, Kirov A, et al. Precise radiochromic film dosimetry using a flat-bed document scanner. Med Phys. 2005;32:2245-53 pubmed
    ..4 Gy in the case of the EBT (Prototype A), and for doses above 5 Gy in the case of the HS model GafChromic film using a region of interest 2 X 2 mm2 in size. ..
  2. Uradomo L, Goldberg E, Darwin P. Time-limited fluoroscopy to reduce radiation exposure during ERCP: a prospective randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66:84-9 pubmed
    ..Measures should be used to limit radiation exposure of the staff and patients during ERCP...
  3. Zeidan O, Stephenson S, Meeks S, Wagner T, Willoughby T, Kupelian P, et al. Characterization and use of EBT radiochromic film for IMRT dose verification. Med Phys. 2006;33:4064-72 pubmed
    ..Based on this study, we show that EBT film has several favorable features that allow for its use in routine IMRT patient-specific QA. ..
  4. Bouchard H, Lacroix F, Beaudoin G, Carrier J, Kawrakow I. On the characterization and uncertainty analysis of radiochromic film dosimetry. Med Phys. 2009;36:1931-46 pubmed
    ..Since the measurement uncertainty in Gafchromic film dosimetry is thought to be significant compared to that of ionization chambers, a rigorous method to evaluate ..
  5. Shima K, Tateoka K, Saitoh Y, Suzuki J, Yaegashi Y, Fujimoto K, et al. Analysis of post-exposure density growth in radiochromic film with respect to the radiation dose. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:301-5 pubmed
    The post-exposure density growth (PEDG) is one of the characteristics of radiochromic film (RCF). In film dosimetry using RCF and a flatbed scanner, pixel values read out from the RCF are converted to dose (hereafter, film dose) by using ..
  6. Nariyama N, Ohigashi T, Umetani K, Shinohara K, Tanaka H, Maruhashi A, et al. Spectromicroscopic film dosimetry for high-energy microbeam from synchrotron radiation. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:155-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7Gy/s, respectively. In a polymethylmethacrylate phantom, the peak-to-valley dose ratio decreased to 80 at a 1-mm depth. Doses calculated with the PENELOPE code agreed with those around the peak but became smaller in the valley. ..
  7. De Puysseleyr A, Srivastava R, Paelinck L, De Neve W, De Wagter C. Evaluation of a glassless photographic film scanner for high-gradient radiochromic film dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:127-42 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluates the performance of the Nikon Coolscan 9000 ED film scanner for high-gradient radiochromic film dosimetry. As a reference for comparison, analogue experiments were performed on the Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed ..
  8. Buonamici F, Compagnucci A, Marrazzo L, Russo S, Bucciolini M. An intercomparison between film dosimetry and diode matrix for IMRT quality assurance. Med Phys. 2007;34:1372-9 pubmed
    ..b>Film dosimetry has been widely adopted for this purpose due to excellent film characteristics in terms of spatial resolution; ..
  9. Richley L, John A, Coomber H, Fletcher S. Evaluation and optimization of the new EBT2 radiochromic film dosimetry system for patient dose verification in radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:2601-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that EBT2 film is a valid alternative, rather than a direct replacement for EBT film. ..

More Information


  1. Paelinck L, De Neve W, De Wagter C. Precautions and strategies in using a commercial flatbed scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:231-42 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of a commercially available flatbed scanner for film dosimetry with radiochromic film for external radiotherapy...
  2. Hupe O, Brunzendorf J. A novel method of radiochromic film dosimetry using a color scanner. Med Phys. 2006;33:4085-94 pubmed
    ..Investigations on both film types, HS and MD55-2, as well as on the new EBT film have been carried out. ..
  3. Lee K, Fung K, Kwok C. Application of high-resolution radiochromic film dosimetry in verifying a small-field stereotactic radiosurgery plan. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:934-9 pubmed
    A high-resolution radiochromic film dosimetry (Hr-RCFD) method has been applied to verify a small-field stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plan...
  4. Martisíková M, Ackermann B, Jäkel O. Analysis of uncertainties in Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry of photon beams. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:7013-27 pubmed publisher
    ..There are many publications which discuss different aspects of the EBT film dosimetry. Unfortunately, they differ in the used protocols, scanning devices and variables used for the film darkening ..
  5. Ling C, Zhang P, Archambault Y, Bocanek J, Tang G, LoSasso T. Commissioning and quality assurance of RapidArc radiotherapy delivery system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72:575-81 pubmed publisher
    ..4%. The results of these tests provide strong evidence that DMLC movement, variable dose-rates and gantry speeds can be precisely controlled during RapidArc. ..
  6. Saur S, Frengen J. GafChromic EBT film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanner: a novel background correction method and full dose uncertainty analysis. Med Phys. 2008;35:3094-101 pubmed
    b>Film dosimetry using radiochromic EBT film in combination with a flatbed charge coupled device scanner is a useful method both for two-dimensional verification of intensity-modulated radiation treatment plans and for general quality ..
  7. Menegotti L, Delana A, Martignano A. Radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed scanners: a fast and accurate method for dose calibration and uniformity correction with single film exposure. Med Phys. 2008;35:3078-85 pubmed
    b>Film dosimetry is an attractive tool for dose distribution verification in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
  8. van Battum L, Hoffmans D, Piersma H, Heukelom S. Accurate dosimetry with GafChromic EBT film of a 6 MV photon beam in water: what level is achievable?. Med Phys. 2008;35:704-16 pubmed
    ..At last we advise to check a new film batch on its characteristics compared to available information, before using that batch for absolute dose measurements. ..
  9. Wilcox E, Daskalov G, Pavlonnis G, Shumway R, Kaplan B, VanRooy E. Dosimetric verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy of 172 patients treated for various disease sites: comparison of EBT film dosimetry, ion chamber measurements, and independent MU calculations. Med Dosim. 2008;33:303-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Novotny J, Bhatnagar J, Quader M, Bednarz G, Lunsford L, Huq M. Measurement of relative output factors for the 8 and 4 mm collimators of Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion by film dosimetry. Med Phys. 2009;36:1768-74 pubmed
    ..8% and +0.6% differences for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively). Based on the present values, no changes in the default relative output factor values were made in the treatment planning system. ..
  11. Andres C, del Castillo A, Tortosa R, Alonso D, Barquero R. A comprehensive study of the Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film. A comparison with EBT. Med Phys. 2010;37:6271-8 pubmed
    ..However, a much easier handling as the result of all new enhancements improves film behavior, expanding in this way the potential applications of radiochromic film dosimetry.
  12. Hayashi N, Watanabe Y, Malmin R, Kato H. Evaluation of triple channel correction acquisition method for radiochromic film dosimetry. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:930-5 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose of this study was to evaluate the triple channel correction acquisition (TCCA) method for radiochromic film dosimetry performed with a flatbed scanner. The study had two parts: a fundamental and a clinical examination...
  13. Soares C. New developments in radiochromic film dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;120:100-6 pubmed
    ..Film uniformities were found to be good, on the order of 6% peak to peak. However, there is a strong polarisation effect in the samples examined, requiring care in film orientation during readout. ..
  14. Lynch B, Kozelka J, Ranade M, Li J, Simon W, Dempsey J. Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC film. Med Phys. 2006;33:4551-6 pubmed
    ..present three significant artifacts that have the potential to negatively impact the accuracy and precision of film dosimetry measurements made using GAFCHROMIC EBT radiochromic film when read out with CCD flatbed scanners...
  15. Ju S, Han Y, Kum O, Cheong K, Shin E, Shin J, et al. Comparison of film dosimetry techniques used for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Med Phys. 2010;37:2925-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a comparison study was conducted to assess the accuracy of various film dosimetry techniques that are widely used in clinics...
  16. Aldelaijan S, Mohammed H, Tomic N, Liang L, DeBlois F, Sarfehnia A, et al. Radiochromic film dosimetry of HDR (192)Ir source radiation fields. Med Phys. 2011;38:6074-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Solid Water™ material was shown to be a viable alternative to water in performing radiochromic film based dosimetry with HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. ..
  17. Park J, Lee J, Choi K, Lee J, Kim Y, Hong S, et al. Development of a novel quality assurance system based on rolled-up and rolled-out radiochromic films in volumetric modulated arc therapy. Med Phys. 2011;38:6688-96 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Film dosimetry based on rolled-up and rolled-out techniques leads to dose verification in the subspaces of the 3D dose volume...
  18. Tanooka M, Doi H, Miura H, Inoue H, Niwa Y, Takada Y, et al. Three-dimensional radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy using a spiral water phantom. J Radiat Res. 2013;54:1153-9 pubmed publisher
    We validated 3D radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a newly developed spiral water phantom...
  19. Micke A, Lewis D, Yu X. Multichannel film dosimetry with nonuniformity correction. Med Phys. 2011;38:2523-34 pubmed
    A new method to evaluate radiochromic film dosimetry data scanned in multiple color channels is presented...
  20. Schembri V, Heijmen B. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) for film dosimetry in radiotherapy. Med Phys. 2007;34:2113-8 pubmed
    ..Measurement of the OSL signal of irradiated films containing Al2O3:C is a promising technique for film dosimetry in radiotherapy with no or small response variations with dose rate, beam quality, field size and depth, and a ..
  21. Uniyal S, Naithani U, Sharma S, Srivastava A. Radiochromic film dosimetry of rectal inhomogeneity and applicator attenuation in high dose rate brachytherapy of uterine cervix. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2012;13:3654 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuation in the HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy treatment of carcinoma uterine cervix by utilizing GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film dosimetry. The dose to rectal walls under the condition of rectal air heterogeneity was measured experimentally using ..
  22. Arnfield M, Otto K, Aroumougame V, Alkins R. The use of film dosimetry of the penumbra region to improve the accuracy of intensity modulated radiotherapy. Med Phys. 2005;32:12-8 pubmed
    ..This source of error can be rectified by the use of film dosimetry for penumbra measurements because of its high spatial resolution...
  23. Butson M, Cheung T, Yu P. Radiochromic film dosimetry in water phantoms. Phys Med Biol. 2001;46:N27-31 pubmed
    ..Radiochromic film seems to be an adequate detector for dosimetry in a water phantom where high spatial resolution is needed and angle of beam incidence at the point of interest is important. ..
  24. Bucciolini M, Buonamici F, Casati M. Verification of IMRT fields by film dosimetry. Med Phys. 2004;31:161-8 pubmed
    ..The intrinsic limitation of film dosimetry is the sensitivity dependence on the field size and on the measurement depth...
  25. Chetty I, Charland P. Investigation of Kodak extended dose range (EDR) film for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2002;47:3629-41 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that Kodak EDR film may be a useful tool for relative dosimetry at higher dose ranges. ..
  26. Spielberger B, Scholz M, Kramer M, Kraft G. Calculation of the x-ray film response to heavy charged particle irradiation. Phys Med Biol. 2002;47:4107-20 pubmed
    ..Based on this model calculation a data base of film responses was set up. This enables a three-dimensional dose verification with films in the heavy ion tumour therapy project at GSI, Darmstadt. ..
  27. Paelinck L, Reynaert N, Thierens H, De Wagter C, De Neve W. The value of radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities: experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations. Phys Med Biol. 2003;48:1895-905 pubmed
    In this study we investigate radiochromic film dosimetry around air cavities with particular focus on the perturbation of the dose distribution by the film when the film is parallel to the beam axis...
  28. Araki F, Ikegami T, Ishidoya T, Kubo H. Measurements of Gamma-Knife helmet output factors using a radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter and a diode detector. Med Phys. 2003;30:1976-81 pubmed
    ..The Gamma-Knife helmet output factors measured with the silicon diode detector are corrected for angular dependence. ..
  29. Mack A, Mack G, Weltz D, Scheib S, Böttcher H, Seifert V. High precision film dosimetry with GAFCHROMIC films for quality assurance especially when using small fields. Med Phys. 2003;30:2399-409 pubmed
    ..Special software routines have been implemented for evaluating and handling the film data. ..
  30. Suchowerska N, Hoban P, Butson M, Davison A, Metcalfe P. Directional dependence in film dosimetry: radiographic and radiochromic film. Phys Med Biol. 2001;46:1391-7 pubmed
    ..In traditional radiotherapy, radiographic film dosimetry is commonly used...
  31. Richardson S, Tome W, Orton N, McNutt T, Paliwal B. IMRT delivery verification using a spiral phantom. Med Phys. 2003;30:2553-8 pubmed
    ..8 Gy fraction was 0.06 Gy for a TLD located in a high dose gradient region. This further validates the ability of the spiral phantom QA process to accurately verify delivery of an IMRT plan. ..
  32. Haryanto F, Fippel M, Bakai A, Nüsslin F. Study on the tongue and groove effect of the Elekta multileaf collimator using Monte Carlo simulation and film dosimetry. Strahlenther Onkol. 2004;180:57-61 pubmed
    ..The results of measurements and simulations are in good agreement and within the tolerance of film dosimetry.
  33. Letourneau D, Gulam M, Yan D, Oldham M, Wong J. Evaluation of a 2D diode array for IMRT quality assurance. Radiother Oncol. 2004;70:199-206 pubmed
    ..The MapCheck offers the dosimetric characteristics required for performing both relative and absolute dose measurements. Its use in the clinic can simplify and reduce the IMRT QA workload. ..
  34. Duggan D, Coffey C, Lobdell J, Schell M. Radiochromic film dosimetry of a high dose rate beta source for intravascular brachytherapy. Med Phys. 1999;26:2461-4 pubmed
    ..5 mm. Radiochromic film dosimetry has been used to measure the dose distribution in a plane parallel to and at a radial distance of 2 mm from ..
  35. Sharma S, Bianchi C, Conte L, Novario R, Bhatt B. Radiochromic film measurement of anisotropy function for high-dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:4065-72 pubmed
    ..The RCF method described in this paper is comparatively high resolution, simple to use and is a general method, which can be applied for other brachytherapy sources as well...
  36. Chaudhari S, Pechenaya O, Goddu S, Mutic S, Rangaraj D, Bradley J, et al. The validation of tomotherapy dose calculations in low-density lung media. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:2315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..8%. Gamma analysis using 3% and 3 mm criteria for radiochromic film dosimetry showed that 98% and 95% of the measured dose distribution had passing gamma values < or =1 for LN300 and ..
  37. Su F, Liu Y, Stathakis S, Shi C, Esquivel C, Papanikolaou N. Dosimetry characteristics of GAFCHROMIC EBT film responding to therapeutic electron beams. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:1187-92 pubmed
    ..As for the cone size dependence, we found that it is accurate to calibrate GAFCHROMIC EBT films using a 10 x 10 cm(2) cone and apply this calibration to other cone sizes. ..
  38. Masood K, Zafar J, Zafar T, Zafar H. Assessment of the occupational radiation exposure doses to workers at INMOL Pakistan (2007-11). Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;155:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The declining trend observed in the annual average dose values during the time interval (2007-11) is an indication of ameliorated radiation protection practices at INMOL, Pakistan. ..
  39. Sonier M, Wronski M, Yeboah C. Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2015;17:304-314 pubmed publisher measure dose pro-files under large-area lead shielding at the lens depth for clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and 2) to assess the accuracy of the Pinnacle treatment planning system in calculating doses under lead ..
  40. Chang L, Chui C, Ding H, Hwang I, Ho S. Calibration of EBT2 film by the PDD method with scanner non-uniformity correction. Phys Med Biol. 2012;57:5875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..calibrate the EBT2 film together with the scanner non-uniformity correction and provide an easy way to perform film dosimetry. All films were scanned before and after the irradiation in one of the two homemade 2 mm thick acrylic frames (..
  41. Casanova Borca V, Pasquino M, Russo G, Grosso P, Cante D, Sciacero P, et al. Dosimetric characterization and use of GAFCHROMIC EBT3 film for IMRT dose verification. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2013;14:4111 pubmed publisher
    ..The study confirms that EBT3 film can be used for clinical practice in the same way as the previous EBT2 film. ..
  42. Chung J, Oh S, Seong Y, Chun K, Chung H. An effective calibration technique for radiochromic films using a single-shot dose distribution in Gamma Knife(®). Phys Med. 2016;32:368-78 pubmed publisher
    ..2 percentage points for ΔD = 1% and Δd = 1 mm. The accuracy of the SFC method is comparable to that of conventional multi-film calibration method for GK film dosimetry.
  43. McCaw T, Micka J, DeWerd L. Characterizing the marker-dye correction for Gafchromic(®) EBT2 film: a comparison of three analysis methods. Med Phys. 2011;38:5771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The uniformity of EBT2 was found to be independent of the time postexposure. ..
  44. Martisíková M, Jäkel O. Dosimetric properties of Gafchromic EBT films in monoenergetic medical ion beams. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:3741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it is shown that overlaps of ion tracks are not an issue for EBT film dosimetry in medical ion beams...
  45. Vano E, Gonzalez L, Guibelalde E, Aviles P, Fernandez J, Prieto C, et al. Evaluation of risk of deterministic effects in fluoroscopically guided procedures. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;117:190-4 pubmed
    ..Results from a survey of 191 selected complex procedures are reported. Out of all the patients included in the trial, 16% received skin doses > or =1.5 Gy. No skin injuries were found in any of the patients followed. ..
  46. Brady S, Gunasingha R, Yoshizumi T, Howell C, Crowell A, Fallin B, et al. A feasibility study using radiochromic films for fast neutron 2D passive dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:4977-92 pubmed publisher develop a film response to radiation dose calibration curve and (3) to investigate a two-dimensional (2D) film dosimetry technique for use in establishing an experimental setup for a radiobiological irradiation of mice and to ..
  47. Srivastava R, De Wagter C. The effects of incidence angle on film dosimetry and their consequences in IMRT dose verification. Med Phys. 2012;39:6129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..allowed the development of a hypothesis about the physics behind the orientational dependence of film response in general and to formulate precautions when using film dosimetry in the dosimetric verification of multibeam treatments.
  48. Mamourian A, Young H, Stiefel M. Cumulative radiation dose in patients admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective study using a self-developing film badge. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1787-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach could provide a measure of the cumulative dose and is a convenient tool to quantify the effect of dose-reduction strategies. ..
  49. García Garduño O, Lárraga Gutiérrez J, Rodríguez Villafuerte M, Martínez Dávalos A, Celis M. Small photon beam measurements using radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulations in a water phantom. Radiother Oncol. 2010;96:250-3 pubmed publisher
    ..GafChromic EBT film data show an excellent agreement with MC results (<2.7%) for all measured quantities. ..
  50. Fricker K, Thompson C, Meyer J. Assessment of concomitant testicular dose with radiochromic film. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2013;36:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The dose to the testis should be limited to minimise the risk of radiation related side effects. This can be achieved by using appropriate gonadal shielding, irrespective of the treatment fields employed. ..
  51. Poder J, Corde S. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic® EBT3 films. Med Phys. 2013;40:121709 pubmed publisher
    ..Through the introduction of a scalar correction factor (0.96) in PS, the dose homogeneity effect of the stainless steel plaque backing was found to agree with the measured EBT3 film measurements. ..
  52. Khelassi Toutaoui N, Toutaoui A, Merad A, Sakhri Brahimi Z, Baggoura B, Mansouri B. Assessment of radiation protection of patients and staff in interventional procedures in four Algerian hospitals. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016;168:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Common strategies must be undertaken to substantially reduce radiation doses to both patients and medical staff. ..
  53. Bordelon D, Zhang J, Graboski S, Cox A, Schreiber E, ZHOU O, et al. A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research. Rev Sci Instrum. 2008;79:125102 pubmed publisher
    ..The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development. ..